October 2011
         Support Services
•   Axis 01743 357777 / 01952 278000
•   General Practitioner
•   Samaritans 08457 909090
•   Victim Support 01743 362812
•   Faith Communities Pastoral Care services
•   24 hour domestic violence helpline 0800 783 1359
•   Telford Women’s Refuge Information Line 01952
•   Occupational Health Services
•   Stop it Now 0808 1000 900
•   Childline 0800 1111
•   NSPCC 0800 800 5000
 2008 Peter Connolly     1984
                         Jasmine Beckford   2000 Lauren Wright

  2008 Khyra Ishaq

                        Abuse of
                       2002 Jessica         2009 Vanessa
                       Chapman and Holly    George
2000                   Wells
                    Victoria Climbié died in
                 February 2000, aged 8 years

             Victoria was known to

                   •   three housing departments
                   •   four social services departments
                   •   two GPs
                   •   two hospitals
                   •   NSPCC-run family centre
                   •   two police child protection teams
                   •   a childminder
                   •   faith-based organisations
CM 5730 (2003) The Victoria Climbié Inquiry. Report of an inquiry by Lord Laming. The
Stationery Office, London.
              Every Child Matters
               Early Intervention

•   Information sharing and assessment
•   Common Assessment framework (CAF)
•   Team around the Child (TAC)
•   Child Index
•   eCAF
•   Sure Start Children Centres
•   Family Nurse Partnerships
         The Children Act 2004

• Children’s Commissioner
• Director of Children's Services
• Lead Council member
• A framework for inspection
• Duty to make arrangements to safeguard and
  promote the welfare of children
• Local Safeguarding Children Board
Safeguarding Children Board
• Raise the awareness of the need to safeguard and
  promote the welfare of children.

• Participate in the local planning and commissioning
  of children’s services with regard to safeguarding.

• Coordinate, advise and audit the work of
  organisations on their safeguarding policies,
  training and practice.

         School policies and procedures
                                        Child protection
    recruitment                                Parent
   Codes of                                        Staff
  ethics and             Safeguarding             training
Whistle blowing                           Pupil consultation
                  Health and Safety
          Myths and Realities Quiz
1.   Children are more likely to be abused by people they know
     than by strangers
2.    Being bullied is a normal part of growing up, it forms your
3.   Sexual Abuse is only perpetrated by adult males
4.   Disability increases a child’s vulnerability to being abused
5.   Domestic Abuse happening in the home does not impact on
6.   Child Abuse is a social problem that exists in all ethnic,
     social, economic and religious groups
7.   Trafficked children are children who are brought into this
     country from overseas for the purpose of prostitution
8.   A Privately Fostered child is one who is Fostered through
     a private Fostering Agency
      Definition of Physical Abuse 2010

        Physical abuse may
          involve;                      Burning or scalding
        Hitting                         Drowning
                                        Otherwise causing
                                          physical harm to a
Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer
fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces illness in a
         Physical Abuse - Indicators
Common sites for accidental         Common sites for non accidental
injuries                            injuries
nose                                eyes, ears and mouth
forehead                            skull and neck
chin                                cheek, side of the face
forearm,                            genitals
elbows                              upper and inner arm
bony spine                          chest and shoulders
hip                                 back, buttocks, thighs
knees                               knees
Signs of non accidental injuries may be bruising, grasp marks,
linear marks, scalds or burns and other types of injuries i.e
fractures, torn fraenulum.
                 Definition of Neglect 2010
Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or
  psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the
                      child’s health or development.

Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance

Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to:
• provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from
  home or abandonment)
• protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger
• ensure adequate supervision (including the use of inadequate care
• ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment.

It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s
 basic emotional needs.
          Definition of Sexual Abuse 2010
    Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take
         part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of
        violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening.

The activities may involve
• physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example, rape or
  oral sex)

•    non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and
     touching outside of clothing.

•    non-contact activities such as involving children in
      • looking at, or in the production of, sexual images,
      • watching sexual activities,
      • encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways,
      • grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the

    Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also
              commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children.
  Sexual exploitation of children and young
           people under 18 involves

Those exploiting the child/young person have power over them
  by virtue of their

       age                                        gender,
       intellect                                  physical strength
       Economic                                   other resources

 Violence, coercion and intimidation are common

   The sexual exploitation of children and young people is a form of child
                                sexual abuse.
         How children & young people
            often get drawn in….
• The use of younger men, women, boys or girls to build initial
  relationships and introduce them to others in the perpetrator

• Groomed into ‘party’ lifestyles visiting houses/flats with numerous
  men and other young women. Here children and young people are
  introduced to alcohol and drugs and offered a space to ‘chill’. No
  single relationship is formed but a general network is created.

• Perpetrators may target young people through their parents or
  carers, providing drugs, alcohol or money to the parents or carers.
  Often parents or carers approve of the perpetrator as a potential
  boyfriend or girlfriend as they are trusted and needed by the

• Because of limited life choices, they may believe themselves to be
  acting voluntarily.
 Internet and mobile phones
The risks to children and young people include:
• increased exposure to sexually inappropriate
• access to sites which may promote harmful
  behaviours, such as promoting anorexia,
  demonstrating how to make weapons and explosives
  or explaining how to take one’s own life
• being coerced, tricked or forced into sexual
  conversations, or sexual acts which are filmed and
  uploaded onto websites
• meeting people who present a risk
• cyber-bullying and harassment
• inappropriate photographs taken on mobile phones
  and distributed freely
      Definition of Emotional Abuse 2010

Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child such
     as to cause severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s
                          emotional development.

It may involve conveying to children that they are
    • worthless
    • unloved,
    • inadequate,
    • valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person

It may include
    • not giving the child opportunities to express their views,
    • deliberately silencing them
    • ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate.
  Definition of Emotional Abuse
               2010               2

It may feature age or developmentally inappropriate expectations
   being imposed on children, including
    • interactions that are beyond the child’s developmental
    • overprotection
    • limitation of exploration and learning,
    • preventing the child participating in normal social interaction.

It may involve
    • seeing or hearing the ill-treatment of another.
    • serious bullying (including cyberbullying),
    • causing children frequently to feel frightened or in danger
    • the exploitation or corruption of children.

Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of
  maltreatment of a child, though it may occur alone.
   What is abuse and neglect
 abuse and neglect are forms of maltreatment

 both can involve inflicting harm or failing to act to
  prevent harm

 children may be abused in a family, institutional or
  community setting

 they may be abused by someone they know or, more
  rarely, by a stranger

 they may be abused by one or more adults or children.
  Source: HM Government (2010): Working together to safeguard children.
         What you might notice
• Bruises, bites, cuts and scratches
• The child is in pain or discomfort
• Changes in eating habits – always hungry/refusing to
  eat/stealing food
• Irrational fears of certain people or situations
• Sexualised behaviour inconsistent with age
• Play, artwork or writing which arouses concern
• Self-harm or risky behaviour
• Bullying or being bullied
• Unexplained changes in behaviour – becoming
  aggressive, devious, secretive, withdrawn, lethargic
• Anxious behaviour – stammering, rocking, twisting
  the hair, etc
    Factors which may increase
        pupils’ vulnerability
•   Disability and special educational needs
•   Looked-after children/being in care
•   Parents who misuse drugs or alcohol
•   Domestic violence
•   Oppression or discrimination
•   Parental mental illness
•   Extreme religious or cultural practices
•   Chaotic, unsettled or transient lifestyles
•   Lack of parental control
  In what ways may abuse harm a child?
                   Being healthy -
                abuse can have long                 Staying safe -
              term effects on physical              abuse can result
                   and mental health             in an inability to form
        Making a
positive contribution -
   abuse can cause
       children                                         Enjoying
  to feel unaccepted                                 and achieving -
   for who they are                                 abuse can result in
                                                   reduced educational
                               Economic                achievement
 Doing nothing                well being -
is not an option           abuse can have an
                           adverse effect on
                          employment prospects
   How worries about a child
        come to light
• A child tells someone what is happening to them
• You see signs of abuse or neglect
• You see worrying changes in a child’s behaviour or
  moods or in a parent’s behaviour to a child
• Someone else tells you about something they have
  seen or heard
• An adult or child tells you that they have hurt a
• A parent or carer tells you that they are
  having problems in meeting their child’s needs
    If a pupil tells you they are
    worried about their safety

Listen carefully, reassure them that they were
 right to tell you
Don’t try to investigate or ask leading questions
Explain that you must tell someone else who
 can help them
Report your concerns to the Designated Person or a
senior member of staff before you leave the school
Record your information and hand it to the
 Designated Person or a senior member of staff
          You should record…

• what is observed and heard and why this is a

• who is present when the incident occurs

• anything else that happens after you have
  spoken to the Designated Person
    How to respond to a concern about a child
Behaviour, comment or report gives
                                                                Never promise to keep a secret.
rise to concern
                                                                Do not ask leading questions.
       Listen, observe, record

               Report to the
                                                                           Designated Person
               Designated Person                                           does not share your
                                                                           level of concern and
               Designated Person considers                                 you remain concerned
              information with you,                                        about a child
              previous records are checked
                                                                           Designated Person not

    Concerns allayed.
                                             Consult with the
    No consultation made.                    Help Desk
    Complete records and
    continue to monitor
           Consultation Pathway

  Vulnerable Child        Complex needs            Child At Risk

                                                     Safeguarding Team
Early                                                    Help Desk
Intervention                         Community         01952 385700
Services                             Social work

                     Disabled Children’s Team
       Did you know that you can
       share information without
              consent if:
• you are acting in the best interests of
  the child

• you have concerns about the child’s
  welfare, safety or feel they may be the
  victim of abuse
          Contacting the Help Desk by Phone
• Ask Advice
• Seek Consultation

Child Protection Consultation Numbers:
Telford & Wrekin                        01952 385700
Out of hours
 T&W                                    01952 676500

Police                                  0300 333 3000

If you are concerned about a child living outside of the Telford & Wrekin
area you should contact the local child protection service in
that area.

Number of children in                  39,400
Authority 2011

Number of children with a                253
protection plan September 2011
Sexual Harm                              10
Physical abuse                           33
Neglect                                  125
Emotional harm                           85
             So remember
• Protecting children is everybody’s
• We can not assume that somebody else
  knows the information that you know
  and has shared it
• Abuse continues for the child or for
  others, if it is not stopped
• Abuse impacts all parts of a child’s life
• You are there to refer NOT investigate
• most children grow up without
  experiencing abuse.

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