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					 APPRAISAL &
DEVELOPMENT

Achieving Success &
 Developing People

                  2005
PROGRAMME

    1.PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT :
    - The Council Priorities 2004-7
    - Defining performance management
    - Why it fails
    - Test your culture
    - Making performance breakthroughs
   2. APPRAISAL :
    - What it’s about
    - The Appraiser role
    - The Appraisee role
    - Preparation
    - Managing the appraisal discussion
   3. PERFORMANCE COACHING :
    - The coaching experience
    - A personal coaching session
    - Principles & skills
    - Using the GROW model
    - Review
   4. RESOURCES :
     - Questions that help
     - Guidelines for feedback
     - Constructive criticism
     - Development planning
1.PERFORMANCE
   MANAGEMENT
    Bradford’s Corporate Priorities
                2004-7
   Enhancing opportunities for young people through education
    and life long learning.
   Creating a more prosperous district.
   Developing more cohesive and safer communities.
   Improving waste management and the environment – cleaner.
   Delivering social care for vulnerable people.
   Transforming customer service, using e-government to the full.
PERFORMANCE :
TWO MEANINGS
   GETTING THE JOB DONE
    - Results/Objectives achieved
    - BUSINESS

   HOW IT’S DONE
    - Competence demonstrated/developed
    - CAPACITY
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
 A process for establishing shared
  understanding about what is to be
  achieved
 An approach to managing people
 To increase the probability of achieving job
  related success
 A CHANCE TO CATCH YOU DOING
  SOMETHING RIGHT
(Aquarius Consulting, November 2000)
“… it’s about getting results. Getting the
 best from people and helping them realise their
potential…..
An approach to achieving a shared vision of the
organisation. It’s concerned with teams and
individuals realising their potential whilst recognising
their role in contributing to the goals of the
organisation.
( Pam Jones, The Performance Management
Pocketbook 1999)
‘PERFORMANCE BREAKTHROUGHS :
IMPROVING PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC
SECTOR ORGANISATIONS’


 2002 Audit Commission report based on their
work in 12 organisations in local government,
the health service & the emergency services
“ The mechanics – targets, indicators, &
  plans – are only a small part of the whole
  process, & they are easy to deal with in
  comparison with getting the right focus,
  leadership & culture in place”
“The benefits remains strong : organisations
  that work at managing performance know
  what they need to do & how to do it”
WHY MANAGING PERFORMANCE IS
DIFFICULT
   Leaders aren’t interested
   There’s no time to learn
   There are too many priorities
   People don’t understand that what we do
    has to change
   The system doesn’t help
   Some people don’t perform
LEADERS AREN’T INTERESTED

    Leaders not making it clear to staff that
     managing & improving performance is
     important
    Without this,managers can’t sustain this
     message
    Staff unlikely to feel supported in trying to
     improve
THERE’S NO TIME TO LEARN

    Structured approach found difficult & is avoided:
    - no confidence that problems can be solved
    - looking at personal problems difficult
    - skill in designing & delivering sessions poor
    Taking feedback is uncomfortable
    No time or space is made available for it
    It takes time, focus & energy away from other
     important matters
    THERE ARE TOO MANY PRIORITIES
   No one at the top has translated the many &
    complex demands from the outside world into
    a clear direction that makes sense to staff
   Don’t blame others, take control!
   If you’ve done the thinking, communicate the
    results clearly
   What are the priorities, & what can be
    dropped?
    PEOPLE DON’T UNDERSTAND THAT WHAT WE
    DO HAS TO CHANGE

   Tough choices about services, to back new priorities,
    not made
   How to motivate people to change not understood :
    people don’t change easily or quickly
   Staff should be involved in developing priorities, so that
    they are prepared to make the changes needed to
    achieve them
   What you say about improving performance must be
    put in plain language
   People don’t how what they do contributes to
    improving performance
    THE SYSTEM DOESN’T HELP
   It’s only a system : it can help organise an approach
    but can’t do the hard thinking & decision making you
    need to undertake
   Does the system reflect the needs of the
    organisation, & can it change with changing needs?
   Is it clear that the system will help measure what is
    important or just what is measurable?
SOME PEOPLE DON’T PERFORM
   Managing people who perform inadequately is challenging &
    therefore avoided
   If this is not done higher up the organisation, why should you
    feel under any pressure to do it?
   You may not have been adequately trained & supported to
    spot under performance, understand & deal with it
   How do you help people do their jobs to the best of their
    ability?
   Do systems (eg rewards), processes (eg levels of delegation)
    culture(accepted norms of behaviour) help people to perform
    well?
TESTING YOUR HIGH PERFORMANCE
         CULTURE : QUIZ
 EIGHT WAYS TO BREAK THROUGH

1. Make it clear that performance matters
2. Join up your thinking & learn
3. Take action on what matters most
4. Make national agendas work for you
5. Sign up your staff
6. Find your own framework
7. Measure what matters
8. Help people to perform
1. MAKE IT CLEAR THAT PERFORMANCE
MATTERS

   Champion this, set an example
   Leadership throughout, not just at the top
   Don’t just say the right things, do things differently
   Show sustained commitment from the top
   Visit staff & speak to them about performance
    issues
   Show strength, enthusiasm
    2. JOIN UP YOUR THINKING & LEARN
   ‘A learning organisation is…where members of the
    organisation question the operations continuously, to
    find mistakes or differences & fix these themselves by
    restructuring their organisation & operations’
                                                Chris Argyris
    Question operations continuously
   Take time out in management teams regularly in well
    facilitated sessions
   Get feedback from others about what they feel
    works/could be improved
   Use good performance information, which reflects specifically
    the results of the decisions you have made
   Reflect on what you need to do differently, as an organisation,
    as a management team, & as individuals
   Share this with the organisation, to guide action & reflection
   Combine this with encouraging people to experiment, try new
    ways of doing things
   Accept that some things will not work – but make sure you
    learn from your mistakes
   Take an hour out with a colleague to ask “what is really going
    on here?”
    3. TAKE ACTION ON WHAT MATTERS
 It’s only possible sustain focus on a
  limited number of issues
 Focus on priorities & do something
 Get the right people involved : clarify top
  priorities by talking to local people
 Put resources behind what matters
  most : allocate & re allocate
    4. MAKE NATIONAL AGENDAS WORK FOR
    YOU
   Make them mean something, rather than a
    burden to work round
   How do national targets fit onto your agenda?
   The primary focus is to change what you do to
    improve services to customers
   Don’t be a victim!
    5. SIGN UP YOUR STAFF

   You may redesign, reconfigure, reorganise for
    efficiency, but it is the performance of people in
    everyday jobs that cause an organisation to work
    well
   It is easy to create systems to manage performance
    but much harder to make people want to use them
    to bring about change
   Consult staff about how best to improve services
   Allow people to take responsibility & make them
    accountable
   People will perform better if they feel responsible
    for something
   Stop upwards delegation!
   Use plain language to describe what good
    performance should be
   ‘Jargon & ambiguous language can work against
    you by creating confusion & resistance’
                                            Peter Senge
   Communicate well
6. FIND YOUR OWN FRAMEWORK

‘… the moment performance management turns into a
    system, the battle has been lost’
                                               Tom Lester
   Show a clear ‘line of sight’ from corporate objectives
    to the jobs that people do
   Teams & individuals then understand what they
    personally have to do in order for the organisation to
    achieve it’s aims
   Force any conflicts between objectives out into the
    open, to help you manage better
Common Problems

   Failing to think through why you want a new
    framework, & what you want it to do
   Taking an off the shelf system & not tailoring it
   Focusing too much on the mechanics, rather than
    the purpose – to improve services
   ‘Paralysis by analysis’ – collecting more than the
    important information
   Making the system too complicated instead of
    working to keep it simple
   Expecting the framework to do the hard thinking for
    you
 Failing to give high enough priority to
  getting the framework right
 Failing to involve staff or prepare
  them for change
 Not being prepared to update the
  framework continuously
7. MEASURE WHAT MATTERS

   If measures reflect the organisations strategy,
    people understand better what they have to do
   This is important when facing new external
    challenge, or there are improvement programmes
   Some just collect what is collectable, or just what is
    specified nationally
   Others discuss what constitutes good performance
    with stakeholders, ie focus on outputs as well as
    inputs & outputs
   Large amounts of data may feel comfortable but do
    not of themselves improve anything
   Interpretation must be intelligent
8. HELP PEOPLE TO PERFORM

‘Actually, you can’t empower people : you can
  only create a climate in which they can
  empower themselves’
                     M.D., Engineering Company
 Develop, train & support people to do a well
  defined job
 Create a culture which motivates staff &
  gives them responsibility
 Give honest, critical feedback the those
  whose performance you are not happy with
   Give feedback which is honest about problems
    but supports individuals
   This discussion takes thinking & courage from
    both parties
   If the employee sees feedback as accurate &
    useful, it can lead to a breakthrough in their
    performance & their relationship with their
    manager
   Managers need to pursue poor performance
    issues, & not wait for someone to leave or
    someone better will join
   Separating the person from their
    performance enables you to work with the
    performance of those you do not like
   Also,concern about racial &/or sexual
    harassment can prevent people being
    honest & open - honesty & robust evidence
    from the manager are especially important
    here
2.APPRAISAL
WHAT IT’S ABOUT
   An opportunity for managers & employees to
    have a dialogue about their key work objectives
    & how their work contributes to the achievement
    of organisational priorities
   The means through which performance
    standards can be agreed & feedback provided on
    performance against them
   Emphasising & developing continuous
    improvement
   Supporting individuals to achieve objectives &
    standards as agreed
   Supporting the development of competences
    required by the organisation
   Helping individuals to maintain a wide range of
    skills in their personal portfolio
THE AIMS OF P.A.D.S.

   Share views on work & performance
   Discuss issues of importance concerning work &
    future career development
   Establish & agree achievable performance
    targets in line with Unit/Divisional objectives
   Praise & acknowledge work completed
THE APPRAISER ROLE

   To grasp the purpose, processes & procedures
    of performance appraisal
   To understand the key objectives of the
    organisation, their Department & the priorities for
    their area of responsibility
   To translate these goals into objectives for an
    individual
   To communicate these proposals clearly
   Diagnose staff strengths & development needs
   Formulate & agree a development plan
   Coach staff on how to achieve performance
    objectives
   Monitor staff performance & give feedback
APPRAISEE ROLE


    To prepare thoroughly – consider their workload
     & key priorities
    To self assess & seek feedback on work
     performance
    To consider what aspects of work & their working
     environment helps & hinder their effective
     performance
    To check out expectations of them
    To engage positively in the appraisal discussion
THE APPRAISAL PROCESS
PREPARATION


  Give adequate notice
  Consider performance:
  -what were last year’s objectives?
  -what supporting facts are there?
  -what affected appraisee performance
   (internal/external factors)
   Identify what needs achieving in the current
    business plan
   Look for ways of improving organisational
    effectiveness
   Make sure you are familiar with the requirements
    of the job
   Review employee history:skills, training,
    experience, past jobs & performance
   Note any personal development which may be
    needed based on any assessed competence
   Allow for time & privacy
  MANAGING THE APPRAISAL
  DISCUSSION

INTRODUCTION
Establish rapport

State objectives of session

Explain the process/procedure/approach you’ll take

Keep the atmosphere positive & informal
MAIN BODY
 Encourage the employee to talk from the start

 Ask open questions to find out how they feel
  about the job
 Use probing & behavioural questions to find out
  facts about how they have performed over the
  period, to gain evidence
 Use reflective questions to encourage them to
  expand on their points
 Use summaries to keep the session on line, point
  out the progress made & the way ahead
INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE
OBJECTIVES
   SPECIFIC
   MEASURABLE
   ACTION FOCUSSED
   REALISTIC
   TIMEBOUND
   ENCOURAGE DEVELOPMENT
   REGULARLY REVIEWED
FROM SERVICE OBJECTIVES TO
INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT



   Select a service objective
   Create a SMARTER objective for a team member
   Work out any support they might need to achieve
    this
   Specify any development methods which might
    assist
ENDING & FOLLOW UP
 Complete any forms & get the appraisee to sign them

 Review the success of the session

 Agree & diary date of next appraisal session & intervening
  review meetings
 Take any action you have agreed to take throughout the year
REVIEW
 Schedule & diary meetings throughout the
  appraisal year before the end of the appraisal
  session
 Without these, progress towards, & achievement
  of, targets will be missed
 They will allow targets to be changed in the light of
  developments
 Actions taken by appraiser & appraisee can be
  monitored
 All this should be recorded
3. PERFORMANCE
       COACHING
THE COACHING EXPERIENCE
‘Take your seat’

   Work with a partner
   A stands up
   B instructs A how to take their seat from a standing position
   B uses a number of component parts rather than general
    instructions, such as ‘Sit down’
   You have three minutes
   Swop roles & repeat
‘TAKE YOUR SEAT’
De - brief

   Coachees :
    What was it like being instructed?
    How easy or difficult was it to take your seat & why?
    What would you have liked more of from the coach?
    What were your feelings?
   General comments :
    Positive & negative, from coach
    Positive & negative, from coachee
A PERSONAL COACHING SESSION
 The GROW model :
 Key principles
  Awareness & responsibility
 Skills
  Effective questioning & active listening
 Steps
  G oals – what do you want?
  R eality – what is happening now?
  O ptions – what could you do?
  W ill – what will you do?
 (from ‘Coaching for Performance’, John Whitmore, Nicholas Brearley Publishing,
     1996)
ACTIVITY
(Plenary)

   Think of something at work that you would personally like to be
    coached in
   Take questions from the GROW model & record on the proforma
   What actions will you commit to?
   How much are you committed to them :
        from 0 = low commitment
           to 10 = high commitment ?
       PRINCIPLES & SKILLS

 What do you think the principles
  AWARENESS
& RESPONSIBILITY
might mean in the coaching context ?
 What might be involved in the skills

  EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING
  ACTIVE LISTENING ?
AWARENESS

   Helping the coachee focus on the reality of the situation as it is
    now
   Understanding their role, involvement & influence
   Enabling them to explore fully the relationship between a
    perceived understanding of the situation & the reality of what is
    happening
   How they might change their behaviour
RESPONSIBILITY

   Coachee finds solution
   Takes responsibility & ownership
   Leads to motivation
   Things that give us a buzz, or employ our unique talents, are not
    found difficult
   Coach needs only to prompt or offer support
EFFECTIVE QUESTIONING

   Framing questions to help the coachee think beyond the obvious
    & bland answer
   Drawing out the coachee
   Remaining on their agenda
   Helping them move forward with their own ideas
   Not hinting what the coach would like to hear
   Not suggesting what the coachee should do in the future
ACTIVE LISTENING

   At two levels:
     - the meaning/content of the words (WORDS)
     - the feelings carried by the spoken word (MUSIC)
   Undivided attention given to the coachee
   Maintain eye contact
   Close, but not threatening, physical presence
   Not invading personal space
   Not distant/distracted
   Hearing both words & music(hints at doubts, concerns,
    reservations)
USING THE GROW MODEL
   Coach, Coachee, Observer triads
   No role playing
   Each person thinks of a real life situation on which they would
    like coaching
   Select coach, coachee & observer for round one
   Coach works through the ‘GROW : Effective Questions’ sheet
    with coachee
   Observer notes questions & reactions
   Coach, coachee, & observer complete a ‘Reflections’ sheet
   Observer debriefs first the coachee, then the coach
   Plenary discussion
   Change around within the triad & repeat
   & again!
REFLECTIONS ON COACHING PRACTICE
SESSIONS

Coach
How I felt
What I thought went well
What I learned about myself as a coach
Coachee
How I felt
What I liked
What I have taken away
Observer
My overall feelings about the coaching are…
What I would like to offer the coach…
4. RESOURCES
QUESTIONS THAT
          HELP
QUESTIONS THAT HELP
OPEN QUESTIONS
 Cannot be answered yes or no
 Require opinion,feeling, explanation,
  experience
Examples:
“What is your opinion of…”
“How do you feel about…”
“What do you think caused…”
Advantages:
 Demonstrates your interest in them

 Confirms you value their ideas & feelings

 Stimulates thought

 Helps you understand their needs

 Encourages dialogue not monologue
REFLECTIVE QUESTIONS
 Repeats a statement the other had made, as a
  question
 Requires good listening

 Important to select the most important aspect

Example:
Employee: “Our results would be better if we modified
  the procedures to take samples”
Manager: “you seem to be saying that you definitely
  believe it possible to improve the results?”
Advantages:
 You are not evaluating what has been said-this
  can avoid arguments
 You confirm your understanding of what has
  been said
 They are encouraged to clarify & expand

 Encourages dialogue
PROBING QUESTIONS
 Solicit information about a particular point or
  issue
 Used to deepen communication

Example:
Manager: “If you are convinced the results can
  improve,what steps would you take & when
  would you take them?”
Advantages:
 Generate information in the areas of most interest
  to you
 Challenge the other to to explore ideas, defend
  statements, contribute suggestions
 Foster clear thinking

 Raises personal responsiblity
BEHAVIOURAL QUESTIONS
 Seek specific examples, from past experience, of a
  particular skill
 The other person can learn what you are looking
  for & give you much information
Examples:
“Tell me about a time when you…”
“Give me a specific example of when you had to deal
  with a poorly performing team member – what did
  you do?”
“Can you give me some examples of the kinds of
  decisions you have had to make on your own
  initiative?”
Advantages:
 Past performance is the best predictor of future
  behaviour
 You will get specific names, dates, numbers,
  times, locations…ie “real” evidence
 You will get beyond your preconceptions or first
  impressions of the employee
GUIDELINES FOR
     FEEDBACK
GUIDELINES FOR FEEDBACK
Giving:
 Be sure of your motives

 Always own it

 Measure it

 Be descriptive & specific, not judgemental

 Focus on achievable change

 Give soon after performance
   Negotiate understanding
   Try the sandwich:
    - positives first
    - negatives in the middle
    - end on a positive note
   Maintain their self esteem
GUIDELINES FOR FEEDBACK

Receiving:
 Listen & acknowledge positive & negative
  feedback
 Don’t crumple!

 Recognise your strengths

 Look for opportunities to improve

 Maintain you self respect

 Act on justifiable criticism
CONSTRUCTIVE
    CRITICISM
CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM

   Confrontation causes anxiety
   Anxiety distorts:
    pussyfooting – not stating the problem
    clearly
    clobbering – too much negativity
   Middle road:
    tell the truth – based on firm evidence, but
    given with care
   Focus on facts & behaviours rather than
    personalities & opinion
   Communicate facts clearly & honestly
   Clarify what you think the problem is
   Commit both of you to an agreed course of action
    to deal with the problem

   If you can’t take it, you can’t give it!
DEVELOPMENT
   PLANNING
WHAT THE PLAN SHOULD HAVE



 SMARTER development objectives
 Methods for their achievement
DEVELOPMENT METHODS

Team Coaching         1: 1 Instruction
Mentoring                Placements
Shadowing              Secondments
Delegated work   Open & eLearning
Project work     Off the job courses
GETTING STARTED
  “ Changes which are self attributed are
     maintained to a greater degree than those
     which are believed to be due to external
     causes”                          Goodwin
   It all starts with you & your desire to learn

   You must take a risk, a jump, a chance

   You need some SMARTER objectives

   You will need to assess yourself against these
   You need supporters – friends, colleagues,
    networks
   You will need perseverance, gumption

				
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