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					Musical Theatre

       Unit 2
   (1930s-1940s)
      What to Expect this week?!
 Binder Check of last week

 Abbreviated version of the 1930s...
   – Not the most exciting time for Broadway

 Pros and Cons of Broadway during this time

 Pros and Cons of Hollywood

 Influence of Technology on the musical and movies

 Whos Who in Hollywood/Broadway?!

 Setting up a study of Wizard of Oz
      Where did we leave off?
 Ziegfeld produced Showboat
 Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein, II
  teamed up to write Showboat
 542 performances at the Ziegfeld theatre
 Ziegfeld is making a lot of money and so are
  his associates. (Kern; Hammerstein, II;
  Berlin, etc.)
What do you already know about
this time period?! 1928s-1939s?
     What is happening Nationally?
   First Transatlantic telephone call from NYC to London

   FCC begins to regulate radio frequencies

   The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is founded

   Lindbergh flies solo across the Atlantic

   New York Yankees beat the Pirates in the World Series

   The Jazz Singer opens ushering in the era of dialogue and song in film

   The Holland Tunnel joins New York and New Jersey

   Prohibition is enforced and eventually repealed

   Organized Crime

   Jazz Music is coming into mainstream

   FDR is elected president

   The Great Depression arises from the Stock Market Crash of 1929
  What is changing in the world?
 Technology – telephones, aviation, roads,
  movies, sound

 Scope of the world....it’s a beginning to be a
  small world after all
     So How’s Broadway During this
                Time?!
 Remember Ziegfeld? He made money enough to get through the
  Depression but that was about it. He had a lot of debt following the
  Depression and sold off much of his clientele to keep him afloat, his
  second wife and child would eventually inherit his estate. His second
  wife was Billie Burke, remember this name!!

 Most theatres turned to showing “talkies” aka movies during this time
  as they were financially more stable and cheaper for audiences to
  afford....even the New Amsterdam Theatre (former home of the
  Ziegfeld Follies went this route)

 This is time period is a Golden Age, but not for Broadway? What
  Golden Age was this for?
        The Stats on Broadway
 Between 1927 and 1928 (The year before the
  Stock Market Crash) there were a record 264
  productions on Broadway

 Between 1930-1931 (the first year of the Great
  Depression) there were 187.

 During the Depression there were 5,000 Equity
  Actors and 20,000 theater artists looking for work
    So Who are we going to be talking
                about?
   Cole Porter - Songwriter/Lyricist
   Ethel Merman - Actress Performer
   George Gershwin - Composer, Songwriter
   Busby Berkeley – Director/Choreographer
   Gene Kelley – Actor, Dancer, Singer
   Shirley Temple – Child Star
   Al Jolson - Blackface Actor and Comedian
   Billie Burke – Glinda, 2nd wife of Florenz Ziegfeld
   Bert Lahr – Cowardly Lion
   Jack Haley – Tin Man
   Ray Bolger – Scarecrow
   Judy Garland - Dorothy
   What are we going to be talking
              about?!
 The competition to Broadway, aka Hollywood

The positive and negative effects of Hollywood on
  various Vaudeville/Broadway entertainers

 Influence of technology on the entertainment
  industry

 Movie clips from The Jazz Singer to The Wizard of
  Oz
                        The Jazz Singer
   Featuring Al Jolson and released in 1927

   Won an oscar for being the first “talkie” picture which revolutionized the industry

   Produced by Warner Bros. studios and premiered at the Warner Theatre in New York on
    Broadway

   Irving Berlin’s song “Blue Skies” premiered by Jolson on Screen

   Cost $422,000 to make and grossed $2.6 million

   A decent profit for the day considering that most theatres were not wired to use
    Vitaphone

   Vitaphone - The technology that was used to synchronize sound and dialogue to movies
Blue Skies
        Toot, Toot, Tootsie
 Watch performance
                  Al Jolson
 Born in Lithuania in 1883
 True name: Asa Yoelson
 Started on vaudeville and known for his blackface
  routines
 Became “The World’s Greatest Entertainer”
 Huge Ego!
 Starred in The Jazz Singer which launched him to
  super-stardom
 Dies in 1950, his life rode the success and death
  of Vaudeville and the golden age of Hollywood
                     The Crash
 Remember the Stats? 20,000 Broadway entertainers out
  of work?

 People were desperate for work and traveled to places that
  could offer them jobs

 With the rise of Hollywood, movies provided the demand
  for the best Broadway talent.

 Due to increases in technology the film industry was able
  to create higher profit margins thus could afford to pay for
  the best talent from Broadway
     Broadway and Hollywood
 Pass out pg. 132-134
     Pros to going to Hollywood?
   Producers offering $$$$$$$$$$$$$...$$$
   Weather verrrrryy nice!
   :o) temps are nice
   Job Market
   Sound movies revolutionizing industry
   Cons to going to Hollywood?
 Nothing is promised
 Hard to get out there due to Depression
 Limited creative freedom of writers and
  songwriters
 Limitation of cameras
Does/Did Broadway need Hollywood
   or does/did Hollywood need
           Broadway?
                       Busby Berkeley
   Born in Los Angeles to a family of performer’s in 1895

   Mother was a stage actress

   Served in the military during World War I where it is thought his choreographic
    inspiration came from

   After WWI he was a dance choreographer for Broadway including A
    Connecticut Yankee

   Worked for MGM, Universal, Warner Bros., and 20th Century Fox

   His style was in complex geometric shapes and over-the-top photography

   His films were known to start on a stage but through camera manipulation
    seemed to expand beyond what the camera could show

   Was one of the first directors/choreographers to show the “Magic” of movies

   Married six times but lived to the ripe ole’ age of 80
            Busby in Action!
 Clip By a Waterfall
                               Cole Porter
   Filthy-Rich or “Rich-Rich” as he liked to say

   Born into a rich family in Peru, Indiana and given a considerable inheritance though often
    endangered this financial stability by defying his parents and grandparents by pursuing a
    musical education

   Attended Yale and wrote the school fight song while there

   After a brief stint writing for Broadway went to France where he served in the Foreign
    Legion

   He wrote a lot of French songs while there and also met Linda Lee Thomas, considered
    to be the most beautiful women in Europe.

   They marry but the unusual thing is that they were both homosexuals.

   Though deeply in love Linda overlooked the affairs as long as the men in Cole’s life were
    “well-mannered.”
       I. Berlin Brings Cole Back
 Porter and Thomas lived a lavish life in Europe

 Irving Berlin needed Cole Porter though because Berlin
  wanted to marry Ellin Mackay. Her father disapproving of
  Berlin used to date Linda Lee Thomas (now Linda Porter).

 Linda Porter got Mr. Mackay to agree to Berlin marrying
  his daughter

 Berlin than recommends Porter to write the latest
  Broadway musical Paris and it immediately is succesful
            Porter and Sex
 Porter makes Sex safe for 1930s Broadway

 Though subtlety was not his thing, he wrote
  songs titled: “Let’s Do It,” “Love for Sale”
  “Gay Divorce,” and one of his biggest hits
  “Anything Goes”
                   Porter
 To Sum up he is the most successful
  composer-lyricist of the of the 1930s!
           “You’re the Top”
 Track by Cole Porter
We’re off to see the Wizard!
               Background Info
 The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was a book written by L.
  Frank Baum written in 1899 and released in 1900.

 It was adapted into a stage musical between 1902 and
  1903 and was performed in the Grand Opera House of
  Chicago and the Majestic Theatre in New York. (Yes
  musical’s existed prior to Ziegfeld)

 What is currently playing at the Majestic and has been
  since 1988?
                      Plot
 You guys tell me!
                    Characters
  Kansas Role           Oz Role(s)         Actor/Actress
      Hunk              Scarecrow            Ray Bolger
    Hickory              Tin Man             Jack Haley
      Zeke            Cowardly Lion           Bert Lahr
                    Wicked Witch of the
Miss Almira Gulch                         Margaret Hamilton
                           West

                       Emerald City
                     Doorman/Cabbie/Th
Professor Marvel         e Wizard's         Frank Morgan
                      Guard/The Wizard
                           of Oz
                      Awards
 Ranked in the 10 best movies of all time
 The most watched film in history

 Only three oscars in 1939
  – Best Score and Best Song “Over the Rainbow”

  – Best Juvenille Actor Award to Judy Garland, the only
    one of her career

  – The competition was stiff though....Gone With the Wind
    also was released in 1939
             Special Effects for 1939
   Technicolor!! – The original story had Dorothy wearing silver slippers but Ruby Red
    translated better to Technicolor

   Technicolor also required a lot of LIGHTS!! The Set regularly rose to over 100
    degrees....no AC!

   Costuming and sets were nearly unbelievable for the time and a pain for the actors

   Jack Haley received an eye infection from his make-up and was toxic if ingested

   The cast was often told they could not eat in make-up though they would be in make-up
    from 5am to 8pm

   Margaret Hamilton had a liquid diet because she could not eat in make-up due toxic
    consequences

   It took 12 months to teach Toto how to run along side the characters

   Fire on set....Margaret Hamilton suffered severe burns in an accidental malfunction of a
    trap door in her 2nd take on the Escape from Munchkinland
                 Casting Issues
 Buddy Ebsen was severely hospitalized in an iron lung due
  to the Tin Man make-up. He was re-cast by Jack Haley.
  Its okay, he later went on to play Jed Clampett on The
  Beverly Hillbillies

 W.C. Fields was originally cast as the Wizard but was later
  recast due to his inability to negotiate a contract

 Gale Sondergaard was originally cast as the Wicked Witch
  but turned down the part three days prior to shooting due
  to the role changing from a sly and beautiful witch to one
  more indicative of The Wicked Witch from Snow White.
  Margaret Hamilton was then given the role
                               Judy Garland
   Born Frances Ethel Gumm in Grand Rapids, Minnesota in 1922

   Her parents were vaudeville theater owners and managed the act entitled the “Gumm Sisters” later
    changed to the “Garland Sisters” through 1935 on vaudeville and the screen

   Judy was signed to MGM studios at the age of 13. At this point she was considered too old to be a
    child star and too young to be a leading lady

   Very self-conscious about her appearance as she went to school with Ava Gardner, Lana Turner, and
    Elizabeth Taylor...beauties of the age.

   She was referred to be MGM executives as their “little hunchback.”

   To keep up with the frantic pace of Hollywood young stars like Garland were given amphetamines and
    barbiturates before bed...this later led to addiction

   She was cast in the Wizard of Oz at the age of 16 beating out Shirley Temple for the role as 20th
    Century Fox was unwilling to loan Temple to MGM

   Remember the costuming issues....well they had to make her look younger and had her wear corsets
    and fabrics that would hide her curves.
                             Later Career
   Between 1940-1947 Garland appeared in eight more movies making the transition from
    child star to film actress

   Following her time with MGM she later went on to be a major recording artist, touring
    singer, and even had a TV series.

   Throughout this time she constantly wrestled with drug addiction and unhappy marriages

   Garland died in 1969 at the age of 47 from an accidental drug overdose though she was
    also suffering from cirrhosis of the liver at the time

   She had appeared in over 41 movies, 7 television series, and 16 concerts

   Her daughter, Liza Minnelli (64), gives the Garland family the distinction as the only film
    family to have all won academy awards. Her father won for best director (Gigi), her
    mother for best juvenile actress (Wizard of Oz), Liza won for best actress (Cabaret).
  Ray Bolger (Scarecrow/Hunk)
 Born in 1904 in Dorchester, Massachusetts

 In this suburb of Boston he was inspired by
  the many Vaudeville shows he saw and
  became a vaudeville entertainer

 Mr. Riley grew up only an hour a way from
  where he was born.
                               Career
 Signed by MGM in 1936 from Vaudeville and Broadway. He was
  definitely a triple threat due to his ability to sing, act, and dance.

 Appeared in 3 other movies prior to the Wizard of Oz including the first
  MGM movie in technicolor (Sweethearts) with future Oz co-star Frank
  Morgan – Professor Marvel/Wizard of Oz

 Contract with MGM lasted until 1946 in which he then signed with RKO
  productions where he had a long and fairly successful television career
  as a guest star and also Broadway entertainer where he won a Tony
  for Best Leading Actor in the musical Where’s Charlie?

 Stayed great friends with Margaret Hamilton and even gave the eulogy
  at her funeral
              Margaret Hamilton
 Born in 1902 in Cleveland, Ohio

 She was drawn to acting at a very early age

 Became a teacher first but soon turned exclusively to
  acting

 Always had a life-long love for children

 Her appearance was in stark contrast to the typical
  Hollywood glamour girl
                    Career
 She never signed herself to any one studio

 She charged $1000 a week for her services

 She worked as much as possible to support her
  and her one son

 Prior to The Wizard of Oz she was cast primarily
  as a plain character actress who would be more of
  the intolerant grandmother character on screen
                  Wicked Witch
 Producers actually cut some of the scenes from the movie
  as they were deemed too wicked for children to see

 Hamilton often worried about her part and the effect it had
  on children...after all she loves children

 Appeared on episodes of Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood after
  filming to speak with children about how make-up defines
  the witch and that isn’t who she really was.
                          Later Career
   Had 39 principal stage roles in theater including Showboat (1966 Lincoln
    Center Revival) and Oklahoma!

   Produced 3 stage productions

   Appeared in 3 major tours including “Annie Get Your Gun”

   Had consistent TV appearances after Oz from What’s My Line? to The
    Addams’ Family, to As the World Turns.

   Spokeswoman for Maxwell House Coffee

   Served on the Beverly Hills Board of Education

   Passed away of a heart attack in 1985
           Oz Through the Ages
 The Wizard of Oz has been a timeless story that has
  effected all generations of stage and screen throughout the
  last century.

 Recently Oz has come back to Broadway in the form of a
  spin-off story/prologue of L. Frank Baum’s book.

 Wicked: The Life and Times of The Wicked Witch of the
  West by Greogory Maguire has become one of the best
  known book musicals of the 21st century and has brought
  the land of Oz back to the stage via Wicked for a new
  generation to appreciate!
                  Wicked
 Music and Lyrics: Stephen Schwartz
 Book/Libretto: Winnie Holzman
 Basis: Gregory Maguire’s Novel
 Currently the 18th longest running musical in
  Broadway
 Nominated for 10 Tony’s and won three in
  2004 for Best Actress, Scenic Design,
  Costume Design
  Synopsis: Courtesy Wikipedia
 Wicked explores the concept that the Wicked
  Witch of the West, here known as Elphaba, was a
  misunderstood, victimized person whose behavior
  was merely a reaction against a charlatan wizard's
  corrupt government. It also shows her relationship
  with the beautiful and ambitious Galinda Upland,
  who ultimately becomes Glinda the Good Witch of
  the North. Through the show, their friendship
  struggles to endure extreme personality conflicts,
  opposing viewpoints, rivalry over the same love-
  interest, and Elphaba's eventual fall from grace.
          Music: Defying Gravity
 In Wicked, the song is the finale for the show's first act,
  when Elphaba discovers that The Wizard of Oz is not the
  heroic figure she had originally believed him to be.
  Realizing this, and despite Glinda's attempts to dissuade
  her, Elphaba vows to do everything in her power to fight
  the Wizard and his sinister plans against the Animals of
  Oz. She sings of how she wants to live without limits, going
  against the rules that others have set for her. During the
  song, Elphaba enchants a broomstick to levitate and,
  pursued by the Wizard's guards, rises from the stage
  above the angered citizens of Oz, who try in vain to "bring
  her down."
 Where are we going from here?!
 Not too far quite honestly

 However the glory days of Hollywood are coming to an end and the
  nation’s economy are starting to turn for the better again.

 The time period now is 1940 through 1960

 WWII is about to break out and American sentiment is going to return
  to New York City and bring about the 2nd Golden Age of Broadway

 Musicals to be discussed will include:

   - Oklahoma! The Music Man, West Side Story

				
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