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									AP Biology: Chapter 11 – Cell Communication Guided Reading Assignment

 1. What is a signal transduction pathway?



 2. Explain the two types of local signaling:
     a. Paracrine signaling


       b. Synaptic signaling


 3. How are long distance signals sent?



 4. Define the three stages of cell communication:
     a. Reception



       b. Transduction



       c. Response



 5. What is a ligand?




 6. What is special about intracellular receptors – hint:
    think of the structure of the cell membrane and how
    this relates?




 7.   Label the diagram at right of a steroid interacting
      with an intracellular receptor.




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8.   Where would you expect most water soluble messengers to bind and why?


9. Ligand gated means controlled by the ____________ or signal molecule. If the door is closed,
     certain _________ are blocked from entering the cell. When the _______________ or signal
     molecule is attached, the gate is open for certain __________ to enter the cell. These types of
     receptors are important in the _________________________.


10. What does conformation mean?


11. Phosphorylation cascades are similar to a row of dominoes falling down, instead of one domino
     knocking down the next, a phosphate being added activates the message. In this way, a series of
     different ____________ are each _______________ one after another. Inactive protein kinase 1
     gets a ______________ added and now it is ______________ protein kinase 1. Active protein
     kinase 1 transfers a ____________ and now inactive protein kinase 2 is now _____________.
     This continues until the desired _______________ is activated to cause a cellular response.


12. What are protein phosphatases and why are they important?



13. What are second messengers and what are two characteristics of a second messenger?



14. How is signal amplification accomplished in the cell?



15. How is specificity accomplished in cell signaling?



16. What is a scaffolding protein and why is it important?




17. How is the termination of a signal accomplished and why is it important that signal termination be
    occur?




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