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					Inter-Lakes School District

   Meredith, New Hampshire
          DIFFERENTIATED
           INSTRUCTION:
        Beginning the Journey


               Sara N. Lampe
     Association for Supervision and Curriculum
                 Development Faculty
1703 North Beauregard Street, Alexandria, VA 22311-1714
                   1-800-933-2723
                      Sara Lampe’s
  thirty-one years in public schools includes teaching,
        administration, and advocacy for children.
As an elementary school teacher, she worked in heterogeneous classes as well as
   special classes for students identified as gifted learners.

As an administrator, she coordinated K-12 programs for gifted students and was a K-8
   building principal at Phelps Center for the Gifted in Springfield, Missouri.

She was the president of the Gifted Association of Missouri (GAM) and was the National
   Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) Outstanding Educator of the Year in 1991.

Since 1979, Sara has been an adjunct professor in the College of Education at Drury
   University in Springfield, Missouri.

Her career in education continues as she works with teachers and administrators who
   want to develop responsive classrooms and schools. She is an experienced
   educational consultant specializing in curriculum and instruction, program design
   and development for gifted learners, creating community support, and lobbying for
   legislative action. Sara works throughout the United States and Canada as faculty for
   the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) on the
   Differentiation of Instruction Cadre.

Most recently, Sara was elected to the Missouri House of Representatives
   representing the citizens of the 138th District in Springfield, Missouri.
          Pre Assessment


• What do you know…?
• What do you do in your classroom…?
• Self Reflection on your skills…?



• Choose one of the following assessments:
          In Your Own
      Teaching Experience…
Describe one or two students who have
 unique learning needs.



What would those learners need in their
 classes to make it a great year?
Continued…



How do you currently address the needs
 of students with diverse learning profiles?




What factors make it difficult to modify
 curriculum and instruction for diverse
 learners?
                                  What do you do?
                                                                                                    a little----------------------------a
    lot

   Do you pre-assess students to find out what they know and are able to do?   1   2   3   4   5

   Do you let students in on what they are learning and why it is important?   1   2   3   4   5

   Do you give students choices on how they will learn something?              1   2   3   4   5

   Do you give students choices on who they will work with?                    1   2   3   4   5

   Do you give students choices on where they will work?                       1   2   3   4   5

   Do you give students choices on how they will demonstrate their learning?   1   2   3   4   5

   Do you ask students about their interests?                                  1   2   3   4   5

   Do you intentionally gather data about how your students learn best?        1   2   3   4   5

   Do you know what matters in the subjects you teach?                         1   2   3   4   5
                                   What do you do?
   Do you explain to students how what they are doing helps them make sense of the learning?        1   2   3       4   5

   Do you assign students tasks that respect who they are and what they need to learn?              1   2   3       4   5

   Do you group students in a; variety of different configurations and for a variety of purposes?   1   2   3       4   5

   Do you speed up or slow down for different learners?                                             1   2   3       4   5

   Do you emphasize growth and progress?                                                            1   2       3   4   5

   Do you deliberately teach a lesson or make an assignment that responds to different stude
    nts’ needs?                                                                                      1   2   3       4   5

   Do you give students different ways to access the content?                                       1   2   3       4   5

   Do you give a wide range of product alternatives?                                                1   2   3       4   5

   Do you have a healthy classroom?                                                                 1   2   3       4   5
                                    Teacher Talk…
                                   What do YOU say?
•   “Do your work.”                                                      •   “Welcome! Good morning, friends!”
•   “Are you done?”                                                      •   “What do you know about__?”
•   “Hurry up.”                                                          •   “Today we are going to learn__.”
•   “If you don’t __it will hurt your grade.”                            •   “Let’s talk about where we are going with this learning or idea.”
•   “If that is the assignment for everyone else, it is only fair that   •   “Learning feels good.”
    you have to do it.”                                                  •   “Learning is fun.”
•   “If you don’t I will__.”                                             •   “Learning never stops. It goes on and on.”
•   “This is easy. You can do it if you will just try.”                  •   “Did you give your best effort?”
•   “You are a smart kid. You can figure it out on your own.”            •   “Let’s see how much you’ve grown.”
•   “We’ve worked all week long now it is time to have some fun.”        •   “Fair means, everyone getting what they need.”
•   “I can’t believe you don’t have better manners.”                     •   “How are we doing? Is this making sense?”
•   “Work!”                                                              •   “Please and thank you.”
•   “Get out your __book. Today we are going                             •   “Let’s talk about what is not working for you.”
•   “I have to move on. If I don’t, I won’t cover all the material.”     •   “Is there someone else who can help you?”
•   “If I assign it, I grade it.”                                        •   “Students, how could we__.”
•   “I give grades to motivate my students and so they will see          •   “We’ll find a way.”
    how they compare to others in the class.”                            •   “Let’s talk about what is not working for you.”
•   “ I am the one to always tell students what they need to do.”        •   “I do not grade everything I assign, but I do look at all
•   “I make the decisions about the classroom –how it will run and           assignments as a way to determine what students have
    how things are done.”                                                    mastered and what they need to continue to study.”
•   “This classroom is where I teach each day. Student need to be        •   “I think it is important for students to focus on their personal
    respectful of that. They need to act with respect and follow the         growth in a subject.”
    rules just like visiting someone’s home.”                            •   “We identify what it looks like to give our best effort. Then we
                                                                             take a personal reflective look at how we are doing, Students
                                                                             ask themselves, “Did I give my best effort today? Did I go
                                                                             above and beyond what was expected of me? Did I help
                                                                             someone else?”
                                                                         •   “I try to always answer a question with a question.”
         Check the statements that are like what                         •   “I have students help me in running the classroom and making
                you would say or do say.                                     the decisions on classroom procedures. I consider the
                                                                             classroom ‘our’ classroom.”
                           Teacher Self-Reflection on Differentiation
                                (Staff Development Planning)

This survey has two scales. The column on the left (the letters) reflects your assessment of your
      knowledge and skill regarding various aspects of differentiation. The column on the right (the
      numbers) deals with frequency of use in your classroom. Please circle your responses for both
      columns.

THE LEFT COLUMN:
                                                                                 The Right Column:
(A)     I don’t really understand what this means and don’t know how to do it.
                                                                                                              (1) Hardly
(B)     I feel somewhat comfortable doing this, but I need more information
                                                                                                                    ever
         and/or practice.
                                                                                                              (2)
(A)     I understand what this means and feel comfortable/competent doing it.
                                                                                                                    Someti
(B)     I thoroughly understand what this means and feel adept at doing it
                                                                                                                    mes –
                                                                                                                    less
                                                                                                                    than
                                                       GENERAL                                                      half the
A   B   C   D   Pre-assess students to determine level of understand (readiness).             1   2   3   4         time
                                                                                              1   2   3   4   (3)
A   B   C   D   Assess student interest.                                                                            Freque
A   B   C   D   Assess students’ learning profile.                                            1   2   3   4         ntly --
A   B   C   D   Use flexible grouping.                                                        1   2   3   4         more
A   B   C   D   Vary the pace of learning for varying learner needs                           1   2   3   4         than
A   B   C   D   Students’ grades reflect individual growth and progress                       1   2   3   4         half the
                                                                                              1   2   3   4         time
A   B   C   D   Pro-actively (deliberately) plan differentiation when designing curriculum.
                                                                                                              (4) Almost
                                                                                                                    always
                                                                                                                    or
                                                                                                                    always
                                    Teacher Self-Reflection, cont’d

                                                  CONTENT
A B C D         Design curriculum based on major concepts and generalizations.                        1 2 3 4
A B C D         Use those major concepts and generalizations as basis for planning differentiated     1 2 3 4
                    lessons/activities.
A B C D         Clearly articulate to the students what you want them to know, understand, and be     1 2 3 4
                    able to do.
A B C D         Use a variety of materials other than the standard text.                              1 2 3 4
A B C D         Provide varying levels of resources and materials.                                    1 2 3 4
A B C D         Provide various support mechanisms (e.g., reading buddies, organizers, study          1 2 3 4
                    guides).

                                                  PROCESS
A B C D         Design each activity to be squarely focused on one (or a very few) key concepts,      1 2 3 4
                    essential questions and/or generalizations.
A B C D         Design activities that require students to do something with their knowledge (apply   1 2 3 4
                    and extend major concepts and generalizations as opposed to just repeating
                    them back).
A B C D         Use higher level tasks for all learners (e.g., application, elaboration, provide      1 2 3 4
                    evidence, synthesis, etc.).
A   B   C   D   Use tiered lessons/activities of varying levels of challenge.                         1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Use activities that involve all learners in both critical and creative thinking.      1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Vary tasks along the continua of Dr. Tomlinson’s “equalizer”.                         1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Vary tasks by student interest.                                                       1   2   3   4
                                                                                                      1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Vary tasks by learner profile.
                                          Teacher Self-Reflection, cont’d

                                                            PRODUCT
A B C D         Allow for a wide range of product alternatives (e.g., oral, visual, kinesthetic,                           1 2 3 4
                    musical, written, spatial, creative, practical, etc.).
A   B   C   D   Give product assignments that differ based on individual (or group)                                        1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D                                                                                                              1   2   3   4
                Use differentiated quality rubrics for assessment of products.
A   B   C   D                                                                                                              1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Teacher supports students in using a wide range of varied resources.                                       1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Give product assignments that balance structure and choice. (Student choice is                             1   2   3   4
                    maximized within teacher-generated parameters.)
A B C D         Provide opportunities for student product to be based upon the solving of real and                         1 2 3 4
                    relevant problems.


                          INSTRUCTIONAL / MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
A   B   C   D   Use curriculum compacting for advanced learners.                                                           1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Use student learning contracts.,                                                                           1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D                                                                                                              1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Use independent study.
                                                                                                                           1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Use interest centers / groups.                                                                             1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Use learning centers / groups.                                                                             1   2   3   4
A   B   C   D   Use differentiated questions in discussions, homework and/or tests.                                        1   2   3   4




    Adapted from Carol Tomlinson by Chapel Hill – Carrboro City Schools, Chapel Hill, NC 27516 919.967.8211 x 236 spage@ chccs,k12.nc.us
           Reflect on what you are doing
           right now in your classroom that
           is working for kids.
           What are you doing that
           addresses their academic
           differences?
            Write the things that are working
           for students in the top bubble.

                                                                     3 min.
             Share one of your student success with your neighbor.




           Now, think about what has not
           been working as well as it
           should.
           Write those things in the bottom
           bubble.


Perhaps the things you’ve listed here would be a good place to begin your journey.
    What do you know about
    Differentiated Instruction?

                                     First think alone—then
                                    discuss with your neighbor.







 The number one question I want answered
  today is…
 The Content…of this session


• What do I want participants to
know…understand…and be able to do
at the end of this session?
     Today’s Learning Goals
At the end of this session, I want you to:
KNOW…
• Vocabulary: differentiated instruction,
  readiness, interest, learning profile, content,
  process, product, assessment.
• Assessments and Inventories to determine
  readiness, interest and learning profile.
• Learning profile factors.
• Ways to differentiate content, process,
  product.
• Principles of a differentiated classroom.
         Today’s Learning Goals
UNDERSTAND…
•   Humans are both alike and different in many ways.
•   Human differences affect learning.
•   Humans learn best when the circumstances of learning are a good match for
    the individual’s needs.
•   Learning is affected by a person’s learning style, intelligence preference,
    gender, and/or culture.
•   Working in a preferred learning mode enhances achievement.
•   Effective teaching results in effective learning for each child.
•   Differences in students require different responses.
•   Content, process and product can be differentiated in response to student
    differences.
•   Assessment drives instruction.
•   Individuals learn when they work in their zones of proximal development.
•   Interest is a great motivator.
•   Human learning requires thinking.
•   Reflection is essential to effectiveness.
•   Expert teachers teach students the most important things in the most effective
    ways.
•   Differentiation is a movement toward expertise.
          Today’s Learning Goals
AND BE ABLE TO DO…
•   Think critically about teaching and learning.
•   Identify personal belief systems.
•   Reflect on present teaching practice and classroom environment.
•   Ask questions of clarification.
•   Define differentiated instruction.
•   Recognize principles of a differentiated classroom in practice.
•   Plan for gathering data on student readiness, interest, learning profile.
•   Evaluate a tierd lesson.
•   Identify ways to differentiate content, process, product.
•   Identify instructional strategies that support differentiation.
•   Recognize behaviors of effective/expert teachers.
•   Make a commitment to becoming an expert teacher.
•   Decide an entry point or first step to start the journey toward expertise.
•   Create a plan for improvement.
•   Identify a colleague as a support for the journey.


…add to this list what you would like to learn today.
Differentiated Instruction IS…



      a way of thinking
  about effective teaching and
    how people best learn.
Differentiated Instruction IS…


   expert teachers teaching
  students the most important
  things in the most effective
              ways.
 Differentiated Instruction IS…



a teacher’s response to learners’ needs.

a way to meet children where they are
 and help them to achieve maximum
 growth as learners.
 Differentiated Instruction IS…


 a teaching philosophy based on the premise
  that teachers should adapt instruction to
  student differences. Rather then marching
  students through the curriculum in lockstep,
  teachers should modify their instruction to
  meet students’ varying readiness levels,
  learning preferences, and interests.
  Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a
  variety of ways to “get at” and express
  learning.
One More Way of Thinking About
       Differentiation…

Differentiation is classroom
practice that looks eyeball to eyeball
with the reality that kids differ,
and the most effective teachers do
whatever it takes to hook the whole
range of kids on learning.
     What is differentiation?
Differentiation is
classroom practice
 that looks
eyeball to eyeball
with the reality
that kids differ, and the most effective
teachers do whatever it takes to hook
the whole range of kids on learning.
                          -Tomlinson (2001)
Differentiated Instruction
      is a journey
   toward expertise.
Professional
 Reflection


                 What worked today?

                 What didn’t work?

                 How do I know?



    5 min.
             daily
Do you believe . . . .
students who are the same age differ in their readiness to learn, their
interests, their styles of learning, their experiences, and their life
circumstances?

Do you believe . . . .
the differences in students are significant enough to make major impact on
what students need to learn, the pace at which they need to learn it, and the
support they need from teachers, and others to learn it well?

Do you believe . . . .
students will learn best when supportive adults push them slightly beyond
where they can work without assistance?

Do you believe . . . .
students will learn best when they can make a connection between the
curriculum and their interests and life experiences?
                       I Believe…
All children can learn.




        Think about what you
       believe about students…
     Summary Statements About Learning
1.  People learn what is personally meaningful to them.
2.  People learn when they accept challenging but
    achievable goals.
3. Learning is developmental.
4. Individuals learn differently.
5. People construct new knowledge by building on their
    current knowledge.
6. Much learning occurs though social interaction.
7. People need feedback to learn.
8. Successful learning involves use of strategies – which
    themselves are learned.
9. A positive emotional climate strengthens learning.
10. Learning is influenced by the total environment.
                                     Powerful Learning by Ron Brandt
  DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION
                        Rules of Thumb

• Be clear on the key concepts and generalizations or principles
  that give meaning and structure to the topic, chapter, unit, or
  lesson you are planning.

• Think of assessment as a road map for your thinking and
  planning.

• Lessons for all students should emphasize critical and creative
  thinking.

• Lessons for all students should be engaging.

• In a differentiated classroom there should be a balance
  between student-selected and teacher-assigned tasks and
  working arrangements.
High Quality Teaching…




                   How we teach




                 What we teach


It’s About Having All the Parts in Place…
                                            Tomlinson ‘01
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
   quality
                                                                                                           building
  curriculum                           Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                          community

                                                                                                              Affect/
Content                            Process                              Product
                                                                                                            Environment


  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
      Student Traits

There are four student traits
that teachers must often
address to ensure effective
and efficient learning.
Those are readiness,
interest, learning profile,
and affect.
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
   quality
                                                                                                           building
  curriculum                           Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                          community

                                                                                                              Affect/
Content                            Process                              Product
                                                                                                            Environment


  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
       Student Traits

Readiness refers to a student’s
knowledge, understanding, and
skill related to a particular
sequence of learning. Only when
a student works at a level of
difficulty that is both challenging
and attainable for that student
does learning take place.
                Tomlinson, 2003
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
   quality
                                                                                                           building
  curriculum                           Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                          community

                                                                                                              Affect/
Content                            Process                              Product
                                                                                                            Environment


  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
      Student Traits

Interest refers to those topics
or pursuits that evoke curiosity
and passion in a learner.
Thus, highly effective teachers
attend both to developing
interests and as yet
undiscovered interests in their
students.
              Tomlinson, 2003
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
   quality
                                                                                                           building
  curriculum                           Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                          community

                                                                                                              Affect/
Content                            Process                              Product
                                                                                                            Environment


  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
       Student Traits

Learning profile refers to how
students learn best. Those
include learning style, intelligence
preference, culture and gender. If
classrooms can offer and support
different modes of learning, it is
likely that more students will learn
effectively and efficiently.
                Tomlinson, 2003
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
   quality
                                                                                                           building
  curriculum                           Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                          community

                                                                                                              Affect/
Content                            Process                              Product
                                                                                                            Environment


  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
      Student Traits

Affect has to do with how
students feel about
themselves, their work, and
the classroom as a whole.
Student affect is the gateway
to helping each student
become more fully engaged
and successful in learning.
             Tomlinson, 2003
   HIGH QUALITY TEACHING

WHO WE TEACH
 At its most basic level,
differentiating instruction
means “shaking up” what
goes on in the classroom
   so that students have
    multiple options for
   taking in information,
 making sense of ideas,
      and expressing
      what they learn.
Who I Teach
• A person of worth
   – with dignity as they are
   – worth of respect
   – worthy of my investment
• An individual
   – both like and unlike others in important ways
   – with both positives and negatives
• Someone whom I must know
   – with whim I will connect
   – with whom I will construct a relationship
• Someone who, in this room, is building a life
   – whose relationship to learning is evolving
   – whose potential is, in large measure, hidden from view
• A person who will shape who I am becoming
   – as I shape who he/she is becoming
                                                 Tomlinson ‘01
         Food for Thought
• Some teachers realize school may be
  a more comfortable fit for some
  students than it is for others but the
  most effective teachers work to
  understand and honor both the
  individuality and commonality
  represented in their classroom.
                      Tomlinson, 2003, p. 4
Deciding to Teach Them All

Do I intend to
teach each
individual child?
                 Tomlinson, 2003
Deciding to Teach Them All
I intend to teach the
curriculum in as
reasonable a way as I
know how, and I hope
that most of the students
will respond.
   Tomlinson, 2003
Deciding to Teach Them All

  Your response must
signal a willingness to
  accept responsibility
    for the success of
         each learner.

                 Tomlinson, 2003
   Deciding to Teach Them All
 Effective teachers ask,
 “What are their students’
 particular interests and
 needs?” Rather than
 asking, “What labels do my
 students have?”

Tomlinson, 2003
Deciding to Teach Them All
Effective teachers ask,
“What are their
students’ strengths?”
Rather than asking,
“What are my students
deficits?”
Tomlinson, 2003
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
  appropriate
                                                                                                         appropriate
    goals                              Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                            goals


Content                            Process                              Product                             Environment



  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
 At its most basic level,
differentiating instruction
means “shaking up” what
goes on in the classroom
   so that students have
    multiple options for
   taking in information,
 making sense of ideas,
      and expressing
      what they learn.
           Who I Teach

• Student Readiness

• Student Interests

• Student Learning Profile

• Student Affect
Who I Teach
• A person of worth
   – with dignity as they are
   – worth of respect
   – worthy of my investment
• An individual
   – both like and unlike others in important ways
   – with both positives and negatives
• Someone whom I must know
   – with whim I will connect
   – with whom I will construct a relationship
• Someone who, in this room, is building a life
   – whose relationship to learning is evolving
   – whose potential is, in large measure, hidden from view
• A person who will shape who I am becoming
   – as I shape who he/she is becoming
                                                 Tomlinson ‘01
When a teacher tries to teach
something to the entire class at
the same time, “chances are, one-
third of the kids already know it;
one-third will get it; and the
remaining third won’t. So two-
thirds of the children are wasting
their time.”
                      --- Lilian Katz
Struggling Learners / Advanced Learners




 “In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind.
 They have that in common because they are young humans. How they
 need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to
 those differences, we fail many learners.”    C. A. Tomlinson
  “Unless the highly able must also struggle in
 order to grow, education has not appropriately
defined or operationalized excellence in schools.
when students stand for extended time in spaces
 with ceilings of expectation that are too low, the
    students’ capacity is bent, misshapen and
  malformed, exactly as their bodies would be if
   encased in spaces with ceilings too low for
 their stature. The twin threats of perfectionism
  and lethargy are spawned when a child comes
 to believe that that which is easy is exemplary.”

         -- Carol Tomblinson, Roeper Review, June 1994
     What Keeps Us Going As Learners?


  success



                              effort



                              effort




   success




success                           effort
          Parallel Approaches
           To Differentiation
For Advanced Learners   For Struggling Learners

 More                   Less
 Lurch & Halt           Exposure/Get
                         what you can
 High Bloom             Low Bloom
 Acceleration           Deceleration
 Enrichment             Basics/Pare Down
 Key Concepts,          Key Concepts,
     Principles &          Principles &
     Skills at a           Skills at a
     Greater Degree        Lesser Degree
     Of Difficulty         of Difficulty
                                     Tomlinson ’98 UVa
                   BRAIN RESEARCH
                          Reticular Activating System
                            RAS = “Toggle Switch”
    Only one of these three states is activated (aroused) at a time:
          HIGH                        MIDDLE                         LOW
        Hot (EEG)                   Mild (EEG)             Cold (EEG – sleeplike)
     Limbic aroused               Cortical arousal           Sleep (depression)
      Flight / Fight             Problem Solving                  Relaxation
      Out of Control                 In Control                    Off Duty
     Carbohydrates                    Proteins              Carbohydrates/Dairy
         Burnout                   Achievement                   Depression
   Extreme Challenge           Moderate Challenge               No Challenge


“Certain motivational states which interfere with learning condition are especially
dangerous: anxiety and boredom. Anxiety occurs primarily when teachers expect too
much from students; boredom occurs when teachers expect too little.” – Howard Gardner

 Learning only happens when the toggle switch is in the middle position
               The Game
1. Everyone wants to play the game.

2. In order for me to play it, the game has to
   start where I am.

3. In order to continue playing it, the game
   has to grow as fast as I do.

4. If that doesn’t happen, I won’t play the
   game.
                 ASSESSMENT
          Assessment is ongoing and diagnostic.

It’s goal is to provide teachers day-to-day data on students’
readiness for particular ideas and skills, their interests, and
                      their learning profiles.

  Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to
            modify tomorrow’s instruction.
             Assessment
Assessment provides us with evidence to
  help answer important questions:

“Did the student learn it?”

“To what extent does the student
  understand?”

“How might I adjust my teaching to be
 more effective for learners with
 varying needs?”
   An expert teacher
thinks like an assessor!
           Assessments
          Different Functions and
    Critical to Teaching and Learning


   Diagnostic assessments
   Formative assessments
   Summative assessments
      Assess Before Teaching



“Teaching in the dark
 in questionable
 practice.”
-Hilda Taba
      Diagnostic Assessments
   Pre-assessments
   Precede instruction
   Check students’ prior knowledge and skill
    levels and identify misconceptions,
    interests, or learning style preferences
   Provides information to assist teacher
    planning
   Guides differentiated instruction
    • Skill checks, knowledge surveys, nongraded
      pre-tests, interest or learning preference
      checks, checks for misconceptions.
           Pre - Assessment
Pre-assessment data allow a teacher to know how
  much content students know at the outset of a
  unit so that the teacher can make appropriate
  lesson plan adjustments.

Little useful learning occurs when a teacher
   “teaches” something to a student that the
   student already knows.

Likewise, a student generally cannot learn what a
  teacher teaches if that student has significant
  gaps in background knowledge, understanding,
  and/or skill.
    Hilda Taba pointed out…


“Diagnosis, of course, is never
 completed. Every contact with
 students reveals something that the
 teacher did not know before,
 something important for intelligent
 planning of instruction.”
     Formative Assessment
Occurs throughout a unit of study.
 Data from this kind of assessment
 helps teachers know who is
 mastering ideas and skills and who
 may need additional assistance to
 achieve competency with the content
 goals.
Formative…On-Going Assessment
               STUDENT DATA SOURCES
1.    Journal entry
2.    Short answer test
3.    Open response test
4.    Home learning
5.    Notebook
6.    Oral response
7.    Portfolio entry
8.    Exhibition
9.    Culminating product
10.   Question writing
11.   Problem solving
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
        know about ________________
            Write as much as you can.


       Description of…
      Description        Steps in Developing…




     Is like…                  How I might use…




                                 Tomlinson - 02
 Formative…On-going Assessment
         TEACHER DATA MECHANISMS
1.    Anecdotal records
2.    Observation by checklist
3.    Skills checklist
4.    Class discussion
5.    Small group interaction
6.    Teacher – student conference
7.    Assessment stations
8.    Exit cards
9.    Problem posing
10.   Performance tasks and rubrics
                 Exit Cards

• Exit Cards
     Have students answer one or two key
      questions on an index card as a class period
      ends and turn the card in to the teacher at
      the end of the class period.
     Such “exit cards” are not graded
     A snapshot that allows more targeted
      instructional planning for the days ahead
EXIT CARDS
     We have been learning
    about The Greenhouse
    Effect. Explain or depict
    your understanding of this
    important environmental
    issue.

    What questions do you
    have about this topic?
EXIT CARDS
    We have begun a study
    of author’s craft.

    List and identify three
    examples of figurative
    language used in the
    novel Morning Girl by
    Michael Dorris.
        EXIT CARDS
On your Exit Card---

Explain the difference
between prime and
composite numbers.
You may wish to give
some examples of each
as part of your
explanation.
        EXIT CARDS
On your exit card---

Explain the difference
between simile and
metaphor. Give some
examples of each as
part of your
explanation.
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
        know about ________________
            Write as much as you can.


       Description of
      Description the    Steps in Developing It
       Strategy




     Useful For                 Place to Use It in the
                                Curriculum




                                  Tomlinson - 02
                              Squaring Off
Whole Group Assessment
1. Place a card in each corner of the room with one of the
   following words or phrases that are effective ways to
   group according to learner knowledge.
Rarely ever         Sometimes                Often             I have it!
Dirt road           Paved road               Highway           Yellow brick road
2. Tell the students to go to the corner of the room
   that matches their place in the learning journey.
3. Participants go to the corner that most closely
   matches their own learning status and discuss what
   they know about the topic and why they chose to go
   there.

    Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All.
    Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
                                                                                      YES
                  Yes/No Cards                                                         NO

    •    Using a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on
         one side and NO on the other.
    •    When a question is asked the students hold up
         YES or NO.
    1.   Ask the students if they know the following
         vocabulary words and what they mean.
    2.   Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES
         they may be called on to give the correct answer.
    3.   Remind them that if they don’t know the words it
         is OK because they will be learning them.
    4.   You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas,
         etc.
Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit
All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
                               Thumb It!
• Have students respond with the position of
  their thumb to get an assessment of what
  their current understanding of a topic being
  studied.
• Where I am now in my understanding of
  ______?


     Up                       Sideways                               Down
   I know a lot                   I know some                    I know very little

Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit
All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
                             Fist of Five
   Show the number of fingers on a scale, with 1
     being lowest and 5 the highest.

   Ask, How well do you feel you know this
      information?
   5. I know it so well I could explain it to anyone.
   4. I can do it alone.
   3. I need some help.
   2. I could use more practice.
   1. I am only beginning.



Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t
Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Assessment Strategies to Support Success


 1.   Whip Around: Assessment)
      •   Teacher poses question
      •   Students write response
      •   Students read written responses rapidly, in
          specified order.
      •   Teacher takes notes
      •   Develop closure / clarification / summary

 2. Status checks: (Assessment)
      •   Thumbs up/thumbs down/ wiggle palm
      •   Colored cards (red, green, yellow)
      •   Windshield
       Formative Assessments


   “Along the way” information to guide
    instruction in response to the nature
    and needs of the diverse learners.

   Waiting until the end of teaching to
    find out how well students have
    learned is simply too late.
     Expert Teachers are like…
   successful coaches and sponsors of
    extracurricular activities such as
    yearbook, orchestra, theater, and
    athletics recognize the importance of
    ongoing assessments and
    continuous adjustments as the
    means to achieve maximum
    performance.
   Recent research has confirmed the
    benefits of regular use of diagnostic
    and formative assessments as
    feedback for learning (Black and
    William, 1998).

   In a differentiated classroom, a
    teacher continuously examines
    ongoing assessment data for
    individuals as a means of adapting
    “up-front” teaching plans so that
    they address particular learner
    needs.
      Judy Rex often says…
“There is a world of assessment data around
  us at any given moment in a classroom,
  we just have to pay attention and think of
  it as assessment data.”

“Everything a kid says, does, or hands in to
  you tells you something about what she
  knows, understands and is able to do.”
Provide Feedback Early and Often


   “Feedback is the breakfast of
           champions.”
                -Vince Lombardi
All types of learning, whether on
     the practice field or in the
 classroom, require feedback.
Grant Wiggins, author of
Understanding by Design
      observed…
If I had to summarize what I have seen over
   the past decade in all kinds of schools,

I would have to report that many educators
  seem to believe that feedback means
  giving lots of approval, and some
  disapproval and advice.

In classrooms, the most common piece of
  so-called feedback is “Good job!” or some
  equivalent phrase.
It is, of course, important to praise students
   because it often satisfies and encourages them,
   but it cannot help them to improve their
   performance.

Praise keeps you in the game; real feedback helps
  you get better.

Feedback tells you what you did or did not do and
  enables you to self adjust.

Indeed, the more self-evident feedback, the more
  autonomy the performer develops, and vice-
  versa.
                              -Grant Wiggins (1998)
 4 Qualities of Good Feedback

Feedback must
  be timely
  be specific
  be understandable to the receiver
  allow for adjustment
   Educators who provide
  regular opportunities for
         learners to
   self-assess and reflect
often report a change in the
 culture of the classroom.
“My students have shifted from asking,
 ‘What did I get?’ or “What are you
 going to give me?’

to becoming increasingly capable of
  knowing how they are doing and
  what they need to do to improve.”
         Responsive Teaching
   Use clear rubrics that coach for quality
    • Rubrics that resemble “bean counters” do little
      to provide specific guidance or support
      metacognition about quality work and work
      habits.

    • Rubrics that clearly explain the traits of “good”
      work and move up from there can coach far
      more students in progressing from good to
      exemplary.

    • Rubrics can provide space for students to add
      personal goals for success
 Classroom assessment practices
that honor student differences and
        promote learning…

   Assess before teaching
   Offer appropriate choices
   Provide feedback early and often
   Encourage self-assessment and
    reflection
Questions About Assessment?
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
  appropriate
                                                                                                         appropriate
    goals                              Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                            goals


Content                            Process                              Product                             Environment



  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
                               TIERING



Tiered activities, tiered tasks or experiences,
                 tiered products.

In a heterogeneous classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of activities to
    ensure that students explore ideas at a level that builds on their prior
    knowledge and prompts continued growth. Student groups use varied
    approaches to exploration of essential ideas. C.A. Tomlinson

                                                              Strategy: Tiering
                                      The Equalizer
1. Foundational                                                          Transformational

                           Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications

2. Concrete                                                              Abstract
                         Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials

3. Simple                                                                Complex
                     Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals

4. Single Facet                                                          Multiple Facets
       Directions, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections

5. Small Leap                                                            Great Leap
                                  Application, Insight, Transfer


6. More Structured                                                       More Open
                               Solutions, Decisions, Approaches


8. Less Independence                                                     Greater Independence
                                Planning, Designing, Monitoring


9. Slow                                                                  Quick
                                Pace of Study, Pace of Thought
  1. Foundational                                                                           Transformational
                                    Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications
      -close to text or experience                                    -removed from text or experience
      -expert idea and skill to                                       -export idea or skill to unexpected or
        similar or familiar setting                                     unfamiliar setting
      -use key idea or skill alone                                    -use key idea or skill with unrelated idea or
      -fundamental skills and                                           skill
        knowledge emphasized                                          -use but move beyond fundamental skills
      -fewer permutations of skills                                     and knowledge
        and ideas                                                     -more permutations of skills and ideas

• Foundational to Transformational.      When an idea is new to some students, or if it’s not in one of their stronger
areas, they often need supporting information about the idea that is clear and plainly worded. Then they usually
need time to practice applying the idea in a straightforward way. In these instances, the materials they use and the
tasks they do should be foundational – that is, basic and presented in ways that help them build a solid foundation
of understanding. At other times, when something is already clear to them or is in a strength area, they need to
move along quickly. They need information that shows them intricacies about the idea. They need to stretch and
bend the idea and see how it interacts with other ideas to create a new thought. Such conditions require materials
and tasks that are more transformational.
For example, one child may benefit from a more basic task of classifying animals by body covering, which another
may need the more transformational task of predicting how changes in environment would likely affect the body
covering of several animals. In a math class, one young learner may be ready for a basic application of the concept
of fractions by cutting fruit and placing it to reflect a given fraction. An appropriate challenge for another student
may be the more transformational task of writing measures of music that represent certain fractions.
2. Concrete                                                                      Abstract
                            Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials
  -hold in hand or hands on                                  -hold in mind or minds on
  -tangible                                                  -intangible
  -literal                                                   -symbolic or metaphorical
  -physical manipulation                                     -mental manipulation
  -event based                                               -idea based
  -event to principle                                        -principle without event
  -demonstrated and explained                                -not demonstrated or explained




 • Concrete to Abstract. Students usually need to become familiar with the key information or
 material about an area of study before they can successfully look at its implications, meanings,
 or interrelationships. However, once they have grasped the information in a concrete way, it’s
 important that they move on to meanings and implications. Working with concrete information
 should open a door for meaningful abstraction later on. For example, grasping the idea of plot
 (more concrete) typically has to precede investigations of theme (more abstract). But ultimately,
 all students need to delve into the meanings of stories, not just the events. The issue here is
 readiness or timing.
3. Simple                                                                            Complex
                         Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals

     -use idea or skill being taught                         -combine idea or skill being taught with those
     -work with no one, or few abstractions                              previous taught
     -emphasizes appropriateness                             -work with multiple abstractions
     -requires relatively less originality                   -emphasizes elegance
     -more common vocabulary                                 -requires relatively more originality
     -more accessible readability                            -more advanced vocabulary
                                                             - more advanced readability



 • Simple to Complex. Sometimes students need to see only the big picture of a topic or area of
 study, just its “skeleton,” without many details. Even adults often find it helpful to read a children’s
 book on black holes, for example, before they tackle the work of Stephen Hawking. When the big
 picture is needed, your students need resources, research, issues, problems, skills, and goals that
 help them achieve a framework of understanding with clarity. On the other hand, when the
 “skeleton” is clear to them, they’ll find it more stimulating to add “muscle, bone, and nerves,”
 moving from simple to complex. Some students may need to work more simply with one
 abstraction at a time; others may be able to handle the complexity of multiple abstractions.
    For example, some students may be ready to work with the theme in a story (a single
 abstraction), while other students look at inter-relationships between themes and symbols (multiple
 abstractions, or complexity).
  4. Single Facet                                                                                   Multiple Facets
                              Disciplinary Connection, Direction, Stages of Development
            -fewer parts                                                     -more parts
            -fewer steps                                                     -more steps
            -fewer stages                                                    -more stages
  • Single Facet to Multiple Facets. Sometimes students are at peak performance when working on problems, projects, or
  dilemmas that involve only a few steps or solutions to complete. It may be all that some students can handle to make a
  connection between what they studied in science today and what they studied last week. Those with greater understanding
  and facility in an area of study are ready for and more challenged by following complicated directions. They are more
  challenged by solving problems that are multifaceted or require great flexibility of approach, or by being asked to make
  connections between subjects that scarcely seemed related before.

  5. Small Leap                                                                                     Great Leap
                                                Application, Insight, Transfer
  -few unknowns                                                              -many unknowns
  -relative comfort with most elements                                       -relative unfamiliarity with many elements
  -less need to change familiar elements                                     -more need to change familiar elements
  -requires less flexible thought                                            -requires more flexible thought
  -few gaps in required knowledge                                            -significant gaps in required knowledge
  -more evolutionary                                                         -more revolutionary
• Small Leap to Great Leap. Note that this continuum does not provide the option of “no leap.” Students should always have
to run ideas through their minds and figure out how to use them. Activities that call only for absorption and regurgitation are
generally of little long-term use.
But for some students, learning about how to measure area and then applying that learning by estimating and verifying the
area of the hamster house compared to the teacher’s desk may be enough of a leap of application and transfer – at least in
the beginning. Other students may be able to more from estimating and verifying area to estimating materials needed to a
building project and proportional cost implications of increasing the building area. In both cases, students make mental leaps
from reading information on a page to using that information. The latter task calls for relatively greater leaps of application,
insight, and transfer..
6. More Structured                                                                             More Open
                                         Solutions, Decisions, Approaches
      -more directions or more precise directions                    -fewer directions
      -more modeling                                                 -less modeling
      -relatively less student choice                                -relatively more student choice

• Structured to Open-Ended. Sometimes students need to complete tasks that are fairly well laid out for them, where
they don’t have too many decisions to make. Novice drivers begin by managing the car on prescribed driving ranges or
delineated routes. Being new to a computer or word processor often requires completing programmed and closed
lessons that involve “right” answers to become knowledgeable -- and comfortable – with basic operation and
keyboarding before moving on to more advanced and open-ended tasks such as selecting varied uses of graphics to
illustrate ideas in a formal presentation. Following a predetermined format for a writing assignment or a chemistry lab
often makes more sense than improvisation.
•At other times, however, students are ready to explore the computer, craft their own essays designed to address a
communication need, or create a chemistry lab that demonstrates principles of their choosing. Modeling helps most of us
become confident enough to eventually “wing it.” But when modeling has served its purpose, it’s time to branch out and
get creative.

7. Clearly Defined                                                                             Fuzzy Problems
                                       In process, In Research, In Products
     -few unknowns                                                  -more unknowns
     -more algorithmic                                              -more heuristic
     -narrower range of acceptable responses or approaches          -wider range of acceptable responses or approaches
     -only relevant data provided                                   -extraneous data provided
     -problem specified                                             -problem unspecified or ambiguous
 8. Less Independence                                                          More Independence
                                         Planning, Designing, Monitoring
     -more teacher or adult guidance and monitoring on:             -less teacher or adult guidance and monitoring on
     • problem identification                                       •problem identification
     • goal setting                                                 • goal setting
     • establishing timelines                                       • establishing timelines
     • following timelines                                          • following timelines
     • securing resources                                           • securing resources
     • use of resources                                             • use of resources
     • criteria for success                                         • criteria for success
     • formulation of a product                                     • formulation of a product
     • evaluation                                                   • evaluation
     -more teacher scaffolding                                      -less teacher scaffolding
     -learning the skills of independence                           -demonstrating the skills of independence
• Dependent to Independent. A goal for all learners is independent study, thought, and production. But just as
  some students gain height more quickly than others, some will be ready for greater independence earlier than
  others. Their needs in developing independence generally fall into one of these four stages:
       1. Skill building, when students need to develop the ability to make simple choices, follow through with short-
           term tasks, and use directions appropriately.
       2. Structured independence, when students make choices from teacher-generated options, follow prescribed
           time lines, and engage in self-evaluation according to preset criteria to complete longer-term and more
           complex tasks.
       3. Shared independence, when students generate problems to be solved, design tasks, set time lines, and
           establish criteria for evaluation. The teacher helps “tighten” or focus the plans and monitors the production
           process.
       4. Self-guided independence, when students plan, execute, and seek help or feedback only when needed.
  By guiding students across this continuum at individually appropriate speeds, you and your students are less
  likely to become frustrated by tasks that require greater independence.
9. Slower                                                                        Quicker
                                   Pace of Study, Pace of Thought
  -more time to work                                         -less time to work
  -more practice                                             -less practice
  -more teaching and re-teaching                             -less teaching and re-teaching
  -process more systematically                               -process more rapidly
  -probe breadth and depth                                   -hit the high points




 • Slow to Fast. Of all the continuums, this one is the most likely to require some “jumping
 around.” There are times when students with great ability in a subject need to move quickly
 through familiar or minimally challenging material.
 But at other times, some of those same students will need more time than others to study a
 topic in depth. You can adjust the speed of learning experiences for students who are struggling
 with key ideas by allowing them to work more slowly at first, but then letting them move quickly
 through tangential areas of study, thus freeing up some time for further work with the key ideas.
 Matching pacing to your students’ needs is a critical differentiation strategy.
                               Analyzing a Readiness-Based Task
Pioneer Group                    (work alone or in groups of 2, 3, or 4)
1. Use books, pictures, and the CD-Rom to:
      a. Figure out what a trading post was for.
      b. Make a list of things found in a trading post and how much they may have cost. Be   sure to include some things we
     don’t have in our stores today.
      c. Figure out who used trading posts.
      d. Find out where goods for a trading post came from.
2.   Build or draw a trading post and a modern convenience store.
3.   Compare and contrast the trading post and convenience store on at least the four categories identified
     in questions 1a – 1d.
4.   Be ready to share with the class what a trading post and convenience store tell us about how we are
     like and different from the pioneers.

Trailblazer Group               (work alone or in groups of 2, or3)
1. Read Going West (stop at the bookmark). Also use the encyclopedia, CD-Rom, and books in the
     exploration center to:
     a. Learn about the size of a covered wagon and figure out how many people and supplies it would hold.
     b. Find out how covered wagons were built and how they work.
     c. Find out the positives and negatives of going west in a covered wagon.
     d. Figure out how much a covered wagon might cost and why it cost so much – for example, costs for materials, labor,
     and horses.
2.   Build or draw a model of a covered wagon used in pioneer days and a station wagon or van used today.
3.   Compare and contrast the two vehicles on at least the five categories listed in questions 1a – 1e.
4.   Be ready to share with the class what a covered wagon and a station wagon (or van) tell us about how
     we are like and different from the pioneers.
                        Analyzing a Readiness-Based Task


Wagoneer Group                      (work alone or in groups of 2, or 3)
Use books and records in the exploration center, plus encyclopedias and the CD-ROM to learn about
     leisure and recreation during pioneer times. Select at least four categories from this list or add
     categories of your own (with teacher approval): songs, games, dances, literature, gatherings,
     contests, crafts.
In each category you select, be ready to fully illustrate an example of “then” and a contrasting example
     from “now” to show the class how we are like and different from the pioneers in what we do for
     recreation (and why).




Adventure Group                     (work alone or in pairs)
Use books in the exploration center, the article in the Medicine West folder, encyclopedias, and the
    CD-ROM to find out what the medical problems were during the westward movement and what
    the practice of medicine was like. Figure out important questions to ask and answer in order to
    compare and contrast health problems and the practice of medicine then and now. Get your
    categories and questions approved by the teacher. Figure out a way to help the class see how we
    are like and different from the pioneers in health issues and the practice of medicine.
     USING A DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL
                             (Basic Version)



               Content                                      Response
•   Key phrases                             •   How to use ideas / information
•   Important words                         •   Why an idea is important
•   Main Ideas                              •   What a puzzling passage seems
                                                to mean
•   Puzzling passages                       •   Questions the student has
•   Summaries of passages                   •   What a key word means
•   Passages that seem powerful             •   Why something seems puzzling
•   Key parts of idea, chapter,             •   A prediction based on current
    approach …                                  information
•   Etc.                                    •   A reaction to a passage
                                            •   A personal experience that
                                                connects with a passage
                                            •   A comment on the author’s view,
                                                style, etc.
                            Tomlinson ‘99
                                            •   Etc.
                Using a Double Entry Journal
                   (ADVANCED VERSION)
        CONTENT          STUDENT RESPONSE                ANOTHER VOICE




                       • Why ideas are important
• Key passages         • How the author
• Organizing concept   developed his/her            • the teacher
• Key principles       argument, line of thought,   • the author
                       etc.
• Key patterns                                      • an expert in the field
                       • How parts and whole
                       relate                       • a character
                       • Assumptions of the         • someone with different
                       author                       perspectives
                       • Key questions including    • a satirist
                       those that probe for         • a political cartoonist
                       deeper understanding)        • etc.
                           Character Map
                 Character Name_____________________
What the character                                      What the character
says or does                                            really means to
_______________                                         says or do
_______________                                         _______________
_______________                                         _______________
_______________                                         _______________
_______________                                         _______________
_______________                                         _______________
_______________                                         _______________
_______________                                         _______________
_______________                                         _______________
                                                        _______________




  What the character would mostly want us to know about him or her
  ________________________________________________________
  ________________________________________________________
  ________________________________________________________
  ________________________________________________________           Tomlinson ‘00
                          Character Map
                Character Name_____________________
How the character                                     How the character
looks                                                 thinks or acts
_______________                                       _______________
_______________                                       _______________
_______________                                       _______________
_______________                                       _______________
_______________                                       _______________
_______________                                       _______________
_______________                                       _______________
_______________                                       _______________
_______________                                       _______________




  Most important thing to know about him or her
  ________________________________________________________
  ________________________________________________________
  ________________________________________________________
  ________________________________________________________      Tomlinson ‘00
                                Character Map
                      Character Name_____________________
Clues the author                                            Because the author
give us about the                                           wants us to
character                                                   understand

Example: Lisbeth has five                                   Example: Why Lisbeth
brothers                                                    knows how to stick up for
1______________                                             her ideas
2______________                                             1______________
3______________                                             2______________
4______________                                             3______________
5______________                                             4______________
                                                            5______________
                                                            6______________



  The author’s bottom line about this character is __________________
  ________________________________________________________
  ________________________________________________________
  ________________________________________________________
  ________________________________________________________                Tomlinson ‘00
Subject:              Science
                                 Tiered Activity
Concepts:      Density and Buoyancy
Introduction: All Students take part in an introductory
       discussion, read the chapter, and watch a lab
       activity on floating toys.

 Activities Common to All Three Groups
 • Explore the relationship between density
   and buoyancy
 • Determine density
 • Conduct an experiment
 • Write a lab report
 • Work at a high level of thinking
 • Share findings with the class
          The Soda Group
Given four cans of different kinds of soda,
 students determined whether each would
 float by measuring the density of each
 can.
 They completed a lab procedure form by
 stating the materials, procedures, and
 conclusions. In an analysis section, they
 included an explanation of why the cans
 floated and sank, and stated the
 relationship between density and
 buoyancy.
     The Brine and Egg Group
• Students developed a prescribed procedure for
  measuring salt, heating water, cooling the brine,
  determining the mass of water, determining the
  mass of an egg, recording all data in a data table,
  pouring the egg on the cool mixture, stirring the
  solution, and observing.
• They answered questions about their procedures
  and observations – as well as questions about why
  a person can float in water, whether it is easier to
  float in fresh or seawater, why a helium filled
  balloon floats in air, and the relationship between
  density and buoyancy.
                The Boat Group
• Students first wrote advice to college students building
  concrete boats to enter in a boat race.
• They then determined the density of a ball of clay, drew a
  boat design for a clay boat, noting its dimensions and its
  density.
• They used cylinders of aluminum, brass and steel as well as
  aluminum nails for cargo, and determined the maximum
  amount of cargo their boat could hold.
• They built and tested the boat and its projected load.
• They wrote a descriptive lab report to include explanations
  of why the clay ball sank, and the boat was able to float, the
  relationship between density and buoyancy, and how
  freighters made of steel can carry iron ore and other metal
  cargo.
      Secondary Tiered Assignment
Concept: Responsibility                                      Samples of Differentiation
Generalizations:
      We are responsible for ourselves.
                                                    •   Both teacher assigned and student
      We “write” our own lives.                         selected reading.
      We have responsibility for those we “tame.”   •   Both teacher assigned and student
      Our actions have a ripple effect.                 selected journal prompts.
      Responsibility may require sacrifice and
      may result in fulfillment.
                                                    •   Use of literature circles to discuss
      Our work bears our hallmark.                      books/readings assigned by readiness.
Skills:                                             •   Use of small group, teacher-led focus
      Argument and support                              groups on student-choice readings/
      Effective use of figurative language          •   Optional review groups on key
      Editing skills                                    vocabulary and skills.
      Literary analysis
Key Vocabulary:                                     •   In-common and “negotiated” criteria for
      Elements of literature                            key writing.
      Genre traits                                  •   Product options.
      Voice
Sample Literature:
                                                    •   Use of tape recordings, shared reading
      The Little Prince
                                                        on complex pieces.
      Anne Frank by Miep Gies                       •   Varied work groups.
      ‘Bloodstain’                                  •   Tiered lesson.
      “I Will Create’
      ‘To Be’ Soliloquy
      News Articles
Secondary Tiered Assignment
                                                          Group 2
                         Task
  •    Students will analyze parallel pieces of writing   Read pages from The Little Prince
       to explore the premise that we are
                                                          •    Find at least one piece of writing that shares the fox’s view on
       responsible for those we tame. Students will            responsibility for those we tame.
       frame an argument to support their position.
                                                          •    Find at least 2 contrasting pieces.
  Group 1                                                 •    Your selections must include at least 2 genre.
                                                          •    Develop notes on 2 views of responsibility with reasons and
  Read pages from The Little Prince                            illustrations from your selections.
  •    Complete an analysis matrix that specifies the     •    Be sure you are thoughtful about each view.
       fox’s feelings about responsibility toward         Then either:
       those we tame and why he believes what he          •    Write an editorial about the implications of the two approaches
       does.                                                   for our school.
  Read Bloodstain                                         •    Write an interior monologue of a teen at a point of decision
  •    Complete an analysis matrix on the beliefs of           about responsibility for someone he/she has tamed.
       the main character on the same topic.              •    Create a series of editorial cartoons that look at the ripple
                                                               effect of such decisions in history, science, and our
  •    Select a newspaper article from the folder.             community.
  •    Write a paragraph or two that compares
       beliefs of people in the article with the two
       characters.
  •    What advice would you give children about
       responsibility toward people we tame?
  •    Brainstorm on paper and then either:
  •    Write a letter to a child giving your advice.
  •    Write guidelines for adults who affect
       children’s lives.
  •    Draw and explain a blueprint for becoming a
       responsible person.
  •    Peer revise and then peer edit your work.                                                  Developed by Tomlinson, 98
A High School Tiered Lesson                            PHYSICS
As a result of the Lab, students should:
Know
    Key vocabulary (thrust, drag, lift, fluid, pressure, velocity, camber, airfoil, chord, trailing
    edge, leading edge)
Understand
Bernoulli’s Principle—As the velocity of a fluid increases, its pressure decreases. (Moving
   fluid creates an area of low pressure. Decrease in pressure on the top of the airfoil
   causes lift.)
Newton’s Third Law of Motion (For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction)
Aerodynamics is the study of forces acting on an object because air or another gas is
   moving.
Be Able to Do
Construct objects that project themselves through space in different ways as a
   demonstration of student knowledge of key information and understanding of key
   principles.
Great opportunity to make teams of theoretician/scholars and designer/builders


In the lab students make
 Paper Airplanes that fly for
                                     easiest
 Maximum Distance                                   Kites
 Maximum Hang Time                                  Diamondeasiest               Pinwheels
 Tricks                              Hardest
                                                    Box                          Forward Motion
                                                                                                  easiest
                                                               hardest
                                                    Triangle-Layered             Backward Motion
                                                                                 Upward Motion hardest
                           New World Explorers
Know:
 Names of New World Explorers
 Key Events of contribution
 Principle / Generalization
Understand:
 Exploration involves risk
 Exploration involves costs and benefits
 Exploration involves success and failure


Group A:
  Using a teacher provided list or resources and a list of product options,
show how two key explorers took chances, experienced success and
failure, and brought about both positive and negative change. Provide
proof/evidence.
Group B:
  Using reliable and defensible research, develop a way to show how the
New World explorers were paradoxes. Include and go beyond the unit’s
principles.
                Know: Use of past tense verbs (regular)
                Do: Sentence construction


Group A:
 Given English sentences, supply the correct German pronoun and regular
past tense verb, as well as other missing world.


Group B:
 Given an English scenario, write a German dialogue that uses correct
nouns, pronouns, present and past tense verbs, and other vocabulary as
necessary.


Group C:
  Develop a conversation that shows your fluency with German verbs, word
pronouns, and other vocabulary. Use “blip” sparingly, but when essential. Be
sure to incorporate idioms.
                         Tiered Lesson -- ART
Skill: Contour Drawing
1. Students with less refined eye-hand coordination
                 •    Complete a contour drawing of a hand, look at your
                     hand and the paper as you draw. Study lengths of finger
                     segments shapes of finger tips, widths of fingers as your
                     draw.
                 •    Draw a teacher selected object in your sketch book
                     looking at the paper and object as you do your drawing.
2. Students with somewhat more refined eye-hand coordination
• Complete a half-blind contour drawing of your hand.
   That means you can look at your hand and the paper but
   Cannot draw any time you look at the paper.
• Draw a teacher selected object in your sketchbook doing
  a half-blind contour drawing.
3. Students with excellent eye-hand coordination
• Do a blind contour drawing of your hand.
• Do a blind contour drawing of a teacher selected object in your
   sketchbook.
Novel Think Tac-Toe
Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to
help you and others think about your novel. Remember to make your work
thoughtful, original, rich with detail, and accurate.
    Create a pair of collages that            Write a bio-poem about yourself and      Write a recipe or set of directions for
    compares you and a character in the       another about a main character in the    how you would solve a problem and
    book. Compare and contrast physical       book so your readers see how you         another for how a main character in
    and personality traits. Label your        and the character are alike and          the book would solve a problem.
    collages so viewers understand your       different. Be sure to include the most   Your list should help us know you and
    thinking.                                 important traits in each poem.           the character.


    Draw/paint and write a greeting card      Make a model or a map of a key           Make 2 timelines. The first should
    that invites us into the scenery and      place in your life, and an important     illustrate and describe a least 6-8
    mood of an important part of the          one in the novel. Find a way to help     shifts in settings in the book. The
    book. Be sure the verse helps us          viewers understand both what the         second should explain and illustrate
    understand what is important in the       places are like and why they are         how the mood changes with the
    scene and why.                            important in your life and the           change in setting.
                                              characters’.
    Using books of proverbs and/on            Interview a key character from the       Find several songs you think reflect
    quotations, find at least 6-8 that you    book to find out what lessons he/she     an important message from the book.
    feel reflect what’s important about the   thinks we should learn from events in    Prepare an audio collage. Write an
    novel’s theme. Find at least 6-8 that     the book. Use a Parade magazine          exhibit card that helps your listener
    do the same for your life. Display        for material. Be sure the interview is   understand how you think these
    them and explain your choices.            thorough.                                songs express the book’s meaning.




      Novel Title: ____________________ Author:_______________________
      Activities Selected: _______, _____, _____
      Student: ______________________
Novel Think Tac-Toe
Directions: Select and complete one activity from each horizontal row to help
you and others think about your novel. Remember to make your work
thoughtful, original, rich with detail, and accurate.


  Write a bio-poem about yourself       A character in the book is being       You’re a “profiler.” Write and
  and another about a main character    written up in the paper 20 years       illustrate a full and useful profile of
  in the book so your readers see       after the novel ends. Write the        an interesting character from the
  how you and the character are alike   piece. Where has life taken            book with emphasis on personality
  and different. Be sure to include     him/her? Why? Now, do the same         traits and mode of operating. While
  the mm ost import traits in each      for yourself 20 years from now.        you’re at it, profile yourself, too.
  poem.                                 Make sure both pieces are
                                        interesting feature articles.
  Research a town/place you feel is     Make a model or a map of a key         The time and place in which people
  equivalent to the one in which the    place in your life, and an important   find themselves and when events
  novel is set. Use maps, sketches,     one in the novel. Find a way to        happen shape those people and
  population and other demographic      help viewers understand both what      events in important ways. Find a
  data to help you make comparisons     the places are like and why they       way to convincingly prove that idea
  and contrasts.                        are important in your life and the     using this book.
                                        characters’.
  Find out about famous people in       Create a multi-media presentation      Find several songs you think reflect
  history or current events whose       that fully explores a key theme from   an important message from the
  experiences and lives reflect the     the novel. Use at least 3 media (for   book. Prepare an audio collage.
  essential themes of this novel.       example, painting, music, poetry,      Write an exhibit card that helps
  Show us what you’ve learned.          photography, drama, sculpture,         your listener understand how you
                                        calligraphy, etc.) in your             think these songs express the
                                        exploration.                           book’s meaning.
     Novel Title: ____________________ Author:_______________________
     Activities Selected: _______, _____, _____
     Student: ______________________
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
   know about tiering an assignment or task
            Write as much as you can.


       Description of
      Description the           Steps in Developing It
       Strategy




                  Tiered assignments or tasks

     Useful For                        Place to Use It in the
                                       Curriculum




                                         Tomlinson - 02
                                                Developing a Tiered Activity
1
        Select the activity organizer                      2
        •concept                                               Think about your students/use assessments
                                   Essential to building
        •generalization              a framework of                                        skills
                                         understanding         • readiness range           reading
                                                                                           thinking
                                                               • interests                 information
                                                               • learning profile
              3                                                • talents

                  Create an activity that is
                  • interesting                            4
                  • high level                                                        High skill/
                  • causes students to use                  Chart the                 Complexity
                    key skill(s) to understand              complexity of
                    a key idea                              the activity
                                                                                      Low skill/
                                                                                      complexity

    5
            Clone the activity along the ladder as
        needed to ensure challenge and success
        for your students, in
        •    materials – basic to advanced                         6
        •    form of expression – from familiar to
                      unfamiliar                                       Match task to student based on
        •    from personal experience to removed
                      from personal experience
                                                                       student profile and task
        •   equalizer                                                  requirements
          Learning Centers by READINESS

In Mrs. Walker’s first grade class, students work with center work in language arts
for a period of time each morning. There are two “choice-boards” in the classrooms,
one called “Teacher Choice” and one called “Student Choice.” Each student has at
least two days a week of student choice selections and at least two teacher choice
selections. On days when Fred is assigned to Teacher Choice, Mrs. Walker will
select centers and materials at his level of language readiness and ensure that he
works at centers which include those materials. On his student choice days, Fred
may select from any of the 8-12 “pockets” on the student choice board. Those offer
a wide range of choices from listening to computer work to writing/drawing, to
model-making. All of the options encourage students to use language which they
find pleasurable. If Mrs. Walker elects to do so, she can guide even the student
choice work by color coding rows of pockets on the student choice chart, and for
example, telling Fred he may pick any choice from the red and yellow rows (but not
the blue row). Often she also “Staggers” center work so that some students work at
centers while others work with her in directed reading activities or individual
conferences, and others work with desk work on math or language.
                         Questioning


• In class discussion and on tests, teachers
  vary the sorts of questions posed to
  learners based on their readiness,
  interests, and learning styles.

                                            Strategy: Questioning
For more ideas on asking great questions,
  look in the Appendix of this handout.
As a result of this session:
 3 important things I’ve learned




 2 ideas or insights I would like to share with
      colleagues in my building




 1 action I will take immediately
             Who I Teach


• Student Readiness

• Student Interests

• Student Learning Profile
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
  appropriate
                                                                                                         appropriate
    goals                              Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                            goals


Content                            Process                              Product                             Environment



  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
         2 ways to think about
            student interest



  Teachers care         Dynamic teachers
    about their         try to create new
    students as          interests in their
 individuals and             students.
  try to identify            Teacher’s
student interests          passion may
   they bring to            spark new
       class                interest in
                             learners.
              Using Interest to Differentiate
                      (“The Hook”)

      Content
   Reading & Writing
     Nonfiction                            Process
– Key understanding for all                    Jigsaw
– Select reading materials
                                  – All explore board topic
and topics they care about
                                  – Students select a topic of
                                  interest
      Product                     – Divide in teams to specialize
                                  on one facet
– Varied ways of expressing
what they learn
– All products have
elements of understanding
& skill with student choice of
product
        Question to ponder…



• On what basis would we decide to
  differentiate a lesson by interest?
    Differentiated 7th Grade Social Studies Lesson by
                        INTEREST
Mrs. Schlim and her students were studying the Civil War. During the unit, they did many things – read and
    discussed the text, looked at many primary documents (including letters from soldiers), had guest
    speakers, visited a battlefield, etc.

As the unit began, Mrs. Schlim reminded her students that they would be looking for examples and principles
    related to culture, conflict, change and interdependence.

She asked her students to list topics they liked thinking and learning about in their own world. Among those
    listed were:

Music                              reading                            food                   books
Sports/recreation                  transportation                     travel                 mysteries
People                             heroes/villians                    humor                  cartoons
Families                           medicine                           clothing               teenagers

She then asked each student or pair of students to select a topic of real interest to them and explore it
    throughout the unit as a guided independent study. Their job was to see what their topic showed them
    about life in the Civil War in general – and about culture, conflict, change and interdependence during
    that time.

Students had as supports for their work:
•   A planning calendar and check in dates
•   criteria for quality
•   Options for expressing what they learned
•   Data gathering matrix (optional)
•   Class discussions on findings, progress, snags
•   Mini lessons on research (optional)
                 Independent Projects



Process through which student and teacher identify problems
or topics of interest to the student. Both student and teacher
    plan a method of investigating the problem or topic and
 identifying the type of project the student will develop. This
   project should address the problem and demonstrate the
student’s ability to apply skills and knowledge to the problem
                            or topic.


                                    Strategy: Independent Projects
Some ways I can respond to
   students’ interests…
             Who I Teach


• Student Readiness

• Student Interests

• Student Learning Profile
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
  appropriate
                                                                                                         appropriate
    goals                              Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                            goals


Content                            Process                              Product                             Environment



  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
                     Learning Profile Factors

 Group Orientation                            Learning Environment
                                    Gender
independent/self orientation                          quiet/noise
                                       &               warm/cool
   group/peer orientation
      adult orientation             Culture            still/mobile
        combination                                  flexible/fixed
                                                    “busy”/”spare”



           Cognitive Style                    Intelligence Preference
                                                         analytic
          Creative/conforming                            practical
              Essence/facts                              creative
          Expressive/controlled                      verbal/linguistic
             Nonlinear/linear                     logical/mathematical
           Inductive/deductive                        spatial/visual
 People-oriented/task or Object oriented            bodily/kinesthetic
            Concrete/abstract                       musical/rhythmic
        Collaboration/competition                     interpersonal
       Interpersonal/introspective                    intrapersonal
  Easily distracted/long Attention span                 naturalist
Group achievement/personal achievement                  existential
          Oral/visual/kinesthetic
        Reflective/action-oriented
              Intelligence Preference
Human brains are “wired” differently in different individuals.
Although all normally functioning people use all parts of their brains,
each of us is “wired” to be better in some areas than in others
(Gardner, Sternberg).


Differentiation based on a student’s intelligence preference
generally suggests allowing the student to work in a preferred mode
and helping the student to develop that capacity further.


Sometimes teachers also ask students to extend their preferred
modes of working, or they opt to use a student’s preferred areas to
support growth in less comfortable areas.
         EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING
TYPE               CHARACTERISTICS                LIKES TO               IS GOOD AT          LEARNS BEST BY
LINGUISTIC         Learns through the             Read                   Memorizing          Saying, hearing and
                   manipulation of words.                                names, places,      seeing words
LEARNER            Loves to read and write in
                                                  Write
“The Word                                         Tell stories           dates and trivia
                   order to explain themselves.
Player”            They also tend to enjoy
                   talking
LOGICAL/           Looks for patterns when        Do experiments         Math                Categorizing
                   solving problems. Creates a    Figure things out
Mathematical       set of standards and follows
                                                                         Reasoning           Classifying
Learner            them when researching in a     Work with numbers      Logic               Working with abstract
“The Questioner”   sequential manner.             Ask questions          Problem solving     patterns/relationships
                                                  Explore patterns and
                                                  relationships
SPATIAL            Learns through pictures,       Draw, build, design    Imagining things    Visualizing
LEARNER            charts, graphs, diagrams,      and create things      Sensing changes
                   and art.
                                                                                             Dreaming
“The Visualizer”                                  Daydream               Mazes/puzzles       Using the mind’s eye
                                                  Look at                Reading maps,       Working with
                                                  pictures/slides        charts              colors/pictures
                                                  Watch movies
                                                  Play with machines
MUSICAL            Learning is often easier for   Sing, hum tunes        Picking up sounds   Rhythm
LEARNER            these students when set to                            Remembering
                   music or rhythm
                                                  Listen to music                            Melody
“The Music                                        Play an instrument     melodies
                                                                                             Music
Lover”                                                                   Noticing pitches/
                                                  Respond to music
                                                                         rhythms
                                                                         Keeping time
                   EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING, Cont’d
TYPE                CHARACTERISTICS                LIKES TO            IS GOOD AT            LEARNS BEST BY
BODILY/             Eager to solve problems        Move around         Physical activities   Touching
                    physically. Often doesn’t                          (Sports/dance/        Moving
Kinesthetic         read directions but just
                                                   Touch and talk
Learner             starts on a project            Use body            acting)               Interacting with space
“The Mover”                                        language            crafts                Processing knowledge
                                                                                             through bodily
                                                                                             sensations
INTERpersonal       Likes group work and           Have lots of        Understanding         Sharing
                    working cooperatively to       friends             people                Comparing
Learner             solve problems. Has an
“The Socializer”                                   Talk to people      Leading others        Relating
                    interest in their community.
                                                   Join groups         Organizing            Cooperating
                                                                       Communicating         interviewing
                                                                       Manipulating
                                                                       Mediating conflicts
INTRApersonal       Enjoys the opportunity to      Work alone          Understanding self    Working along
                    reflect and work                                   Focusing inward on    Individualized projects
Learner             independently. Often quiet
                                                   Pursue own
“The Individual”                                                       feelings/dreams       Self-paced instruction
                    and would rather work on         interests
                    his/her own than in a                              Pursuing interests/   Having own space
                    group.                                               goals
                                                                       Being original
NATURALIST          Enjoys relating things to      Physically          Exploring natural     Doing observations
“The Nature         their environment. Have a      experience nature   phenomenon            Recording events in
Lover”              strong connection to
                                                   Do observations     Seeing connections    Nature
                    nature.
                                                   Responds to         Seeing patterns       Working in pairs
                                                   patterning nature   Reflective Thinking   Doing long term projects
   Sternberg’s Three Intelligences

                  Creative         Analytical


                          Practical



•We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually
stronger in one or two areas than in others.
•We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences
in students…
• …but also recognize where students’ strengths lie and teach
through those intelligences as often as possible, particularly
when introducing new ideas.
              STERNBERG’S INTELLIGENCES
  ANALYTICAL                  Linear – (Schoolhouse Smart) - Sequential

  PRACTICAL                   Street Smart – Contextual – Focus on Use

  CREATIVE                    Innovator – Outside the Box – What If Thinker

An idea for assessing students according to Sternberg’s intelligences
would be to five the following scenario:
Imagine you are driving with your parents and they are listening to the
radio. An interesting piece comes on about something you do not know. As
you listen, you get more and more interested. What do you want to know?
         Do you want to know all the little details that go into it?
         Do you want to know how it is being used?
         Do you want to know only enough information to think of other
                   things to do?
Students who choose the first question fall into the analytic intelligence, the
second corresponds to practical and those who choose the final question
are the creative learners.
   For ANALYTICAL Thinkers
Analytical = Linear – Schoolhouse Smart -- Sequential


•Show the parts of _____________ and how
     they work.
•Explain why _____________ works the way
     it does.
•Diagram how _________ affects ________.
•Identify the key parts of _______________.
•Present a step-by-step approach to _____.
                         I Like…
                                 • Appealing to logic
• Analyzing characters
                                 • Judging my & others’
  when I’m reading or              behavior
  listening to a story
                                 • Explaining difficult
• Comparing &                      problems to others
  contrasting points of          • Solving logical problems
  view                           • Making inferences &
• Criticizing my own &             deriving conclusions
  others’ work                   • Sorting & classifying
• Thinking clearly &             • Thinking about things
  analytically
• Evaluating my & others’
  points of view                    ANALYTICAL
  Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000
   For PRACTICAL Thinkers
Practical = Street Smart – Contextual – Focus on Use

•Demonstrate how someone uses ________
in their life or work.
•Show how we could apply ______ to solve
this real life problem: _________________.
•Based on your own experience, explain
how _________________ can be used.
•Here’s a problem at school, ________.
•Using your knowledge of       __________,
develop a plan to address the problem
                               I Like…
 • Taking things apart and          • Advising my friends on their
   fixing them                        problems
 • Learning through hands on        • Convincing someone to do
   activities                         something
 • Making and maintaining           • Learning by interacting with
   friends                            others
 • Understanding and                • Applying my knowledge
   respecting others                • Working and being with
 • Putting into practice things I     others
   learned                          • Adapting to new situations
 • Resolving conflicts


                                    PRACTICAL
Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000
                               I Like…
   • Designing new things         • Inventing (new recipes,
   • Coming up with ideas           words, games)
   • Using my imagination         • Supposing that things
   • Playing make-believe and       were different
     pretend games                • Thinking about what
   • Thinking of alternative        would have happened if
     solutions                      certain aspects of the
                                    world were different
   • Noticing things people
     usually tend to ignore       • Composing (new songs,
                                    melodies)
   • Thinking in pictures and
     images                       • Acting and role playing



Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000
                                  CREATIVE
      For CREATIVE Thinkers
      Creative = Innovator – Outside the Box –
               “What if?” – Improver

•Find a new way to show _____________.
•Use unusual materials to explain ___________.
•Use humor to show ____________________.
•Explain (show) a new and better way to ______.
•Make connections between _____ and _____ to
help us understand ____________.
•Become a _____________ and use your “new”
perspective to help us think about __________.
       Differentiation Using MI

1. Skills Standards:
  •   Identify how the theme of a work represents a view or comment
      on life.
  •   Express understanding of theme through a variety of products

2. Concept:
  •   Heroism

3. Generalizations:
  •   Individual values and community values are often in
      conflict
  •   Heroes often reflect the values of a community
  •   Heroes are born in conflict
                                                 Hertberg ‘03
       Lesson Sequence: MI
•   All students read
    “The Lottery” and “A&P”
•   All students engage in Socratic Seminar:
    Students investigate the lesson
    generalizations through the stories:
    Do these generalizations hold up?
•   Differentiated Activities according to
    intelligence preference (learning profile)

                                   Hertberg ‘03
       Differentiation With MI

•   Verbal:       Think about your definition of heroism.
    Create a short story in which the main character is forced
    into a heroic role for which he or she is not naturally
    suited.


•   Intrapersonal:            Create a grid with your
    characteristics of a hero in one column. Then write your
    qualities in the corresponding rows. Are you, by your
    own definition, a hero? Explore your heroic qualities. In
    what facets of life might you be a hero? Create a verbal
    means of expressing your heroism, creating a plan for
    how you might apply your heroic qualities to help others.

                                                        Hertberg ‘03
       Differentiated Activities: MI
•   Visual: Create a visual representation of your concept of
    a hero. Make sure to consider all of the generalizations we
    have discussed. In a page, discuss what you created and
    how it reflects your definition of heroism.



•   Musical:         Relate the concept of heroism to the
    principles of harmony in music theory. Express the
    relationship in either the lyrics of a song, the music of a
    song, or both. In a page, discuss what you created and how
    it reflects your definition of heroism.




                                                    Hertberg ’03
       The goal is to help
       individual learners
      understand modes of
learning that work best for them,
  and to offer those options so
    that each learner finds a
        good learning fit.
Learning Profiles
                          William Blake
                       English poet & artist

                          The Four Zoas


      Urizen                                        Urthona
(head and reasoning)                           (spirit and creative
                                                  imagination)




     Tharmas                                       Luvah

 (body and senses)                             (heart and love)
“Students taught in their preferred learning styles
   demonstrated higher levels of achievement,
   showed more interest in the subject matter,
     approved of instructional methods, and
  wanted other subject to be taught similarly.”




                            Bell, L. (1986). Learning styles in the middle school classroom:
                                        Why and how. Middle School Journal, 18(1), 18-19
      Student Traits

Affect has to do with how
students feel about
themselves, their work, and
the classroom as a whole.
Student affect is the gateway
to helping each student
become more fully engaged
and successful in learning.
             Tomlinson, 2003
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
  appropriate
                                                                                                         appropriate
    goals                              Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                            goals


Content                            Process                              Product                             Environment



  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
High quality ideas
•   Leading toward expertise
•   Necessitate thought and reflection

Essential information
•   Necessary for cultural literacy
•   Necessary to be conversant about the discipline

Critical skills
•   For production, transfer, expertise
•   To develop as a learner (self-awareness, attitude, habit, mind, choice)

Discipline-rich organization
•   For construction of meaning
•   For retention, retrieval, transfer

Purposeful
•   Purposes are made explicit
•   Unambiguously leads to specified goals
•   Student “gets” the purpose
•   Attaches to student’s life and the larger world
Invitational
• Important, illuminating, intriguing and challenging to the
  individual

Shared meaning-making through
  writing/talking/doing/producing
•   Student to self
•   Student to student
•   Teacher to student
•   Student to teacher

Teacher scaffolding growth
• In knowledge, understanding, skill
• For continual growth form individual starting point

For earned efficacy
• Confidence through power of knowledge, understanding, skill
• Confidence through successful struggle
             CONTENT



• Content…is about WHAT we want
  students to learn
High quality curriculum and instruction:
•   Is clearly focused on the essential understandings and skills of the discipline
    that a professional would value.
•   Is mentally and affectively engaging to the learner.
•   Is joyful – or at least satisfying.
•   Provides choices.
•   Is clear in expectations.
•   Allows meaningful collaboration.
•   Is focused on products (something students make or do) that matters to
    students
•   Connects with students’ lives and world.
•   Is fresh and surprising.,
•   Seems real (is real) to the student.
•   Is coherent (organized, unified, sensible) to the student.
•   Is rich, deals with profound ideas.
•   Stretches the student.
•   Calls on students to use what they learn in interesting and important ways.
•   Involves the student in setting goals for their learning and assessing
    progress toward those goals.
                                                                       Tomlinson ‘00
            PLANNING A FOCUSED CURRICULUM

Means Clarity About    What Students Should:


        Know                         Facts (Columbus came to the “New World” in 1492
                                     Vocabulary (voyage, scurvy)

                                     Concepts (Exploration, change)
        Understand                   Principles/Generalizations (change can be both
                                     positive and negative. Exploration results in change.
                                     People’s perspectives affect how they respond to
                                     change)

                                     Skills:
       Be able to do                 – Basic (literacy, numeracy)
                                     – Thinking (analysis, evidence of reasoning, questioning)
                                     – Of the Discipline (graphing/math/social studies)
 As a Result of a Lesson,
                                     – Planning (goal setting; use of time)
 Lesson Sequence, Unit and year
                                     – Social
                                     – Production


                                       * Exception ---linear skills and
                                       Information which can be
                                       Assessed for mastery in the
                                       Sequence (e.g., spelling}
          facts, vocabulary, dates, places,
These are the
names, and examples you want students to give
you.

The know is massively forgettable.


“Teaching facts in isolation is like trying to pump water
uphill.” Carol Tomlinson
Major Concepts and
Subconcepts
    These are the written statements of truth, the core to
    the meaning(s) of the lesson(s) or unit. These are what
    connect the parts of a subject to the student’s life and
    to other subjects.

    It is through the understanding component of
    instruction that we teach our students to truly grasp the
    “point” of the lesson or the experience.

    Understandings are purposeful. They focus on the key
    ideas that require students to understand information
    and make connections while evaluating the
    relationships that exit within the understandings.
Skills
         These are the basic skills of any discipline. They include the
         thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating, and synthesizing.
         These are the skills of planning, the skills of being an
         independent learner, the skills of setting and following criteria,
         the skills of using the tools of knowledge such as adding,
         dividing, understanding multiple perspectives, following a
         timeline, calculating latitude, or following the scientific method.

         The skill portion encourages the students to “think” like the
         professionals who use the knowledge and skill daily as a matter
         of how they do business. This is what it means to “be like” a
         doctor, a scientist, a writer or an artist.
                                  Examples of the Levels of Learning
  Levels of      Science              Literature                  History                    Music                   Math                    Art                 Reading
  Learning
Facts         Water boils at 212    Katherine Paterson      The Boston Tea Party        Strauss was the         Definition of         Monet was an           Definition of vowel
              degrees C             wrote Bridge to         helped to provoke the       Waltz King              numerator and         Impressionist          and consonant
              Humans are            Terbithia               American Revolution.        Definition of clef      denominator           Definition of
              mammals               Definition of plot      The fist 10                                                               primary colors
                                    and definition of       amendments to the U.S                               Definition of prime
                                    character               Constitution are called                             numbers
                                                            the Bill of Rights

Concepts      Inter-dependence      Voice                   Revolution                  Tempo                   Part and whole        Perspective            Main idea
              Classification        Heroes and              Power, authority and        Jazz                    Number systems        Negative space         Context
                                    antiheroes              governance

Principles    All life forms are    Authors use voices      Revolutions are first       The tempo of a          Wholes are made       Objects can be         Effective paragraphs
              part of a food        of characters as a      evolutions.                 piece of music          up of parts           viewed and             generally present
              chain.                way of sharing their    Liberty is constrained in   helps to set the        The parts of a        represented from a     and support a main
              Scientists classify   own voices              all societies.              mood.                   number system         variety of             idea
              animals according     Heroes are born of                                  Jazz is both            are interdependent    perspectives           Pictures and
              to patterns.          danger or                                           structured and                                Negative space         sentences often help
                                    uncertainty                                         improvisational                               helps spotlight        us figure out words
                                                                                                                                      essential elements     we don’t know.
                                                                                                                                      in a composition

Attitudes     Conservation          Reading poetry is       It’s important to study     Music helps me to       Math is too hard      I prefer Realism to    aI am a good reader.
              benefits our          boring                  history so we write the     express emotion         Math is a way of      Impressionism          It’s hard to ‘read
              ecosystem             Stories help me         next chapters more          I don’t care for jazz   talking about lots    Art helps me to see    between the lines’
              I am part of an       understand myself       wisely                                              of things in my       the world better
              important natural                             Sometimes I am willing                              world
              network                                       to give up some
                                                            freedom to protect the
                                                            welfare of others

Skills        Creating a plan for   Using metaphorical      Constructing and            Selecting apiece of     Expressing parts      Responding to a        Locating main idea
              an energy efficient   language to             supporting a position       music that conveys      and wholes in         painting with both     and supporting
              school                establish personal      on an issue                 a particular emotion    music and the         affective and          details in news
              Interpreting data     voice                   Drawing conclusions         Writing an original     stock market, with    cognitive              articles
              about costs and       Linking heroes and      based on analyses of        jazz composition        fractions and         awareness              Interpreting themes
              benefits of           anti-heroes in          sound resources                                     decimals              Presenting realistic   in stories
              recycling             literature with those                                                       Showing               and impressionistic
                                    of history and                                                              relationships         views of an object
                                    current life                                                                among elements
Creating                            THEORY                                           THEORY
Hypothesizing




Analysis                            Principle                                         Principle
Synthesis                         Generalization                                    Generalization




Analysis              CONCEPTS                    CONCEPTS                       CONCEPTS    CONCEPTS
Synthesis
            SKILLS         TOPIC                       TOPIC                      TOPIC        TOPIC

                      F F F F                       F F F F                      F F F F      F F F F
                      A A A A                       A A A A                      A A A A      A A A A
Knowledge             C C C C                       C C C C                      C C C C      C C C C
Comprehension         T T T T                       T T T T                      T T T T      T T T T
                      S S S S                       S S S S                      S S S S      S S S S

                     Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction by Lynn Erickson
Mortimer Adler’s List of the Most Important Concepts in Western Civilization
   1.    Angel                   37.   Idea                 73.    Punishment
   2.    Animal                  38.   Immortality          74.    Quality
   3.    Aristocracy             39.   Induction            75.    Quantity
   4.    Art                     40.   Infinity             76.    Reasoning
   5.    Astronomy               41.   Judgment             77.    Relation
   6.    Beauty                  42.   Justice              78.    Religion
   7.    Being                   43.   Labor                79.    Revolution
   8.    Cause                   44.   Language             80.    Rhetoric
   9.    Chance                  45.   Law                  81.    Same/Other
   10.   Change                  46.   Liberty              82.    Science
   11.   Citizen                 47.   Life and death       83.    Sense
   12.   Constitution            48.   Logic                84.    Sign/Symbol
   13.   Courage                 49.   Love                 85.    Sin
   14.   Custom and convention   50.   Man                  86.    Slavery
   15.   Definition              51.   Mathematics          87.    Soul
   16.   Democracy               52.   Matter               88.    Space
   17.   Desire                  53.   Mechanics            89.    State
   18.   Dialectic               54.   Medicine             90.    Temperance
   19.   Duty                    55.   Memory/Imagination   91.    Theology
   20.   Education               56.   Metaphysics          92.    Time
   21.   Element                 57.   Mind                 93.    Truth
   22.   Emotion                 58.   Monarchy             94.    Tyranny
   23.   Eternity                59.   Nature               95.    Universe
   24.   Evolution               60.   Necessity            96.    Virtue/Vice
   25.   Experience              61.   Oligarchy            97.    War & Peace
   26.   Family                  62.   One and Many         98.    Wealth
   27.   Fate                    63.   Opinion              99.    Will
   28.   Form                    64.   Opposition           100.   Wisdom
   29.   God                     65.   Philosophy           101.   World
   30.   Good and Evil           66.   Physics
   31.   Government              67.   Pleasure and Pain
   32.   Habit                   68.   Poetry
   33.   Happiness               69.   Principle
   34.   History                 70.   Progress
   35.   Honor                   71.   Prophecy
   36.   hypothesis              72.   Prudence
KNOW:
 Part / Whole
 Elements of a story
    •plot
    •setting
    •characters
    •conflict . . .

UNDERSTAND:
 Authors use tools to develop images
  and ideas.
 Careful use of seemingly unimportant
  details add up to big ideas

   DO:
    Analyze a story to see how parts unite
       to make greater wholes
                                         Tomlinson * 02
                             Differentiated Sequence
                             Grade 2: Science/Matter

   Students should - - -
Know:
 Definitions & properties of matter (color, shape, size): matter takes up space and
   mass
 3 states of matter (solid, liquid, gas)
 2 kinds of changes in matter (physical, chemical)

Understand:
 States of matter can be alike and different
 Atoms and molecules are basic building blocks of matter
 As the atoms and molecules change, the state of matter changes

Be able to Do:
 Conduct a simple experiment to demonstrate changes
 Compare
 Plan
 Make a clear presentation of scientific findings
 Evaluate success
KNOW (facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people, etc.)
                 ecosystem
                 elements of culture (housing/shelter, customs, values,
                                       geography)

UNDERSTAND (complete sentence, statement of truth or insight – want students
to understand that . . . )
                       All parts of an ecosystem affect all others parts. Culture
                       shapes people and people shape culture.

DO (Basic skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of the discipline, planning skills ---
           verbs)

                       Write a unified paragraph
                       Compare and contrast
                       Draw conclusions
                       Examine varied perspectives
                       Work collaboratively
                       Develop a timeline
                       Use maps as data
                                                                                Tomlinson * 02
                Lesson Plan
Know



Understand



Be Able to Do
           A CONCEPT MAY FOR EARTH SCIENCE

                                                                   What
                                                                  Are the
                                                                  Effects
                                                                    Of
                             CHANGE                              Change?




                            When
  How         Why          Does the
does the    does the                          GEOLOG    What
                            earth
 earth       earth         change?               Y     changes
change?     change?                                      the
                                                        earth?



                                       Our
OCEANOGRAPH                           World




                                                  PALENTOLOGY
                       FUNNELS
                           3rd Grade Unit on Apples
  For two weeks every fall, all the 3rd grade classes participate in a unit on apples.
The students engage in a variety of activities related to the topic. In language arts,
they read Johnny Appleseed and view an illustrated filmstrip of the story. They
write a creative story involving an apple and then illustrate their stories using tempra
paints. In art, students collect leaves from nearby crab apple trees and make a giant
leaf print collage on the hallway bulletin board adjacent to the 3rd grade classrooms.
The music teacher teaches the children songs about apples. In science, they use
their senses to carefully observe and describe the characteristics of different types of
apples. During mathematics, the teacher demonstrates how to “scale up” an
applesauce recipe to make a quantity sufficient for all the 3rd graders.
  A highlight of the unit is the field trip to a local apple orchard, where students watch
cider being made and go on a hayride. The culminating unit activity is the 3rd grade
apple fest, a celebration for which parent volunteers dress as apples and the
children rotate through various activities at stations – making applesauce, competing
in an apple “word search” contest, bobbing for apples, completing a math skill sheet
containing word problems involving apples, and so on. The fest concludes with
selected students reading stories while the entire group enjoys candy apples
prepared by the cafeteria staff.                                    Wiggins & McTighe, 1998, pp. 1-2
Four Steps to
MUCH better
 Curriculum
       Step One: Hook
How am I going to
make the task
appealing, inviting,
and intriguing to
my students?
    Step Two: Focus
Does the task
absolutely and with no
ambiguity call on
students to grapple
with one or more of
the key
understandings and
skills of the unit?
  Step Three: Ratchet
Is the task crafted at very
high levels of thought and
production for the students
who perform it? Are you
confident it will stretch them
in use of information,
critical and creative
thinking, reflection on their
thinking, skill and
accuracy,research, insight,
or other areas valuable in
this effort?
Step Four: Tighten
Are the directions
written in such a way
that the students
cannot take the “low
road” or the easy way
out with their work? Are
they written to direct
students to the “high
road” of the quest for
quality in work and
thought?
         What You Teach
• Curriculum gives students “legs”: the
  knowledge, understanding and skills
  they’ll use to move powerfully through
  life.
• Effective teachers learn how to plan
  to work backward (to pick up key
  pieces) and forward (to challenge and
  engage).
                  Think About
          Differentiating Content
                In Two Ways . . .



                                    adapt or
adapt what we                   modify how we
    teach
                                 give students
                                access to what
                                we want them
                                    to learn
                             to Differentiate Content
• Reading Partners / Reading Buddies
       •   Read/Summarize
       •   Read/Question/Answer
       •   Visual Organizer/Summarizer
       •   Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt
•   Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading
•   Flip Books
•   Split Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)
•   Books on Tape
•   Highlights on Tape
•   Digests/ “Cliff Notes”
•   Notetaking Organizers
•   Varied Texts
•   Varied Supplementary Materials
•   Highlighted Texts
•   Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview
                                                   Tomlinson – ‘00
      Differentiating Content
            based on…

• Readiness

• Interest

• Learning Profile
Questions?
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
  appropriate
                                                                                                         appropriate
    goals                              Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                            goals


Content                            Process                              Product                             Environment



  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
             Process



• Process is about HOW …

 HOW a student makes sense of the
 learning.
      To Differentiate PROCESS
Or   HOW a Student Makes Sense of the Learning

          • Cubing, Think Dots
          • RAFTs
          • Choices (Intelligences)
          • Centers
          • Tiered lessons
          • Contracts
          • Games
Cubing Activities
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you
        know about ________________
            Write as much as you can.


       Description of
      Description the    Steps in Developing It
       Strategy




     Useful For                 Place to Use It in the
                                Curriculum




                                  Tomlinson - 02
Cubing
 1.   Describe It
      Look at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses in mind).
 2.   Compare It
      What is it similar to? What is it different from?
 3.   Associate It
      What does it make you think of? What comes to your mind
      when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places? Things?
      Feelings? Let your mind go and see what feelings you have for
      the subject.
 4.   Analyze It
      Tell how it is made. If you can’t really know, use your
      imagination.
 5.   Apply It
      Tell what you can do with it. How can it be used?
 6.   Argue for It or Against It
      Take a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want—logical, silly,
      anywhere in between.
Example
Creating a Cubing Exercise                                                    Compare one of the
                                                                              story characters to
                                                                              yourself. How are
 •   Start by deciding which part of your unit                                you alike and how
                                                                              are you different?
     lends itself to optional activities. Decide         •   Third Step:
     which concepts in this unit can you create a             – Always remember to have an easy problem on
     cube for. Is it possible for you to make 3                   each cube and a hard one regardless the
     cubes for 3 different interests, levels, or                  levels.
     topics?                                                  – Color code the cubes for easy identification
 •   First Step: (use one of the cubes)                           and also if students change cubes for
       – Write 6 questions that ask for information               questions.
          on the selected unit.                               – Decide on the rules: Will the students be
       – Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence                 asked to do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4
          levels, or any of the cubing statements to              sides? Do any two questions on each of the 3
                                                                  cubes?
          design questions.
       – Make questions that use these levels that
          probe the specifics of your unit.                   Places to get questions:
       – Keep one question opinion based-no right
          or wrong.                                              Old quizzes, worksheets,
 •   Second Step: (use other cubes)                              textbook-study problems,
       – Use the first cube as your “average” cube,              students generated.
          create 2 more using one as a lower level
          and one as a higher level.
       – Remember all cubes need to cover the
          same type of questions, just geared to the
          level, don’t water down or make too busy!
       – Label your cubes so you know which level
          of readiness you are addressing.
       – Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they
          can tell high, medium, or low. If they can’t
          tell, adjust slightly.
    Ideas for Kinesthetic Cube

•   Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to show_________
•   Make a body sculpture to show__________________
•   Create a dance to show_______________________
•   Do a mime to help us understand_________________
•   Present an interior monologue with dramatic movement
    that________________________
•   Build/construct a representation of________________
•   Make a living mobile that shows and balances the
    elements of __________________
•   Create authentic sound effects to accompany a reading of
    ________________
•   Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm
    pattern you create. Explain to us how that works.
    Ideas for Cubing in Math…
•    Describe        how you would solve_____________
•    Analyze         how this problem helps us use
       mathematical thinking and problem solving.
•    Compare         this problem to one on p._____
•    Contrast        it too.
•    Demonstrate how a professional (or just a regular
       person) could apply this kind of problem to their work
       or life.
•    Change          one or more numbers (elements, signs) in
       the problem. Give a rule for what that change does.
•    Create          an interesting and challenging word
       problem from the number problem. (Show us how to
       solve it too)
•    Diagram or Illustrate the solution to the problem.
       Interpret the visual so we understand.
                              Cubing Fractions

Each student at a table rolls two dice a designated number of times. The 1st dice/cube
 tells students what to do with a fraction.

          Order/compare all the fractions from the smallest number to the largest.

          Add 2 rolled fractions together.

          Subtract 2 rolled fractions.

          Divide 2 rolled fractions.

          Multiply 2 rolled fractions.

          Model 2 rolled fractions using circles or bars of paper.


•The 2nd cube/dice contains the fraction which can vary in complexity based on student
number readiness.



                                  Lynne Beauprey, Illinois
                                   USE OF
      INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
     The following findings related to instructional strategies are supported by the
                                   existing research:

• Techniques and instructional strategies have nearly as much influence on
student learning as student aptitude.

• Lecturing is an effort to quickly cover the material: however, it often overloads and over-
whelms students with data, making it likely that they will confuse the facts presented


• Hands-on learning, especially in science, has a positive effect on student
achievement.


• Teachers who use hands-on learning strategies have students who out-perform
their peers on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in the areas of science and
mathematics.


• Students have higher achievement rates when the focus of instruction is on
meaningful conceptualization, especially when it emphasizes their own
knowledge of the world.
       Thinking About the Role of Instructional Strategies in Differentiation

   Strategy for     Primarily Used to                 Positives                                   Cautions
  Differentiation     Differentiate

Tiered              Readiness            Meat & Potatoes differentiation         Must use as only part of a flexible
Assignments                                                                      grouping pattern

Tiered Products     Readiness,           Can be passion-producing                Must provide coaching for quality
                    Interest, Learning
                    Profile
Learning            Readiness            Encourage student autonomy              Be sure to blend skill and content
Contracts

Drill-Focused       Low End              Deals with coverage and mastery         May aggravate have/have not status
Cooperative         Readiness            issues
Tasks

Thought/Producti    Interest, Learning   Involves all students with high level   Be sure tasks call for varied intellectual
on Focused          Profile              tasks                                   skills
Cooperative
Tasks
Alternative         Readiness,           More of a real-world way of             Be sure assessment focus on essential
Assessments         Learning Profile     measuring student learning              understandings and skills

Graduated           Readiness            Clear coaching for quality and          Take care to stress ideas and process
Rubrics                                  success                                 more than mechanics

Choice Boards       Readiness,           Balances teacher choice and             Teacher choice should target readiness
                    Interest             student choice

Learning Centers    Readiness            Can target varied skills levels in a    Don’t send all students to all centers
                                         class
Thinking About the Role of Instructional Strategies in Differentiation, cont’d
   Strategy for       Primarily Used                   Positives                                 Cautions
  Differentiation     to Differentiate
Interest Centers     Interest             Can link classroom topics to areas     Be sure centers provide depth or breadth
                                          of student talent and interest         (vs cute)


Enrichment           Interest, Learning   Stresses student choice and            Lose their punch without teachers skilled
clusters             profiles             students as producers of useful        in the cluster domain
                                          products

Compacting           High End             Can reduce unnecessary                 Loses its punch unless Column 3 is rich
                     Readiness            redundancy for advanced or eager       and challenging
                                          learners

Peer Tutoring        Low End              Gives struggling learners additional   Can over-use high end learner in teacher
                     Readiness            explanation opportunities              role and may short change struggling
                                                                                 learner if tutor is weak

Multi Ability        Interest, Learning   Encourages teachers to be flexible     Can easily become just a learning style
Options (MI,         Profile              in planning routes to learning         vs. intelligence approach
Triarchic Theory)

4-MAT                Learning Profile     Helps teachers be more conscious       Can become formula-like – does not
                                          of student learning style/mode         address readiness


Independent          Interest             Encourages student autonomy in         Students need an amount of
Study                                     planning and problem-solving           independence suited to their readiness for
                                                                                 it

Small Group          Readiness            Cuts down size of class and            Students not being taught must be well
Direct Instruction                        increases student participation        anchored
An Activity Is:

1. Something students will make or do.




                    2. Using an essential skill(s) and
                       essential information.


            3. In order to understand an essential principle(s)
               or answer an essential question(s).
A Differentiated Activity Is:

1. Something students will make or
   do in a range of modes at varied
   degrees of sophistication with
   varied amounts of scaffolding in
   varying time spans.

                      2. Using an essential skill(s) and
                         essential information.

           3. In order to understand an essential principle(s)
              or answer an essential question(s).
                                  RESPECTFUL TASKS
         Respectful tasks recognize student learning differences. The teacher continually tries
 to understand what individual students need to learn most effectively. A respectful task honors both
     the commonalities and differences of students, but not by treating them all alike. A respectful
  task offers all students the opportunity to explore essential understandings and skills at degrees of
            difficulty that escalate consistently As they develop their understanding and skill.

A Respectful task is . . .

 Engaging
     Engages students in current topics and thoughtful activities
 Worthwhile
   models good instruction
 Rigorous
   challenges students to show their best work
 Authentic
   addresses real and important issues and curricular elements
 Accessible
   taps a range of thinking strategies and allows students to communicate in a variety of
  ways
 Scorable
   has proposed rubrics and can be reliably scored
 Clear
   states expectations clearly – student and teacher instructions are easy to understand

                                                                                       Tomlinson/Wiggins
                                        Partial Lesson Sequence
                                             Grade 2: Matter
                     Whole Class                                                Differentiated
               Explore concept of matter
    Talk about experiment procedures and Rock Slide
                      experiment
  Do Rock Slide science story to describe properties of
                matter in small groups
 Read “Trip to Matterdome” and discuss states of matter
  Review experiment procedures and comparison chart
 Conduct experiment on states of matter in small groups
   Share ideas and generate questions about states of
                        matter
  Review experiment procedures and change in matter
  Observe teacher-led experiment on changes in matter
Share ideas/generate questions about properties of matter
                                                            Students apply key ideas by selecting one activity from
                                                                           each row of Tic-Tac-Toe
      Introduce skills needed to make presentations
                                                              Students chose an interest area to apply to extend
                                                                        understandings about matter
              Listen to one another’s plans
                    Teacher Checklist for Group Work
 Students understand the task goals.
 Students understand what’s expected of individuals to make the group work well.
 The task matches the goals (leads students to what they should know, understand, and
         be able to do)
 Most kids should find the task interacting.
 The task requires in important contribution from each group member based on his/her
         skills and/or interests.
 The task is likely to be demanding of the group and its members.
 The task requires genuine collaboration to achieve shared understanding.
 Timelines are brisk (but not rigid).
 Individuals are accountable for their own understanding of all facets of the task.
 There’s a “way out” for students who are not succeeding with the group.
 There is opportunity for teacher or peer coaching and in-process quality checks.
 Students understand what to do next after they complete their work at a high level of
         quality.
           Working Conditions for Alternate Activities
If you are working on alternate activities while others in the class are busy with more teacher-
     directed activities, you are expected to follow these guidelines:
1. Stay on task at all times with the alternate activities you have chosen.
2. Don’t talk to the teacher while he or she is teaching.
3. When you need help, and the teacher is busy, ask someone else who is also working on
     the alternative activities.
4. If no one else can help you, continue to try the activity until the teacher is available, or
     move on to another activity until the teacher is free.
5. Use “6-inch voices” when talking to each other about the alternative activities. (These are
     voices that can be heard no more than 6 inches away.)
6. Never brag about your opportunities to work on the alternative activities.
7. If you must go in and out of the room, do so soundlessly.
8. If you are going to work in another location, stay on task there, and follow the directions of
     the adult in charge.
9. Don’t bother anyone else.
10. Don’t call attention to yourself.

I agree to the conditions described above, and know that if I don’t follow them, I may lose the
     opportunity to continue with the alternate activities and may have to rejoin the class for
     teacher-directed instruction.

                 ___________________ __________________
                     Teacher’s signature Student’s signature                ( Winebrenner ’97)
     Some Options for Responsive Teaching:
            HOW We Might Teach
Work Walls              Echo Reading
Think Alouds            Recorded Text
Word Maps               Digests
Think-Pair-Share        Concept Maps
Three Minute Pause      Interest Groups
Highlighted Texts       Personalized Rubrics
Mini Workshops          Cubing
Reading Buddies         Think Tac Toe
Tiered Homework         Think Dots
Learning Contacts       Timelines Story Boards
Graphic Organizer       Group Investigation
Learning Menus          I-Search
Learning Tickets        Design-A-Day
Personal Agendas        Book Boxes
Tiered Activities       Modeling
Multiple Texts          Think Tanks
Oral Tests              Thinking Around the Block
     Some Options for Responsive Teaching:
        HOW We Might Teach, cont’d
Multiple Modes of Presentation     Complex Instruction
Whole to Part / Part to Whole      Small Group Instruction
Solo / Collaborate Options         Intelligence options
Teacher Choice / Student Choice    New American Lecture
Student – Specific Illustrations
Flexible Use of Materials
Negotiated Criteria
Alternate Assessments
Group investigation
Personalized Spelling
Independent Study
Mode of Expression Options
Reciprocal Teaching
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
  appropriate
                                                                                                         appropriate
    goals                              Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                            goals


Content                            Process                              Product                             Environment



  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
             Product


What a student makes or does that shows
        the teacher he/she has the
 knowledge, understanding and skills
            that were taught.
   A student who UNDERSTANDS something can …
  •    Explain it clearly, giving examples.
  •    Use it.
  •    Compare and contrast it with other concepts.
  •    Relate it to other instances in the subject studies, other subjects and
       personal life experiences.
  •    Transfer it to unfamiliar settings.
  •    Discover the concept embedded within a novel problem.
  •    Combine it appropriately with other understandings.
  •    Pose new problems that exemplify or embody the concept.
  •    Create analogies, models, metaphors, symbols, or pictures of the
       concept.
  •    Pose and answer “what-if” questions that alter variables in a
       problematic situation.
  •    Generate questions and hypotheses that lead to new knowledge
       and further inquiries.
  •    Generalize from specifics to form a concept.
  •    Use the knowledge to appropriate assess his or her performance, or
       that of someone else.
Adapted from Barell, J. (1995) Teaching for Thoughtfulness: Classroom Strategies to Enhance Intellectual Development
      Differentiating Products
             based on…
• Readiness

• Interest

• Learning Profile
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
   quality
                                                                                                           building
  curriculum                           Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                          community

                                                                                                              Affect/
Content                            Process                              Product
                                                                                                            Environment


  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
        Differentiated Products

♦ Tiered products
♦ Student choice of mode of demonstrating
  learning
♦ Interest-based investigations
♦ Independent study
♦ Varied rubrics
♦ Criteria for success generated by or for
  individuals
♦ Mentorships
Creating a Powerful Product Assignment
1.   Identify the essentials of the unit/study
     What students must:
         •    Know (facts)
         •    Understand (concepts, generalizations)
         •    Be able to do (skills)
     As a result of the unit/study
2.   Identify one of more format or “packaging options” for the product:
         •    Required (e.g. poetry, an experiment, graphing, charting)
         •    Hook
         •    Exploratory
         •    Talent/passion driven
3.   Determine expectations for quality in:
         •    Content (information, ideas, concepts, research materials)
         •    Process (planning, goal-setting, defense of viewpoint, research,
              editing)
         •    Product (size, construction, durability, expert-level expectations,
              part
             Creating a Powerful Product Assignment, cont’d
4.   Decide on scaffolding you may need to build in order to promote
     success:
       •   Brainstorming for ideas
       •   Developing rubrics/criteria for success
       •   Timelines
       •   Planning/goal-setting
       •   Storyboarding
       •   Critiquing
       •   Revising-editing
5.   Develop a product assignment that clearly says to the student:
       •   You should show you understand and can do these things
       •   Proceeding through these steps/stages
       •   In this format
       •   At this level of quality
6.   Differentiate or modify versions of the assignments based on:
       •   Student readiness
       •   Student interest
       •   Students learning profile
7.   Coach for success!

                  It is your job, as teacher, to make explicit
                      That which you thought was implicit
          Sample Criteria for
        Developing Project Rigor
From the Teacher                                           From the Child:
           Your Project Must Show:                         I want my project also to be assessed based on:
1.  An in-depth understanding of information and ideas     1.  My use of figurative language.
    involved in your topic.
                                                           2.  My depth of knowledge about ____.
2. Use of at least ____ primary resources.
3. Use of at least ____ secondary resources.               3.  My use of art skill in drawing my political cartoons.
4. Your ability to blend or synthesize information from    4.  My organizational and planning skills in executing
    several sources.                                           the project.
5. Answer or illuminate at least 2 key questions which     5. The breadth of reading I’ve done.
    are important to your topic (and which are spelled     6. The quality of the solution I propose to the problem
    out in your project introduction)                          my project addresses
6. A concept map (or web) in the introduction which
                                                           7. The originality of the idea for my project
    gives an accurate framework of your topic/field.
7. Your ability to apply relevant information              8. The way I blend together ideas from English and
    appropriately in solving/addressing a problem.             history in my project.
8. Your use of information.                                9. The way I’ve used art materials to make my point.
9. Your skill in elaboration as you use a broad array of   10. The quality of the interview I conducted and the way
    ideas, insights, and information to add breadth to         I used its information in my project.
    your topic.
10. That you understand and apply professional-like
    skills in your chosen mode of expression
    (photographer, videographer, artist, playright,
    journalist, essayist, etc.
  Challenging Our Assumptions About Assessment
Is assessment about sorting students into those who can
   and those who can’t?

      - - - or is it about diagnosing where each student is
  so that teacher and student can together set goals and
  identify learning experiences to lead to those goals?

Is assessment a series of marks that, even though not
   equivalent in size and scope, get averaged into a “final
   grade?”

      - - - or is it the development of a rich and full picture
  of the learner’s growth over time, with a cumulative
  sense of what she can do with what she knows?
     A differentiated classroom
       Should support, and is
     Supported by, an evolving
       Community of learners

What that means is . . .

  The teacher leads his students in
        developing the sorts of
   attitudes, beliefs, and practices
       that would characterize a
      really good neighborhood.
 Two Views of Assessment --

Assessment is for:   Assessment is for:
 Gatekeeping         Nurturing
 Judging             Guiding
 Right Answers       Self-Reflection
 Control             Information
 Comparison to       Comparison to
  others               task
 Use with single     Use over multiple
  activities           activities
WHAT IS A GRADE?
“ . . . a grade (is) . . . An inadequate report
of an imprecise judgment
of a biased and variable judge
of the extent to which
a student has attained
an undefined level of mastery
of an unknown proportion
of an indefinite amount
of materials”

                                        Paul Dressell, Michigan State University
                 Grading Practices
 The following questions help ensure that grading practices are
                   productive for all students.



How do learners benefit from a grading
 system that reminds everyone that
 students who speak English as a second
 language do not perform as well as
 students without disabilities or for whom
 English is not their native tongue?
               Grading Practices

What do we gain by telling our most able
 learners that they are “excellent” on the basis of
 a standard that requires modest effort, calls for
 no intellectual risk, necessitates no persistence,
 and demands that they develop few academic
 coping skills?
In what ways do our current grading practices
 motivate struggling or advanced learners to
 persist in the face of difficulty?
             Grading Practices


Is there an opportunity for struggling
 learners to encounter excellence in our
 current grading practices?

Is there an opportunity for advanced
 learners to encounter struggle in our
 current grading practices?

                              -- Carol Ann Tomlinson
   WHAT are grades for?

–Administration purposes?
–Feedback about student
 achievement?
–Guidance?
–Instructional Planning?
–Motivation?
    A = Excellent Growth
    B = Very Good Growth
    C = Some Growth
    D = Little Growth                            A = Excellent
    F – No observable growth                     B = Very Good
    1 = Above grade level                        C = Average
    2 = At grade level                           D = Poor
    3 = Below grade level                        F – Unsatisfactory
                                                 1 = Above grade level
                                                 2 = At grade level
                                                 3 = Below grade level

A-1 = Excellent performance; working above grade level
A-2 = Excellent performance; working at grade level
A-3 = Excellent performance; working below grade level

Personal grade & Traditional grade:
        B = Personal grade
                                          Grades are supposed to:
        D = Traditional grade
                                           1. Motivate students
                                           2. Report accurately to parents
        C = Personal grade
        A = Traditional grade
 At its most basic level,
differentiating instruction
means “shaking up” what
goes on in the classroom
   so that students have
    multiple options for
   taking in information,
 making sense of ideas,
      and expressing
      what they learn.
The Business of Schools Is to produce work that engages students, that is so
compelling that students persist when they experience difficulties, and that is
so challenging that students have a sense of accomplishment, of
satisfaction—indeed, of delight—when they successfully accomplish the tasks
assigned.
                     Inventing Better Schools * Schlechty
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
  appropriate
                                                                                                         appropriate
    goals                              Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                            goals


Content                            Process                              Product                             Environment



  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
Where You Teach

 Effective teachers understand that the
 learning environment they create in
 their classrooms may be the single
 most important make-or-break
 element in helping students become
 the best they can be. This is a matter
 of the heart.
  Tomlinson, 2003, p. 5
The Classroom Environment
               Where You Teach


It is not likely that diverse learners
will each find the classroom
inviting if there is only one set of
benchmarks for success, an
inflexible curriculum, or a single
timeline for growth.

                        Tomlinson, 2003, p. 6
Painting a Portrait of the
Differentiated Classroom
   A Differentiated Classroom in Balance



            F
            L
            E                                                          Shared
                                                                                             Shared
                                                                                             Vision
            X                                                           goals

            I                        Inviting
                                                       Focused
                                                                               Shared
                                                                            responsibility
            B             Concept-
                           based
                                           Product
            L                              Oriented
            E                                            Sense
                          Resource                        Of                             On-going                Feedback
Time                                                   Community                       assessment                   and
                 Groups                                                                to determine               grading
                                                                                           need
                                                                                                       ZPD
       Approaches                                                          Concern                    Target
                                                Self
       to teaching                                       Respect for         For
       and learning                                       individual        Group
                                                                                                           Tomlinson-oo
                                                    FLEXIBLE GROUPING
                Students are part of many different groups – and also work alone – based on the
             match of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning style. Teachers may create
                 skills-based or interest-based groups that are heterogeneous or homogeneous
             in readiness level. Sometimes students select work groups, and sometimes teachers
          select them. Sometimes student group assignments are purposeful and sometimes random.



            1                            3                           5                                 7                                9
  Teacher and whole            Students and teacher            The whole class                  The whole class is         The whole class listens to
class begin exploration       come together to share        reviews key ideas and              introduced to a skill       individual study plans and
 of a topic or concept         information and pose           extends their study             needed later to make            establishes baseline
                                     questions                 through sharing                    a presentation               criteria for success




           Students engage in further       Students work on varied           In small groups selected by      Students self-select interest
          study using varied materials     assigned tasks designed to           students, they apply key       areas through which they will
            based on readiness and        help them make sense of key         principles to solve teacher-        apply and extend their
                 learning style              ideas at varied levels of        generated problems related              understandings
                                          complexity and varied pacing                to their study


                          2                             4                                 6                                8
                    A differentiated classroom is marked by a repeated rhythm of whole-class preparation, review, and sharing, followed by
                                  opportunity for individual or small-group exploration, sense-making, extension, and production
            Principles of Differentiated Instruction
    Analyze the scenario you’ve read or the lesson samples in the video segment to identify specific examples of how
    these principles were applied. List them in the Evidence of Use column next to the appropriate principle. Then write
    any suggestions for improving the practice or action from the scenario or video in the Suggestions for Use and
    Improvement column.

                  Principle                                  Evidence of Use                    Suggestions for use
                                                                                                 and improvement
1. Learning experiences are based on student
readiness, interest, or learning profile.
2. Assessment of student needs is ongoing,
and tasks are adjusted based on assessment
data.
3. All students participate in respectful work.

4. The teacher is primarily a coordinator of
time, space, and activities rather than primarily
a provider of information.
5. Students work in a variety of group
configurations. Flexible grouping is evident.
6. Time use is flexible in response to student
needs.
7. The teacher uses a variety of instructional
strategies to help target instruction to student
needs.
8. Clearly established criteria are used to help
support student success.
9. Student strengths are emphasized.
                    Differentiated Instruction in Action
Scenario #1
 For several days in Mrs. Jacobsen’s sixth grade science class, students have been
   investigating the impact of simple machines on modern technology and our current lifestyles.
   The study is part of an on-going attempt to help students make connections between science
   and daily life. Students have been assigned to one of two “task force” groups by Mrs. Jacobsen
   based on her on-going assessment of their readiness levels, interests, and learning profiles.
   Task Force #1 will work in smaller groups of three or four students (self-selected). They are
   looking at simple machines at work in more complex ways in the school. They will complete a
   photo safari (using a Polaroid) of places in which they hypothesize one or more simple machines
   are “disguised” as part of something more complex, complete photo layouts naming their found
   objects and stated hypotheses of which simple machines are involved and why they think so,
   and search out evidence which supports or refutes their hypotheses (including classroom &
   library reference books and designated school staff). Students must then add a “tested
   hypothesis” statement in which they note whether their original hypotheses was accurate and
   why or why not. Students in Task Force #2 must understand it in some detail, and develop a
   device for addressing the problem. The device must contain at least three simple machines
   working in concert with one another (and other elements). They must make a written or graphic
   design of their device, carefully delineating its parts and how they work together as a whole.
   They may then make a working model, non-working but accurate and proportional model, model
   in which humans take on the roles of the parts of the device and demonstrate how it works, or
   another student-proposed demonstration
            Differentiated Instruction in Action
Scenario #2
 In Mrs. Walker’s first grade class, students work with center work in language arts for
   a period of time each morning. There are two “choice boards” in the classroom – one
   called “Teacher Choice” and one called “Student Choice”. Each student has at least
   two days a week of student choice selections and at least two of teacher choice
   selections. On days when Fred is assigned to Teacher Choice, Mrs. Walker will
   select centers and materials at his level of language readiness and ensure that he
   works at centers which include those materials. On his student choice days, Fred
   may select from any of 8-12 “pockets” on the student choice board. These offer a
   wide range of choices from listening to computer work to writing/drawing to model-
   making. All of the options encourage students to use language in ways which they
   find pleasurable. If Mrs. Walker elects to do so, she can guide even the student
   choice work by color coding rows of pockets on the student choice chart, and for
   example, telling Fred he may pick any choice from red and yellow rows (but not blue
   row). Often she also “staggers” center work so that some students work at centers
   while others work with her in directed reading activities or individual conferences, and
   others work with her in directed reading activities or individual conferences, and
   others work with desk work on math or language.
            Differentiated Instruction in Action
Scenario #3
 In eighth grade math, Miss Harrington has a wide range of students in her
   class – even though all are in Algebra 1. Sometimes, she does board
   demonstrations for the class on new concepts or topics which students seem
   to have difficulty grasping. She makes an effort to use no more than 15-20
   minutes for the demonstrations. She then has students work in a variety of
   groups. Sometimes she assigns students to mixed-readiness pairs or quads for
   peer tutoring. Sometimes she does direct instruction with a number of
   students, while others work independently on assigned problems or their long-
   term independent study projects throughout much of the year. They vary in
   complexity, duration and the amount of structure provided by the teacher, but
   all of the projects require that students grapple with math at work in the world,
   and expand their skills of independence. All allow a range of options through
   which students can study and express their understandings. For students
   advanced in a particular segment of algebra, independent projects often serve
   as a sort of compacting, allowing these students to work on their personal
   investigations in lieu of homework and/or classwork on which they have
   already shown mastery.
            Differentiated Instruction in Action
Scenario #4
 Mr. Greene has a music class in which fifth and sixth graders learn to play
   the recorder and ultimately play for a variety of school and community events.
   Some of his students have no experience with music, some played with the
   recorder group last year but have no other musical experience, and some are
   quite talented with musical instruments beyond the recorder. He often arranges
   music so that the score contains some basic parts which allow students to play
   while they explore key concepts related to rhythm, melody, etc. on a foundation
   level. He takes care to have other parts which require more complex fingering,
   reading and rhythm. In addition, he adds brief solo parts which can be taken on
   by individuals especially talented in music. He says he can begin a class with
   all students reading a piece together, break up the whole group so that he
   works first with the more basic group, the intermediate group, and the
   advanced group separately, and finally bring everyone back together again. He
   likes the fact that everyone plays real music, everyone makes a contribution,
   and everyone is challenged at an appropriate level of readiness. In addition,
   he likes the fact that often a student who begins at a novice level will
   demonstrate considerable facility with reading and playing music fairly quickly
   and can move to more complex music easily and quickly enough to keep them
   interested.
             Differentiated Instruction in Action
Scenario #5
 Miss Justin works with her English 7 students in a variety of ways to tap into
   their interests, readiness levels and learning profiles. Based on pretesting, she
   assigns students to different vocabulary studies, super sentences and spelling
   lists. In writing, students often select topics of interest to them for particular
   writing assignments. For each writing form (e.g. essay, letter to the editor, etc.)
   there are certain “criteria for success” required of all students. In addition,
   students learn to pinpoint personal goals and base student-generated criteria
   upon those goals – and Miss Justin generally adds a couple of criteria to each
   student’s general and personal list for major assignments. In literature,
   students often select novels, dramas or short stories of interest to them to
   accompany whole-class pieces – thus enabling common focus with
   personalized “side explorations.” Further, products can often be produced
   alone or in student-selected groups of specified size and offer options for
   expression of student learning, as well as guidance for how to ensure top
   quality production. Miss Justin finds Group Investigation appropriate for high
   level study of student-generated topics, and Teams, Games & Tournaments to
   be useful for study of vocabulary, basic literature information, grammar
   constructs and other straightforward data requiring student mastery.
             Differentiated Instruction in Action
Scenario #6
 Mr. Phillips has three strategies which he is particularly comfortable using in high school
  biology to address the academic diversity in his mixed-ability classroom. He routinely
  uses the New American Lecture format (incorporating focused review, discussion, and
  graphic organizers) to ensure that all students are prompted in regard to the key content
  of his lectures. He also routinely uses a set of five different graphic organizers to guide
  students in their analysis of required reading. All require analysis of key information, but
  some require greater leaps of inference from the students than do others. In product
  design, he likes offering three options to students – one more analytical in nature, one
  more practical and one more creative. He finds that students come to understand their
  own strengths better through the year and find science a more relevant endeavor
  because they can put to work what they learn in a way which fits their own learning
  strengths. In labs, he sometimes offers two options based on assessment of student
  understanding of key concepts – one designed to give students concrete, hands-on
  experience watching key principles in action, and a second designed to necessitate that
  students develop labs on their own to demonstrate key principles. Finally, he often uses
  varying tests based on student readiness and learning profile. In all test situations,
  students must demonstrate the ability to use key principles, but some students do so at a
  more basic level and some at a level which adds variables, introduces “fuzzy” problems,
  or requires considerable abstraction.
                                                             Prepared by Carol Tomlinson, UVa
    Scenario of a Differentiated Classroom
Background
Ms Largent has taught in a differentiated classroom for most of her 15
  years as a teacher. Differentiation has become a natural and relatively
  automatic way for her to think about teaching and learning. She and
  her U.S. History students have spent much of this school year
  exploring the concepts of stability, change, and revolution. They
  have related these key concepts to the ebb and flow of history, making
  parallels to the time period they are studying, current events, students’
  own lives, and other subjects such as literature and science. This helps
  students make connections between what they study in history, other
  areas they study, and their own lives.

More recently, students have been looking at the idea of revolution in the
  past by looking at current trends in technology. Students are
  investigating two parallel generalizations: (1) revolution affects
  individuals as nations, and (2) people affect revolution. Key skills for the
  unit are appropriate use and interpretations of research materials, and
  support of ideas with appropriate evidence.
  Scenario

Getting Started
To ensure that all students have the necessary background, students have
   worked on several tasks this week. First, Ms Largent gave a pre-test on
   the chapter. Students who had considerable background knowledge
   began working with tasks designed to come after acquisition of
   background knowledge. Other students completed a K-W-L activity
   and then read the text chapter on the Industrial Revolution. By their own
   choice, some read with reading buddies and some alone. During the
   course of two days, the teacher met with small reading and
   discussion groups of 6 – 8 students. With struggling learners, she
   read key passages to them, had them read key passages aloud, and
   ensured their understanding of essential ideas and events. She also
   helped them think about their experiences and how those experiences
   might link with those of early adolescents during the Industrial
   Revolution. With two other small groups, she probed their
   comprehension of the chapter and then posed questions about how
   changes in technology affected society then and now, for better and for
   worse. With one group of advanced learners, she had students
   propose and discuss social, economic, and political costs and benefits
   of the Industrial Revolution. Later, in a whole class discussion, she
   raised all the these ideas again.
   Scenario
To prepare for a chapter test, Ms Largent assigned mixed readiness review
   teams and gave them a teacher-prepared review protocol clarifying what
   students needed to know and understand for the test. Students took part in a
   Teams-Games-Tournament review, studying in mixed readiness teams, and
   participating in the games portion of the review at similar readiness tables.
   This allowed the teacher to adjust questions to an appropriate challenge level
   for individual students, but still enabled all students were required to answer.
   One set of students, however, had an essay question closely related to their
   own experience and to the class discussions. Another set of students had a
   question requiring them to venture further into unexplored applications.

Expanding the Study
To move from specifics about the Industrial Revolution to a broader application of
   key understandings, students selected one of ten “modern revolutionary”
   figures to investigate as a way of seeing how people affect revolution. The
   students worked independently for a day and then formed a cluster with
   other students who selected the same revolutionary figure. They decided how
   their cluster should show what a revolutionary figure does. The cluster groups
   could decide to make a caricature, create a blueprint for a revolutionary, draft
   a reference book entry on what a revolutionary is and does, or act out their
   response. In most classes, there were six or seven cluster groups. After
   preparing the product, each cluster group gave one presentation to 2-3 other
   cluster groups. Finally, Ms Largent led the class in making a list of
   generalizations about how revolutionaries affect change.
Scenario


Next, some students used excerpts from either Katherine Paterson’s novel, Liddie
  or Harriette Arnow’s novel The Dollmaker (both set in the Industrial Revolution –
  the former written at a relatively basic reading level, the latter at a more
  advanced reading level) to investigate how revolution affects individuals and
  how individuals affect revolution. Ms Largent assigned students to one of four
  groups based largely on her assessment of student readiness in reading,
  abstractness of thinking, and independence in research. In some instances,
  however, she placed students in groups based on learning style needs (e.g.
  students who might need to hear rather than read passages).

One group listened to a tape of key passages from Lyddie, distilling how and why
  the main character became first a factory worker, then an organizer for better
  working conditions. They then worked in pairs on the computer to create a time
  for better working conditions. They then worked in pairs on the computer to
  create a time line of data and events demonstrating how the character was
  initially affected by events in a revolution and then came to affect events in that
  revolution.

A second group read specified portions of Lyddie and a folder of articles on
   current factory conditions in developing countries. Their task was to work in
   groups of three to produce an authentic conversation between Lyddie and two
   fact-based fictional characters from contemporary sweat shops in which the
   three shared problems, dreams and a plan of action.
 Scenario


A third groups listened to excerpts from The Dollmaker. They then
   selected a partner from their groups and investigated benefits to
   contemporary society that can be traced to the Industrial Revolution.
   Working with their partners, they created a written or made-for-TV
   Editorial on the proposition that the cost of the industrial Revolution was
   (or was not) worth its benefits.

A fourth group read designated excerpts from both Lyddie and The
   Dollmaker. They then researched the current computer revolution and
   used what they learned to create on of three products: (1) a series of
   comparative editorial cartoons based on the Industrial Revolution and
   the Computer revolution, (2) a computer revolution version of version of
   an episode paralleling Lyddie or The Dollmaker, or (3) a TV
   newsmagazine style segment on how the computer revolution is
   affecting people and how people are affecting the computer revolution.
   Students in the TV newsmagazine group will need more time to
   complete their work, but will periodically work on their task rather than
   doing homework and class work that focus on skills and information they
   have already mastered.
  Scenario


Applying What Has Been Learned

At the end of the Industrial Revolution study, all students will select
   someone who revolutionized a field of interest to them (e.g.
   women’s rights, sports, medicine, aviation, civil rights, physics,
   music, their own community). Each student will complete a
   product called “Dangerous Minds: Understanding People Who
   Revolutionize the World.” There are two versions of the
   product assignment. One is more transformational, abstract,
   open-ended and complex than the other in content, process
   production, and rubrics. Ms Largent’s goal in assigning a given
   version of the product to a particular student is to push that
   student a bit further than he is comfortable going in knowledge,
   insight, thinking, planning, research, use of skills, and production.
   All students must demonstrate an understanding of the key
   concepts and generalizations for the unit, and appropriate
   application of the unit’s key skills.
             A Comparison of Non-Differentiated and
                  Differentiated Classrooms
       Non-Differentiated Classroom                        Differentiated Classroom
1. Student differences are masked or acted      1. Student differences are studied as a basis
    upon when problematic.                          for planning.
2. __________________________________           2. Assessment is on-going and diagnostic to
    __________________________________              understand how to make instruction more
3. __________________________________               responsive to learner need.
    __________________________________          3. Student readiness, interest, and learning
    __________________________________              profile shape instruction.
4. Whole class instruction dominates.           4. ___________________________________
5. __________________________________               _______________________________
    __________________________________          5. Many learning profile options are provided
    __________________________________              for.
6. A single form of assessment is often used.   6. ___________________________________
7. __________________________________               _______________________________
    __________________________________          7. Multiple materials are provided.
8. The teacher solves problems.                 8. ___________________________________
9. __________________________________               _______________________________
    __________________________________          9. Students work with the teacher to establish
    __________________________________              both whole class and individual learning
10. __________________________________              goals.
    __________________________________          10. The teacher facilitates students’ skills at
                                                    becoming self-reliant learners.
       Differentiating Learning
             Experiences
• In a differentiated classroom, a number of things
  are going on in any given class period. Over
  time, all students complete assignments
  individually and in small groups, and whole-
  group instruction also occurs. Sometimes
  students select their group size and tasks,
  sometimes they are assigned. Sometimes the
  teacher establishes criteria for success,
  sometimes students do. And setting standards
  for success is often a collaborative process.
              (Continued)
• Because there are many different things
  happening, no one assignment defines
  “normal,” and no one “sticks out.” The
  teacher thinks and plans in terms of
  “multiple avenues to learning” for varied
  needs, rather than in terms of “normal”
  and “different.”
                        -Carol Ann Tomlinson
The TONE of any
 classroom greatly
affects those who
inhabit it and the
    learning that
takes place there.
These ideas
square with my                Three points I
beliefs.                      want to
                              remember.


  These are the ideas   Some of the ideas I am
  that are going        leaving here with today
  around in my head.    are…..



  This made me wiggle in my
  seat.
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
   quality
                                                                                                           building
  curriculum                           Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                          community

                                                                                                              Affect/
Content                            Process                              Product
                                                                                                            Environment


  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
     A differentiated classroom
       Should support, and is
     Supported by, an evolving
       Community of learners

What that means is . . .

  The teacher leads his students in
        developing the sorts of
   attitudes, beliefs, and practices
       that would characterize a
      really good neighborhood.
In a differentiated classroom, the teacher
 proactively plans and carries out varied
   approaches to content, process, and
 product in anticipation of a response to
     student differences in readiness,
       interest, and learning needs.
                        Differentiated Instruction
                                       Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs



                guided by the general principles                    of differentiation, such as


        respectful tasks                                                                  ongoing assessment
                                                                                            and adjustment
                                          flexible grouping
  appropriate
                                                                                                         appropriate
    goals                              Teachers can differentiate
                                                                                                            goals


Content                            Process                              Product                             Environment



  Readiness                                      Interest                                       Learning Profile

                           through a range of instructional                    strategies
  Multiple intelligences                Tiered lessons            RAFT                    4-MAT
  Jigsaw                                Tiered centers            Cubing                  Varied questioning strategies
  Taped materials                       Tiered products           Think Dots              Interest centers
  Anchor activities                     Learning contracts        Tiered Reading          Interest groups
  Varying organizers                    Small group instruction    Entry and Exot Cards   Varied homework
  Varied texts                          Group investigation                               Compacting
  Varied supplementary materials        Orbitals                                          Varied journal prompts
  Literature circles                    Independent study                                 Complex instruction
  Etc.                                  Etc.                                              Etc.
BALANCING THE EQUATION TO MAKE DIFFERENTIATION WORK

                                   The Why
                                 Motivation to learn
                                 Access to learning
                                 Efficiency of learning


          The What                                          The How

The teacher modifying:                    The teacher differentiates in response to:
   Content (what students learn and
   the materials that represent that.)        Readiness

   Process (activities through which          Interest
   students make sense of key ideas
   using essential skills.)
                                              Learning Profile
   Product (how students
   demonstrate and extend what they
   know, understand and can do.)

   Learning Environment (the
   classroom conditions that set the
   tone and expectations of learning.)
Differentiated Instruction is…
Where will I begin…? IN WHAT WAYS CAN I . . .
1. Organize time to work with          2. Make sure more students have
individuals and small groups?          opportunities to learn the ways they
                                       learn best?




3. Make classroom materials a better   4. Make sure teacher presentations
match for more learners?               work better for more learners?
             IN WHAT WAYS CAN I . . .cont’d
5. Make pacing work better for more   6. Match classrooms tasks to learner
students?                             needs?




7. Make homework more useful for      8. Maximize the likelihood that
each learner?                         assessments let each learner show
                                      what he/she really knows,
                                      understands, can do?
             IN WHAT WAYS CAN I . . .cont’d
Find a colleague to support me on this
journey
                                      Begin Slowly – Just Begin!
Low-Prep Differentiation                                    High-Prep Differentiation
Choices of books                                            Tiered activities and labs
Homework options                                            Tiered products
Use of reading buddies                                      Independent studies
Varied journal Prompts                                      Multiple texts
                                                            Alternative assessments
Orbitals
                                                            Learning contracts
Varied pacing with anchor options                           4-MAT
Student-teaching goal setting                               Multiple-intelligence options
Work alone / together                                       Compacting
Whole-to-part and part-to-whole explorations                Spelling by readiness
Flexible seating                                            Entry Points
Varied computer programs                                    Varying organizers
Design-A-Day                                                Lectures coupled with graphic organizers
Varied Supplementary materials                              Community mentorships
Options for varied modes of expression                      Interest groups
                                                            Tiered centers
Varying scaffolding on same organizer
                                                            Interest centers
Let’s Make a Deal projects                                  Personal agendas
Computer mentors                                            Literature Circles
Think-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profile   Stations
Use of collaboration, independence, and cooperation         Complex Instruction
Open-ended activities                                       Group Investigation
Mini-workshops to reteach or extend skills                  Tape-recorded materials
Jigsaw                                                      Teams, Games, and Tournaments
Negotiated Criteria                                         Choice Boards
Explorations by interests                                   Think-Tac-Toe
                                                            Simulations
Games to practice mastery of information
                                                            Problem-Based Learning
Multiple levels of questions                                Graduated Rubrics
                                                            Flexible reading formats
                                                            Student-centered writing formats
                                   What can I do? Where will I start?
    a little----------------------------a lot


   Pre-assess students to find out what they know and are able to do.   _____________

   Let students in on what they are learning and why it is important.   _____________

   Give students choices on how they will learn something.              _____________

   Give students choices on who they will work with.                    ______________

   Give students choices on where they will work.                       ______________

   Give students choices on how they will demonstrate their learning.   ______________

   Ask students about their interests.                                  ______________

   Intentionally gather data about how your students learn best.        ______________

   Know what matters in the subjects you teach.                         ______________
      What do you do? Where will I start?
   Explain to students how what they are doing which helps them make sense of the learning.   _______________

   Assign students tasks that respect who they are and what they need to learn.               _______________

   Group students in a variety of different configurations and for a variety of purposes.     _______________

   Speed up or slow down for different learners.                                              _______________

   Emphasize growth and progress through my words and actions.                                _______________


   Deliberately teach a lesson or make an assignment that responds to different students’ needs? _______________

   Give students different ways to access the content.                                        _______________

   Give a wide range of product alternatives.                                                 _______________

   I will create a healthy classroom?                                                         _______________
      Summarize and Reflect
• Please take a few minutes to reflect on
  today’s work. Decide the following.
• What are three things you may have
  learned today, were reminded of today, or
  that you thought were helpful?
• What are two things you would like more
  information about?
• What one thing are you going to do when
  you return to your work site?
              EXPERT
                OR
     DISTINGUISHED TEACHING….

• Focuses on the understandings and
  skills of a discipline.

• Causes students to wrestle with
  profound ideas.

• Calls on students to use what they
  learn in important ways.
            EXPERT OR
     DISTINGUISHED TEACHING….


• Helps students organize and make
  sense of ideas and information.

• Aids students in connecting the
  classroom with a wider world.

                     Brandt, Danielson, Schlechty, Wiggins, & McTighe
Appendix
   of
Examples
                    Beliefs
A. Human beings share common feelings and
  needs, and schools should help us understand
  and respect those needs.
B. Individuals also differ significantly as learners;
  these differences matter in the classroom, and
  schools should help us understand and respect
  the differences.
C. Intelligence is dynamic rather than static, plural
  rather than singular.
               Beliefs
D. We probably underestimate the
capacity of every child as a learner.

E. Students should be at the enter of
the learning process, actively involved
in making sense of the world around
them through the lenses we call “the
disciplines.”
                 Beliefs
F. All learners require respectful, powerful,
  and engaging schoolwork to develop their
  individual capacities so that they become
  fulfilled and productive members of
  society.
                   Beliefs
G. Students who are the same age differ in their
   readiness to learn, their interests, their styles
   of learning, their experiences, and their life
   circumstances.
H. The differences in students are significant
   enough to make major impact on what
   students need to learn, the pace at which
   they need to learn it, and the support they
   need from teachers and others to learn it well.
I. A major emphasis in learner development is
   competition against oneself for growth and
   progress.
                 Beliefs
J. Teachers and other adults need to help
  learners accept responsibility for their own
  growth and progress.
K. Individuals and society benefit when
  schools and classrooms are genuine
  communities of respect and learning.
                Beliefs
L. Students will learn best when supportive
  adults push them slightly beyond where
  they can work without assistance.
M. Students will learn best when they can
  make a connection between the
  curriculum and their interests and life
  experiences.
                   Beliefs
N. A major emphasis in learner development is
  competition against oneself for growth and
  progress.
O. Teachers and other adults need to help
  learners accept responsibility for their own
  growth and progress.
P. Individuals and society benefit when schools
  and classrooms are genuine communities of
  respect and learning.
                Beliefs
Q. Effective heterogeneous classrooms are
 essential to building community in our
 schools.
R. Effective heterogeneous classrooms are
 powerful venues because most students
 spend most of their school time in such
 classrooms.
                 Beliefs
S. All effective heterogeneous classrooms
  recognize the similarities and differences
  in learners and robustly attend to them.
T. Excellent differentiated classrooms are
  excellent first and differentiated second.
     Summary Statements About Learning
1.  People learn what is personally meaningful to them.
2.  People learn when they accept challenging but
    achievable goals.
3. Learning is developmental.
4. Individuals learn differently.
5. People construct new knowledge by building on their
    current knowledge.
6. Much learning occurs though social interaction.
7. People need feedback to learn.
8. Successful learning involves use of strategies – which
    themselves are learned.
9. A positive emotional climate strengthens learning.
10. Learning is influenced by the total environment.
                                     Powerful Learning by Ron Brandt
     TWELVE ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT
     DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION
Students differ significantly in learning
 readiness as well as in interest and
 learning profile.
Even in “homogeneous” classes, there
 is considerable heterogeneity of
 readiness, interest, and learning profile.
Most students in most classes would
 benefit from effectively differentiated
 instruction.
        TWELVE ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT
        DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION
 Currently, research clearly indicates that
  teachers do little to modify instruction based
  on learner variance.
 Research also suggests “the system” does
  little to encourage differentiation of
  instruction.
 As a nation, we have much to gain if we can
  develop and sustain effective
  heterogeneous communities of learning.
 Heterogeneity (and, in fact, public education)
  cannot flourish unless it can offer to
  maximize growth in its individual learners.
      TWELVE ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT
      DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION

 Struggling and advanced learners can fare
  well in heterogeneous rather than
  homogeneous classes, to the degree that
  those classes provide the sorts of
  meaningful services the students would
  otherwise receive outside those classes.

 When effective services are not or cannot be
  provided in heterogeneous settings,
  specialized services are necessary.

                                        Tomlinson, U.Va ‘97
      TWELVE ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT
      DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION
 Generalists cannot typically provide effective
  specialized services without consistent and
  effective partnerships with specialists.
 Differentiated instruction is likely to be ill-
  conceived and unsuccessful unless it is
  predicated upon best-practice instruction for
  all learners.
 Differentiated Instruction is an evolutionary
  change process for teachers and schools,
  requiring time, sustained effort and support,
  and flexible use of resources.
                                          Tomlinson, U.Va ‘97
Examples of Tiered Lessons
  Capsules of Tiered Activities
CAPSULE !
Mr. Morgan uses math learning centers as one way of differentiating math
instruction for his 1st graders. During the day today, all his students will go
to the math center to work on addition. Students know whether to work from
the tiger, giraffe, zebra, or kangaroo folders by looking at a chart with each
name under one of the four animal pictures. Students may get directions for
their work by reading task cards in their folders or listening to a cassette
tape, also marked with the animal picture. One folder contains a counting
task. Another, directions to work with manipulatives, and then complete
number sentences calling for one-digit addition. Another directs students to
complete one-digit addition number sentences without manipulatives and
then some two-digit number sentences with mjanipulatives. A final folder
has students complete two-digit number sentences without manipulatives.
All students check their answers with cassette tapes or a designated
“expert of the day” who is “on duty” while they are at the center. In a few
days, Mr. Morgan will reassess student placement in groups based on
current skill levels and he will also scramble the readiness level of the
groups working with each animal folder.
Capsules of Tiered Activities, cont’d
 CAPSULE 2
 In German 1, Mrs. Phillips’ students are working with past-tense verbs
 this week. For a part of today, they will work in one of three groups to
 practice using the verbs. Students in one group will complete an oral
 round-robin exercise by reading German sentences and questions
 from a flipchart, and selecting which of two verb forms beneath a
 sentence group take turns reading sentences with present-tense
 verbs, converting them into sentences with past-tense verbs,
 converting them into sentences with past-tense questions. A third
 group works in pairs to ad lib a conversation in which they ask
 questions and give answers about what happened to home and
 school yesterday and today. Tomorrow, students will work in mixed
 readiness triads to prepare for a “skill drill.”
  Capsules of Tiered Activities, cont’d
CAPSULE 3
Students in Mrs. Schlim’s 6th grade class are working with elections in
current events. Students in one group work in pairs, using an elementary-
level current events magazine to complete a list of background questions.
They will also use Time and Newsweek to get information from a cartoon
and a graph. Pairs of students in the other group will use Time and
Newsweek to answer a second set of background questions (dealing with
the same concepts, but at a more abstract and complex level). They will
also use the elementary-level magazine to get information necessary for
one question on their background sheet.
 Tomorrow, students will participate in cooperative tag-team debates. In
tag-team debates, students prepare as a group for one side of a debate,
and they may call on or “tag” others on the same side when they feel the
need for assistance as they present. They will select pro or con, then the
teacher will assign groups of six (some similar readiness, some mixed
readiness) for the tag-team debates.
   Capsules of Tiered Activities, cont’d
CAPSULE 4
Mrs. Vreeland sometimes uses differentiated learning-log prompts when her
students are reading novels. Students began reading The Winter Room by
Gary Paulsen, and Mrs. Vreeland wanted them all to focus on how Paulsen
uses sensory words as a tool and art form. Students received one of three
learning-log pages.
• One group of students was asked to list words that relate to smells, to
sounds, and to ears as they read the first few pages of the book. They also
needed to write a sentence or two about anything in their experiences the
sensory words reminded them of.
• A second group was asked to respond to how a reader draws from personal
experiences to relate to the smells, sounds, and visual descriptions in the first
few pages.
• A third group of students selected a setting of their own that freezes a
moment in time, wrote a descriptive entry about their setting (modeling after
Paulsen’s writing), and added a statement about why sense words make a
passage seem to come alive.
    Capsules of Tiered Activities, cont’d
CAPSULE 5
Ms. Thomason and her students explored the ethics of communication. On one day, students
worked in one of three groups, exploring the concept of plagiarism, as follows:
• Working in pairs or threes, Group 1 students wrote their best guess of a definition of
plagiarism, looked up a definition in at least one print and one computer source, wrote a
definition appropriate for the class (including defending the definition), and illustrated by hand
or with a computer a definition that would be suitable for a young child.
• Students in Group 2 worked with partners or alone to present examples of person accused
of plagiarism and outcomes of the accusation, and to illustrate by hand or with the computer
how the definition of plagiarism has changed over time.
• Students in Group 3 worked in pairs or triads to create a poster (on the computer or by
hand), ranking the seriousness of plagiarism with other crimes, including a defense of the
ranking. They also had to examine four quotes about plagiarism (given them by the teacher),
explain similarities between the author’s definition and a dictionary definition, and be ready to
discuss inferences the students could draw from the quotes (e.g., French artist Paul Gauguin
suggested that art is either plagiarism or revolution).
On another day, there were only two working groups. Students in one group worked in twos
or threes to research current laws on plagiarism, stating them in easily understood language
and placing them in logical order. They also had to sue the list to create guidelines that would
help students avoid plagiarism, and do a 30-60 second public service announcement helping
the public understand one of the guidelines and why they should follow it. The second group
worked alone or in pairs to either predict what might constitute plagiarism in 100 years,
defend their predictions, or pick a person (currently alive, or famous in the past), write that
person’s definition of plagiarism, and defend the definition on historical and biographical data.
                     HIGH SCHOOL TIERD LESSON:
                              PHYSICS

UNDERSTAND: Key principles of Aerodynamics
KNOW: Basic Vocabulary
DO: Construct objects that project themselves through          space in the
  different directions as a demonstration   of the key principles
♦ Paper Airplanes                           Easier
    ♦ That fly for distance
    ♦ That fly for hang time
    ♦ That fly for tricks                    Harder
♦ Kites                                      Easier
    ♦   Box
    ♦   Diamonds
    ♦   Triangle
    ♦   Layered                               Harder
♦ Pin Wheel: Tilt propellers different ways to create:
   ♦ Forward motion                           Easier
    ♦ Backward Motion
    ♦ Upward Motion                           Harder

Great Opportunity to make teams of theoreticians, scholars, designers
                             and builders.
                           New World Explorers
Know:
 Names of New World Explorers
 Key Events of contribution
 Principle / Generalization
Understand:
 Exploration involves risk
 Exploration involves costs and benefits
 Exploration involves success and failure


Group A:
  Using a teacher provided list or resources and a list of product options,
show how two key explorers took chances, experienced success and
failure, and brought about both positive and negative change. Provide
proof/evidence.
Group B:
  Using reliable and defensible research, develop a way to show how the
New World explorers were paradoxes. Include and go beyond the unit’s
principles.
                Know: Use of past tense verbs (regular)
                Do: Sentence construction


Group A:
 Given English sentences, supply the correct German pronoun and regular
past tense verb, as well as other missing world.


Group B:
 Given an English scenario, write a German dialogue that uses correct
nouns, pronouns, present and past tense verbs, and other vocabulary as
necessary.


Group C:
  Develop a conversation that shows your fluency with German verbs, word
pronouns, and other vocabulary. Use “blip” sparingly, but when essential. Be
sure to incorporate idioms.
                         Tiered Lesson -- ART
Skill: Contour Drawing
1. Students with less refined eye-hand coordination
                 •    Complete a contour drawing of a hand, look at your
                     hand and the paper as you draw. Study lengths of finger
                     segments shapes of finger tips, widths of fingers as your
                     draw.
                 •    Draw a teacher selected object in your sketch book
                     looking at the paper and object as you do your drawing.
2. Students with somewhat more refined eye-hand coordination
• Complete a half-blind contour drawing of your hand.
   That means you can look at your hand and the paper but
   Cannot draw any time you look at the paper.
• Draw a teacher selected object in your sketchbook doing
  a half-blind contour drawing.
3. Students with excellent eye-hand coordination
• Do a blind contour drawing of your hand.
• Do a blind contour drawing of a teacher selected object in your
   sketchbook.
                                    Elementary Physical Education
                        SKILL: Dribbling and basketball
1   • Dribble from point A to point B in a straight line with one hand
    • Switch to the other hand and repeat.
    • Use either hand and develop a new floor pattern from A to B (not a straight line)



                                                                         2
                                                                             ZIGZAG –
                                                                             • One hand
                                                                             • Other hand
                                                                             • Increased speed
3 In and out of pylons as fast as possible                                   • Change pattern to simulate going
          • Change hand                                                                around opponents

          • Increase speed
4 Dribble with one hand – and a partner playing defense.
          • Increase speed and use other hand
          • Trade roles
5 Through pylons, alternating hands, & partner playing defense
          • Increase speed
          • Trade roles
        Grade K                                        Grade K
     Counting (Skill)                            Key Concept: Patterns

     Counting/Math Center                    Generalization: Scientists
                                                 Classify by Patterns
Task 1 Find a way to count and          Use carpenter’s aprons to
 show how many people are in our        collect “data” through a
 class today.                           nature walk.
 How did you get your answer?
Task 2 Find a way to show how           At Science Center:
 many people are in our class.
  How many absent today?                                          Task 1 Classify Leaves
                                           Pre-made grid with
  How many are here today?                  categories on it      • by size
  How do you know?                                                • by color


Task 3 Find a way to show how                                     Task 2 Classify Leaves
 many boys are in our class today.       Sample grid – students   • by shape
                                            create own grid       • create a category
  How many boys are absent today?
  How many girls are here today?
  How many girls are absent today?                                Task 3 Find 3 ways
   Prove you are right.                   Students decide how     each leaf could be
                                           to show categories     classified – other than
                                              and contents        color

                        Tomlinson ‘97
Examples of Independent Study
                               TOPIC BROWSING PLANNER
Student’s name: ___Jason______________________________ Date: October 30, 1999

GENERAL TOPIC OF INTEREST: ________Antarctica__________________________
SUBTOPICS I WANT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT:
___Antarctic wildlife__________________ _____Human survival in Antarctica______
__Fast melting of polar ice caps________ _____Female Antarctic explorers_______

HOW I MIGHT COLLECT INFORMATION ABOUT THIS TOPIC:


      INFORMATION                CALL NUMBER,                      TITLE               WHERE I
        SOURCES                 AUTHOR OR DATE                                         FOUND IT
          Books                   Hackwell, W.J.             DESERT OF ICE            School Library
                                   Seth, Roland               ANTARCTICA              School Library
                                  Byrd, Richard           ANTARCTICA; Accounts…       School Library
  Periodicals; (magazines,   February 1992, Shapiro, D.            SAILING
     newspapers, etc.)       October 1989, Madson, M       “Letter from Antarctica”
                                                            WOMEN’S SPORTS
                                                            “The Last Continent”
      Other Sources
      (TV, radio, etc)
           How to Use the Topic Browsing Planner

1.   Help the student select a topic to investigate. Topics don’t have to be related to the
     curriculum. Utilize the services of library personnel, both school and public.
2.   Provide a place for the student to store accumulated resource materials.
     Suggestions: Space on a bookshelf; an empty desk.
3.   Explain to the student how to fill out the Planner. During the exploration phase (5-
     10 days), students should fill in all sections except “How I Can Share What I’ve
     Learned.” Remind them to take no formal notes during browsing time.
4.   Meet with the student after the browsing is completed. Help the student to select a
     subtopic to research and present to the class. Encourage students to choose
     subtopics of genuine interest to them. If they don’t wish to pursue any subtopic,
     allow them to move on to another topic. When they do choose a subtopic, help
     them to complete a Resident Expert Planner (page 59 or 60).
5.   Make sure the student understands that he or she must choose one subtopic to
     study in depth for every three browsing experiences. If students resist, try to find
     out why. Perhaps they are reluctant to get up in front of the class for any reason;
     working together, you should be able to develop a mutually acceptable way for
     them to share their information.

                                        Susan Winebrenner, Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom
                           Topic Browsing Planner, cont’d


PROFESSIONALS WITH WHOM I MIGHT CONDUCT INTERVIEWS:
 Name                            Profession                             Workplace
__Dr. L. K. Olsen_______________Antarctic scholar__________________Shedd Aquarium, Chicago
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________



EXPERIMENTS OR SURVEYS I MIGHT CONDUCT;
__How the changing speed of melting ice affects stationary objects and land forms_______________
_________________________________________________________________________________



HOW I CAN SHARE WHAT I’VE LEARNED ABOUT ONE SUBTOPIC;
__Biographies of 2 female explorers____________________________________________________
__Mock interviews__________________________________________________________________
     How to Use the Primary Grades Resident Expert Planner
1.    Help the student find a topic he or she might be interested in exploring. If students have trouble
      finding a topic, use the Interest Survey on page 62. Or simply ask students what they’d like to
      learn about. Take them to browse library nonfiction shelves, and help them collect a variety of
      books and other information sources.
2.    Provide a place for the students to store accumulated resource materials. Suggestions: Space on
      a bookshelf; an empty desk.
3.    Encourage the student to look through the materials during any free time he or she has available.
      Or they may use any time they have left over by finishing assigned tasks before the rest of the
      class.
4.    Show the student how to record ideas of interest on the top portion of the Planner. Reassure
      students that they will need to do further research on only one of the topics listed. Demonstrate
      how to list topics in brief form.
5.    Meet briefly with the student as he or she looks through the materials. Encourage students to
      keep an open mind so they can gather many ideas. Instruct them to record only those ideas they
      understand.
6.    Discourage the student from taking any notes during the information-gathering stage. Tell
      students that the time for note taking will come later.
7.    Ask the student to select one subtopic on which to become a resident expert. Try to keep students
      from making their selection until 5-10 school days have passed. This gives them ample time to
      browse their topic and identify several possible subtopics.
8.    Help the student plan how to share with the class what he or she learns about the subtopic.
      Discourage formal written reports. For either ideas, see Acceptable Student Projects on page 41
      of Chapter 4. Use some method to control the time students take to share their information with
      the class. Schedule a private meeting with them afterward if they need to share more than the
      class needs to know.
          PRIMARY GRADES RESIDENT EXPERT PLANNER

Subject ____________________________________________ Date ________________

What I Might Want to Learn About: ___________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

How I can Share One Topic with the Class: ____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
 ______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
                  Susan Winebrenner, Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom
     How to Use the Upper Grades Resident Expert Planner
1.   Help the student select one subtopic from the Topic Browsing Planner. A subtopic should be
     something the student really wants to learn more about. Ask the student to make sure that there is
     sufficient information about his or her subtopic.


2.   List the subtopic on the line, “The Subtopic I Will Study from the Topic Browsing Planner.”


3.   Direct the student to list specific things he or she wants to learn about the subtopic. Encourage
     students to choose items that reflect higher levels of thinking. (See Chapter 6, pages 67-69, for
     information on Bloom’s Taxonomy.)


4.   Direct the student to gather infomration from a variety of sources. Encourage students to use both
     school and public library facilities. Ask the librarians to help students explore technological
     sources.


5.   Set a time limit for the student’s report to the class, and direct the student to share only the
     sections he or she thinks other students will find most interesting. Don’t limit the amount of data
     students gather – just the amount they present.; Provide time and opportunities for students to
     share the balance of their data with other audiences including yourself, professionals in the field,
     librarians, etc.


6.   Help the student choose a method for sharing the information. For ideas, see Acceptable Student
     Projects on page 41 of Chapter 4.
           UPPER GRADES RESIDENT EXPERT PLANNER

Student’s name ____________________________________ Date ________________

The Subtopic I Will Study from the Topic Browsing Planner:
_______________________________________________________________________
What I Want to Learn About: ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Sources of Information Used in My Study:______________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
The Most Interesting Information I Discovered__________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
How I Will Share What I’ve Learned with an Audience:____________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Date I Will Be Ready to Share Some Information: _______________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

                  Susan Winebrenner, Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom
I Can Learn on My Own                               My Research Project
                                                    My topic _______________________________________
I have some questions about:
   ___ Something we’ve studied in school            What I Already Know:
   ___ Something I’ve read or heard about at home   1._____________________________________________
   ___ Other                                        2._____________________________________________
                                                    3. _____________________________________________
                                                    4. _____________________________________________
The topic I have questions about is:
                                                    5. _____________________________________________

                                                    What I Want to Find Out:
                                                    1._____________________________________________
Questions I have are:                               2._____________________________________________
                                                    3. _____________________________________________
                                                    4. _____________________________________________
                                                    5. _____________________________________________

                                                    Activities            How Can I Find Our?(Resources)
To find out about these questions I will:           1.____________________ 1._______________________
                                                    2.____________________ 2._______________________
                                                    3.____________________ 3._______________________
                                                    4.____________________ 4. _______________________
                                                    5.____________________ 5. _______________________

I plan to find my answers by: _________________
                                   (date)           How I Will Share My Project
                                                     ___ Oral Report ___Written Report ___ Posters ___Other
The way I’m going to share my information is:
                                                    Date Began_____________ Date Completed___________

                                                    Researcher(s) ___________________________________
   _____________________________________                         ____________________________________
          (Presentation method)
My Contract on __________________                Independent Study Synopsis
                                                 1. Student(s) completing the project:__________________
I will draw:

                                                 2.Topic:________________________________________

I will read:
                                                 3. What do you hope to accomplish by doing the project?


                                                 4. Who will your audience be?
I will look at and listen to:

                                                 5. What suggestions do you have for evaluating the success
                                                 of your work?


I will write:                                    6.When is the latest calendar date that your project will be in?


                                                 7. How do you plan to document the amount of time you
                                                 spend working on your project and the stages you worked
                                                 Toward completion of it?
I will need:

                                                 8. What resources, materials, or help will you need other than
                                                 Your own ability and effort?

I will finish by:_____________________________
                                                 9. How will your work be shared with our class?


My Signature:_____________________________
Request for Additional Time On A Project      Working Conditions for Alternate Activities

Submitted by ______________________________   If you are working on alternative activities while
                                              others in the class are busy with more teacher-
Date Submitted ____________________________   directed activities, you are expected to follow
                                              these guidelines:
Name of Project____________________________   1. Stay on task at all times with the alternate
                                              Activities you have chosen.
                                              2. Don’t talk to the teacher while he or she is
Original Due Date__________________________
                                              teaching.
                                              3. When you need help, and the teacher is busy,
Reason For Request                            ask someone else who is also working on the
                                              alternate activities.
                                              4. If no one else can help you, continue to try the
                                              activity yourself until the teacher is available, or
                                              move on to another activity until the teacher is free.
                                              5. Use “6-inch voices” when talking to each other
Why I feel the Request is Justified           about the alternate activities. (These are voices that
                                              can be heard no more than 6 inches away).
                                              6. Never brag about your opportunities to work on
                                              the alternate activities.
                                              7. If you must go in and out of the room, do so
                                              soundlessly.
                                              8. Don’t bother anyone else.
Proposed Due Date ___________ Date_________   9. Don’t call attention to yourself.
                                              I agree to the conditions described above, and know
Teacher Response: ( ) Request Approved        that if I don’t follow them, I may lose the opportunity
                  ( ) Request Denied          to continue with the alternate activities and may
Reasons/Comments                              have to rejoin the class for teacher-directed
                                              Instruction.
                                              _____________________ ______________________
                                              Teacher                                           Student.
Group Proposal for a Project
The topic we choose is:___________________________________________________________________
What we think we know about our topic:
_______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________
Some questions we want to answer
1 _____________________________________________________________________________________
2 _____________________________________________________________________________________
3 _____________________________________________________________________________________
Some sources of information we might use
______________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________

What we found out                                      Our source
____________________________________________ ________________________________________
____________________________________________ ________________________________________
____________________________________________ ________________________________________
Some ideas we have about how to present our information ________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
The presentation we decided on is:___________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Presentation Plan What we plan to do: ______________________________________________________
Steps we will take: ________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Materials we need:
Jobs we will do
Person: _______________________________________ Job: _____________________________________
______________________________________________              _____________________________________
Examples of Questions
                      Using Questions to Differentiate
 Questions can be used as the core for developing curricular activities. Note the level of difficulty and
    thinking required. Using a content area, will in the missing parts of each question to formulate a
                                         curricular experience.



     LEVELS                   FOCUS                                   APPLICATION
KNOWLEDGE              What                  …. Is ……?
                       How or Where          …..is …… used?
                       When or How           ….did ……happen?
COMPREHENSION          What                  ….can you say about ….?
                       How                   ….can you discuss … in …(quantity)… of words?
                       Which                 ….is the best answer to this question about it?
                       Which                 ….comes first ….. or …..?
                       How                   ….can you arrange ….. In the right order?
APPLICATION            Why or How            ….is related to ….?
                       How                   ….can you solve the problem ….?

ANALYLSIS              What                  ….are the parts or features of …..?
                       How                   ….is related to …..?

SYNTHESIS              What                  ….could be added or combined with …. To make a new …..?
                       How                   ….could you compare …. to ….?

EVALUATION             How                   ….can you prove ….. to …..?
                       When                  ….could …. be used suitably?
               Types of Questions Used in the Socratic Method
Questions of Clarification                                                     Questions that Probe Reasons and Evidence
What do you mean by . . .?                                                     How do you know? Why did you say that?
What is your main point? Could you give me an example? Could you               What would be an example? How could we go about finding out
      explain that further?                                                           whether that is true?
Would you say more about that? What do you think is the main issue             What other information do we need to know?
      here?                                                                    By what reasoning did you come to that conclusion?
Let me see if I understand you, do you mean . . . Or . . .?                    Could you explain your reasons to us?
Is your basic point … or …?                                                    But is that good evidence to believe?
Could you put that another way?                                                What are your reasons for saying that? Why do you think that is
                                                                                      true?
Questions that Probe Assumptions                                               Do you have any evidence for that? Are those reasons adequate?
You seem to be assuming …                                                             Is there reason to doubt that evidence?
Do I understand you correctly?                                                 Who is in a position to know if that is the case? What difference
All of your reasoning is dependent on the idea that …                                 does it make?
Why have you based your reasoning on …. rather than …..?                       Can someone else give evidence to support that response? How
                                                                                      does that apply to this case?
You seem to be assuming …
How would you justify taking this for granted? Is it always the case?          Questions about Viewpoints and Perspectives
What is Karen assuming? What could we assume instead?                          You seem to be approaching this issue from … perspective
                                                                               Why have you chosen this rather than . . . perspective?
Questions that Probe Implications and Consequences                             How would other groups/types of people respond? Why? What
What are you implying by that?                                                       would influence them?
When you say ... are you implying …?                                           How could you answer the objection that … would make?
But if that happened, what else would also happen as a result?                 Can/did anyone see this another way?
Why? What effect would that have?                                              What is an alternative?
Would that necessarily happen or only probably happen? What is an              How are Ken’s and Rose’s ideas alike? Different?
        alternative?
If this and that are the case, then what else must also be true?



Questions about the Questions
I’m not sure I understand how you are interpreting the main question at   Do we all agree that this is the question?
issue.                                                                    Would … put the question differently?
How can we find out? How could someone settle this question?              How would ….put the question?
To answer this question, what questions would we have to answer first?    Why is this question important? Is this question easy or hard to answer?
Is the question clear? Do we understand it?                               Does this question ask us to evaluate something?                   Why?
Is this the same issue as …?                                              What does this question assume?
Can we break this question down at all?
                Questions to Use in Your Classroom

Quantity Questions                              Viewpoint Questions
List all of the …..                             How would this look to a ….?
List as many …. As you can think of             What would a …. Mean from the viewpoint of a
How many ways can you come up with ….?              ….?
                                                How would …. view this?
Reorganization Questions
What would happen if …. were true?              Involvement Questions
Suppose …. (happened), what would be the        How would you feel if you were ….?
   consequence?                                 If you were …. What would you (see, taste,
What would happen if there were no ?                 smell, feel)?
                                                You are a …. Describe how it feels.
Supposition Questions
Suppose you could have anything you wanted in   Forced Association Questions
    working on this. What ideas could you       How is …. like ….?
    produce if this were true?                  Get ideas from …. to improve ….
You can have all of the …. In the world. How    I only know about …. Explain …. to me.
    could you use it to….?
You have been given the power to …. How will
    you use it?
                 Sentence Skeletons for Better Questions
LEVEL I, KNOWLEDGE                              LEVEL IV, ANALYSIS
What is the definition for ….?                  What are the component parts of ….?
Trace the pattern.                              Which steps are important in the process of ….?
Review the facts.                               If ….., then ......
Name the characteristics of ….                  What other conclusions can you reach about … that
List the steps for ….                                 have not been mentioned?
                                                The difference between the fact and the hypothesis is ….
LEVEL II, COMPREHENSION                         The solution would be to ….
Tell why these ideas are similar.               What is the relationship between ….. and …..?
In your own words retell the story of ….        What is the pattern of …..?
Classify these concepts.                        How would you make a …..?
Relate how these ideas are different.           Which material is the most valuable in enabling … to …?
What happened after ….
Tell some examples.                             LEVEL V. SYNTHESIS
Make of model of ….                             Create a model that shows your new ideas.
Take notes on ….                                Devise an original plan or experiment for ….
Draw a picture to ….                            Finish the incomplete ….
Give the proper sequence for ….                 Make a hypothesis about ….
If A is related to B, then X is related to ….   Change …. so that it will ….
Act out what happened.                          Propose a method to ….
                                                Prescribe a new way to ….
LEVEL III, APPLICATION                          Give the book a new title.
Graph the data.                                 Speculate on questions that experts in the field need to
Demonstrate the way to ….                            answer to solve the problem of …..
Which one is most like ….
Practice ….                                     LEVEL VI, EVALUATION
Act out the way a person would …..              In your opinion …..
Use whatever means necessary to ….              Appraise the chances for ….
Calculate the .....                             Grade or rank the ….
Complete the solution for …..                   What do you think will be the outcome?
Use the technique of ….. To solve the problem   What solution do you favor and why?
                                                Which systems are the best? Worst?
                                                Rate the relative value of these ideas to …
            QUESTION ETIQUETTE
                                         DO’s
…   accept all answers, even repeated ones
…   make sure students understand what “open-ended” means
…   ask questions when you are really interested in a student’s thoughts
…   ask questions after students have the knowledge base needed to handle
    the material
…   place students in partnering or small group situations
…   offer verbal and non-verbal reinforcement
…   reward the responding – not the response
…   practice what you preach by modeling good questioning in your own life
…   ask questions that motivate and stimulate emotion
…   ask questions that call for guessing
…   LISTEN TO THE ANSWERS!
…   vary the technique of asking; take volunteers sometimes, call on students at
    other times
…   allow sufficient “wait time” after asking questions – most teachers wait less
    than 5 seconds
…   believe in your own abilities and those of your students
          QUESTION ETIQUETTE
                              DON’T’S

… Ask questions that fill time because you are not prepared for the
  lesson or activity
… Follow the questions in the textbook word for word – be strong – use
  your own ideas
… Isolate questioning skills and teach them as a separate curriculum
… Ask only short-answer questions that result in one right answer
… Ask questions just to find out what students DON’T know
… Ridicule a student for an unusual, creative response
… Limit your responses to “yes,” “no,” “great,” “good”
… Give up – good questioning takes practice
… Be so serious – lighten up – have some fun
… Ever say, “Wrong! Who knows the answer?”
… ANSWER YOUR OWN QUESTIONS!
… Be judgmental
Examples of WHERE I teach…
                        Classroom Instructional Arrangements

                                    Whole Class Activities

 Pre-assessment                                       Planning                              Wrap-up of
Readiness/interest                                                                          Explorations
                        Introduction                                          Sharing

     Small Group Activities (pairs, triads; quads) Whole Class Activities

   Sense-Making                                    Directed Reading                             Investigation
                     Teaching Skills                                         Planning

                                Individualized Activities

Compacting           Practice &                     Interest Centers              Independent
                     Apply Skills                                                    Study
                                        Homework                       Products                   Testing
         Sense-Making

                           Student – Teacher Conferences

    Assessment                                             Guidance

                          Tailoring &                                                           Evaluation
                           Planning
 IDEA: Stories Have a Structure Built with
          Tools and a Purpose
DAY        WHO                                               WHAT
M       THE ACES         Continue identifying elements of Jack London’s stories in Peer Pairs
O                        Continue developing interview questions for your biographical short story
         THEJETS
N
      THE PIT BULLS Continue reading To Kill a Mockingbird
TU       SAME AS
                                                    SAME AS MONDAY
ES       MONDAY
W     Janna, Earlene,    Quiz on elements of a short story
E      Fred, Bill, Jay   20 minute team study first – co-op groups
D                        Complete “blueprint” for Mockingbird
        PIT BULLS
           JETS          Begin Interview

         OTHERS          Brainstorming for story conflicts
                         Pre-writing individual activity
TH         JETS          Continue interview
UR                       Class discussion on what a story is/isn’t – what makes a story a winner?
         OTHERS
 F         JETS          Analysis of information gathered – mapping out your next step in the
 R                       interview process
 I       OTHERS          The Siskel & Ebert Show: A Simulation in triads. Prepare to videotape.
WORLD GEOGRAPHY WESTERN EUROPE*
DAY              WHO                                             WHAT
 M     INVESTIGATION GROUP 1       East/West Simulation
 O     INVESTIGATION GROUP 2       Create a visual which clearly answers the question “Why does a
                                   small country like Switzerland speak four languages?
 N
            Pam, Anna, Jed         Teacher Talk
 T     INVESTIGATION GROUP 1       As Monday
 U     INVESTIGATION GROUP 2       As Tuesday – Clear visual design with teacher
 E     Juan, Leslie, Cleo & Sara   Teacher Talk
 S
 W     INVESTIGATION GROUP 1       As Monday
 E     INVESTIGATION GROUP 2       As Monday
 D      Sam, Lydia, Beth & Tim
 T     INVESTIGATION GROUP 1       Rehearsal for class forum on Friday
 H     INVESTIGATION GROUP 2       Prepare displays for exhibit and oral presentations for class forum
                                   Friday
 U
 R       Will, Joe, Fran & Hilde   Teacher Talk

 FRI        WHOLE CLASS            Class forum


             * Based on guiding question: What unites & what divides people?
                    Compacting


                       A 3-step process that …

(1) assesses what a student knows about material to be studied and what
                   the student still needs to master,

(2) plans for learning what is not known and excuses student from what
                               is known, and

(3) plans for freed-up time to be spent in enriched or accelerated study.
                    Compacting
1.   Identify the learning objectives or standards ALL students
     must learn.
2.   Offer a pretest opportunity OR plan an alternate path through
     the content for those students who can learn the required
     material in less time than their age peers.
3.   Plan and offer meaningful curriculum extensions for kids
     who qualify.
      **Depth and Complexity
                American Wars instead of Civil War
                Beverly Cleary books instead of Ramona
                Differing perspectives, ideas across time
      **Orbitals and Independent studies.
4.   Eliminate all drill, practice, review, or preparation for
     students who have already mastered such things.
5.   Keep accurate records of students’ compacting activities:
     document mastery.
                                               Strategy: Compacting
Examples of Assessments
  Assessment Strategies to Support Success
4. Jigsaw Check: (Review/Assessment)
    • Teacher assigns students to groups of 5-6
    • Teacher gives each student a question card, posing a
       Key understanding question
    • Students read their question to group
    • Scorecard Keeper records # of students for each
       question who are:
        • Really sure
        • Pretty sure
        • Foggy
        • clueless
    • Students scramble to groups with same question they
       have/prepare solid answer
    • Go back to original groups, share answers
    • Re-read questions
    • Re-do scoreboard
    • Report before and after scoreboards
                                            Fraction Assessment
Below you will see the list of topics we covered during our unit on fractions. Choose one method from the list we brainstormed to demonstrate what
      you have learned during this unit of study.
Remember the following criteria:
        •      all work must be your own
        •      you must clearly explain or show your knowledge of each concept
        •      your work must be neat and legible, use labels when necessary
Fraction Concepts/Topics:
        •      Vocabulary: fraction, numerator, denominator, equivalent, improper fractions, mixed numbers
        •      Fraction of a whole and a set
        •      Examples of equivalent fractions and how they are determined
        •      Converting improper fractions to mixed numbers and vice-versa
        •      Common denominators
        •      Reducing fractions to lowest possible terms
        •      Estimation with fractions
        •      Adding fractions with like and unlike denominators
        •      Subtracting fractions with like and unlike denominators
        •      Comparing fractions
        •      Ordering fractions
Choose one of the following ways to demonstrate what you learned:
        •      Create a test and then complete it or trade with someone else that chose this task
        •      Make a dictionary or glossary to explain fractions, include examples
        •      Create a game that teaches all of the concepts
        •      Write a chapter for a math book that will teach fractions
        •      Create a story problem for each concept
        •      Make an audio tape explaining each concept, back this us with any necessary written work
        •      Take the chapter test, choose at least 2 problems to explain in writing or show more than one way to arrive at the solution.

I have chosen the following method _____________________________________________________________

I understand the expectations and will turn in my personal best work on ________________________________

Student signature:______________________________ _______________________________Parent signature
                             Mesopotamia Quiz Review
                                  People Hunt
   Find someone who can tell you what               Find someone who knows how many children
    Mesopotamia means.                                Ms. R has.
Answer:                                           Answer:
Signature_______________________________          Signature_______________________________
 Find someone who can name the two rivers in      Find someone who can name the two empires
    Mesopotamia                                       of Mesopotamia.
Answer: (1)                                       Answer:
(2)                                               Signature_______________________________
Signature_______________________________           Find someone who knows who was responsible
 Find someone who can give the definition of a       for the first written code of laws.
    city-state.                                   Answer:
Answer:                                           Signature_______________________________
Signature_______________________________           Find someone who knows the name of the first
 Find someone who can tell you what Ms. R’s          writing system.
    favorite sport is.                            Answer:
Answer:                                           Signature_______________________________
Signature_______________________________           Find someone who can tell you what
 Find someone who can tell you the name of a         professionally trained writers are called.
    Sumerian Temple.                              Answer:
Answer:                                           Signature_______________________________
Signature_______________________________           Find someone who knows what substance they
 Find someone who knows the word that means          wrote on.
    belief in many gods.                          Answer:
Answer:                                           Signature_______________________________
Signature_______________________________
Examples of Data Gathering
   for Student Interest
                                         INTEREST SURVEY
 Name: ________________________________________________________
1. What types of TV programs do you like to watch? Why?          6.    Tell about a vacation you would like to take.
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
                                                                 _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________           7.    What is your favorite activity or subject at school? Why?
                                                                 _______________________________________________________
                                                                 _______________________________________________________
2. What hobbies do you have? How much time to you spend on       _______________________________________________________
   your hobbies?                                                 _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
                                                                 8.    What is your least favorite activity or subject at school? Why?
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
                                                                 _______________________________________________________
                                                                 _______________________________________________________

3. If you could have anything you want, what would you choose?   9.    What kinds of things have you collected? What do you do with the things you
   Why?                                                                collect?
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
                                                                 _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
                                                                 10.   What career(s) do you think might be right for you when you are an adult?
                                                                 _______________________________________________________
4. Tell about your favorite games.                               _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________          _______________________________________________________
                                                                 _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

5.   What kinds of movies do you like to see? Why?

_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
                              INTEREST SURVEY cont’d
11. What kinds of books do you like?                                 16.  Imagine that you could invent something to make the world a
_______________________________________________________                   better place. Describe your invention
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________               _______________________________________________________

12. What are your favorite magazines?                                17. What is something you can do really well?
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________

                                                                     18.  Tell me something else about yourself that you would like me
13. What parts of the newspaper do you like to look at? How do you        to know.
    learn about the news if you don’t read the newspaper?            _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
                                                                     _______________________________________________________
14. What is your first choice about what to do when you have free    _______________________________________________________
    time at home?.                                                   _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________              _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

15. If you could talk to any person alive, who would it be? Why?
    Think of 3 questions you would ask the person.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
                                  Interest Survey
1.  What kinds of books do you like to read?
2.  What parts of the newspaper do you look at regularly? How do you get the news?
3.  What are your favorite magazines?
4.  What types of TV programs do you prefer? Why?
5.  What is your most favorite activity or subject at school? Your least favorite? Why?
6.  What is your first choice about what to do when you have free time at home?
7.  What kinds of things have you collected? What do you do with the things you collect?
8.  If you could talk to any person currently living, who would it be? Why? Think of 3 questions you would
    ask this person.
9. If you could talk to any person from history, whom would you choose? Why? Think of 3 questions you
    would ask the person.
10. What hobbies do you have? How much time do you spend on your hobbies?
11. If you could have anything you want, regardless of money or natural ability, what would you choose?
    Why?
12. What career(s) do you think might be suitable for you when you are an adult?
13. Tell about your favorite vacation.
14. Tell about your favorite games.
15. What kinds of movies do you prefer to see? Why?
16. Imagine that some day you will write a book. What do you think it will be about?
17. Imagine that you could invent something to make the world a better place. Describe your invention.
18. What places would you most like to visit in your own area and in other locations?
19. Imagine that you are going to take a trip to another planet or solar system. You will be gone for 15 years.
    List 10 things you will take with you for your spare time.
20. What question do you think should be on this survey that isn’t already on it?
                         Puzzle
This puzzle is about you, your interests and things that you
like to do. On each piece write things that you like to do in
your free time and things that you would like to study in
class. You can divide the areas if you need more pieces.
       Recipe of me!
    You’re a one-of-a-kind design made up of a unique blend of ingredients.
    For example, you may be a mix of strength, eight hours of sleep, and
    determination combined with your size (long or short legs, etc) your coloring
    (hair, eyes, etc), and other characteristics to make a complete recipe of you.

Think carefully about your personality, values, what makes you happy, what
   makes you special, favorite foods, hobbies, or any other characteristics that
   make up you. Use strong adjectives to describe you. Brainstorm first and
   write down your ideas.

    Required materials:
•   Recipe or lined index card(s) (enough for your recipe)
•   One small picture from home (These will be put in a class recipe book for
    the class, so pictures will not be returned. If you don’t want to give away a
    photo, draw a self-portrait instead.)
•   All of the above mounted on a 9” x 12” piece of construction paper with a
    border drawn by hand or computer.


                                            Due date_____________
Directions:
   Using food recipe measurements, list the ingredients that make YOU at the top of the index
card in recipe format. Then skip some lines and give directions on how to mix the ingredients
together. Tell whether there is a cooking time and temperature. Give your recipe a name.
   Extra points:
   If the name of your recipe uses alliteration (words beginning with the same letter), you will
receive bonus points.

                                            Recipe of ME
    _____ Recipe is given a name.
    _____ Alliteration was used in the name.
    _____ Recipe was put on colored background paper.
    _____ A border was added to the background paper.
    _____ A photo or self-portrait was added.
    _____ Recipe was written on an index or recipe card(s).
    _____ Recipe includes measurements and directions for mixing and
          cooking.
    _____ Strong adjectives are used to describe the person.
    _____ Physical characteristics are helpful in identifying the person.
    _____ The project is neatly constructed with minimal or no errors in
          conventions.
                                       Brown-Bag It!
    Read the following list of categories. After you get home today, find one
    item to represent each category. (The item must be small enough to fit into
    the lunch bag that your teacher will give you.) Try to find items that are 3D
    and unique. Bring your bag to school tomorrow. Be prepared to share the
    contents of your bag with your classmates.

                                                 CATEGORIES
•     A hobby or free-time activity that you enjoy
•     One of your favorites (food, color, music, book, etc.)
•     Future p;lans or goals
•     Something you’d like to do better
•     A place you’d like to visit
•     Something special about your family
•     The best part of summer vacation
•     Something that reminds you of a memorable event or time in your life
•     Something that you really dislike
•     A talent or special ability that your have



              Insert credits here, too small to read on original
                                            SIGN THE WALL
 Build some new friendships. For each ”brick” below, see if you can find a classmate who
 fits the description. Then ask that person to sign the brick. More than one person may
 sign a brick. Use the bottom row to write other interesting things you discover about
 your classmates.

I can write my                        I read at least four                        I dream in color
Name backwards                        Books this summer

I just moved           I can wiggle                           I have a                                           I can ride
                       My ears                                Strange pet.                                       A horse.

I have a birthday on                  I’ve liven in another                       I’ve lived in another decade
A holiday                             Country.

I built a              I can play a                           I’m a whiz at                                      I can
Tree house             Musical instrument                     Nintendo                                           Tap-dance

I’ve climbed a                        I can say ‘hello’ in                        I can jump off
Mountain.                             Sign language.                              The high dive.

I like                 I can whistle                          I can do a                                         I’m a Leap
Snakes                 Using my fingers                       Cartwheel                                          Year baby

I’ve tried skiing on                  I can blow huge                             I lick around ice cream
Snow or water.                        Bubbles with gum                            Cones, not up and down

I know                 I can ride a                           I already have my                                  I’d rather
Karate.                Unicycle                               Halloween costume                                  Be fishing

II can use                            I share a birthday                          I can juggle.
Chopsticks.                           With a famous person
                                         Interest Survey

1.    What types of TV programs do you like to       11.   What kind of books do you like?
      watch? Why?
                                                     12.   What are your favorite magazines?
2.    What hobbies do you have? How much
      time do you spend on your hobbies?             13.   What parts of the newspaper do you like
                                                           to look at? How do you learn about the
3.    If you could have anything you want, what            news if you don’t read the paper?
      would you choose? Why?
                                                     14.   What is your first choice about what to
4.    Tell about your favorite games.                      do when you have free time at home?
5.    What kind of movies do you like to see?        15.   If you could talk to any person alive,
      Why?                                                 who would it be? Why? Think of 3
6.    Tell about a vacation you would like to              questions you would ask the person.
      take.                                          16.   Imagine that you could invent
7.    What is your favorite activity or subject at         something to make the world a better
      school? Why?                                         place. Describe your invention.
8.    What is your least favorite activity or        17.   What is something you can do really
      subject at school? Why?                              well?
9.    What kinds of things have you collected?       18.   Tell me something else about yourself
      What do you do with the things you                   that you would like me to know.
      collect?
10.   What career(s) do you think might be right
      for you when you are an adult?
                           Howdy Do!
      Goal: Two signatures per square before time is called.
     Caution: Can’t sign more than twice on any person’s grid.
Keep a      Like       Surf the    Like to    Learn       Baby-sit
Journal     Planning   Net         Teach      Best by
            things     Regularly   Others     Doing
Wear        Like to    Don’t       Like to    Good        Need
Braces      Work in    Like        Sketch     Athlete     when I
            Groups     being                              read and
            on         alone                              study
            School
            Work
Write       Need       Like        Loyal      Like to     Good at
Songs or    Quiet      building    Friend     Work        Making
Compose     Time by    things                 Alone on    Money
Music       myself                            School
                                              Work
Strong      Collect    Need to     Have a     Good        Listen to
Leader      Somethin   Walk        Strange    Speller     Music
            g          Around      Pet                    when I
            (What?)    when I      (What?)                study
                       study
Learn       In-Line    Good        Like to    Learn       Hard
Best by     Skater     Story       Sing       Best by     Worker
Listening              Teller                 Reading
                                       What Lights You Up?
Below is a list of topics. To help us determine your interests, circle the five that interest you the most. Then,
prioritize your five topics on the spaces below. Place the one which interests you most on space #1, and so
             forth through your fifth selection. Make sure to put your name on the space provided.
     Advertising                         Economics                             Magic
     Animals                             Energy                                Medicine
     Archeology                          Elections/Voting                      Music
     Architecture                        Etymology                             Nutrition
     Arts/Artists                        Experiments
                                                                               Oceanography
     Astronomy                           Explorers
                                                                               Opera
     Authors                             Legends/Myths
     Biology                             Famous People                         Phobias
     Black History                       Forestry                              Photography
     Careers                             Fossils                               Pirates
     Cartooning                          Future Studies                        Plays/Acting
     Castles/Knights                     Gender Issues                         Poetry
     Civil War                           Genealogy                             Pollution
     Chemistry                           Genetics                              Presidents
     Communication                       Geology/Rocks/Minerals                Robots
     Computer Programming                Geography/Mapping                     Rocketry
     Conservation                        Hobbies
                                                                               Senior Citizens
     Cowboys                             Ice Age
                                                                               Sign Language
     Crime/Law                           Indians
     Dreams                              Inventions                            Stock Market
     Death                               Kites/Hot Air Balloon                 Transportation
     Ecology                             Local History                         Puppetry/Mime
                                                                               Weather
     Name:________________________________ Selection #1_____________________________
     Selection #2___________________________ Selection #3_____________________________
     Selection #4___________________________ Selection #5_____________________________
                                                                                                 Created by Jeanne Purcell
Other ways to tap interest…
Examples of Data Gathering for
   Student Learning Profile
                                                   Identifying Sensory Preferences
DIRECTIONS: For each item, circle “A” if you agree that the statement describes you most of the time. Circle “D” if
                      you disagree that the statement describes you most of the time.
  1.    I prefer reading a story rather than listening to someone tell it                                 A      D
  2.    I would rather watch television than listen to the radio                                          A      D
  3.    I remember faces better than names                                                                A      D
  4.    I like classrooms with lots of posters and pictures around the room                               A      D
  5.    The appearance of my handwriting is important to me                                               A      D
  6.    I think more often in pictures                                                                    A      D
  7.    Visual disorder or movement distracts me                                                          A      D
  8.    I have difficulty remembering directions that were told to me                                     A      D
  9.    I would rather watch athletic events than participate in them                                     A      D
  10.   I tend to organize my thoughts by writing them down                                               A      D
  11.   My facial expression is a good indicator of my emotions                                           A      D
  12.   I tent to remember names better than faces                                                        A      D
  13.   I would enjoy taking part in dramatic events like plays                                           A      D
  14.   I tend to sub-vocalize and think in sounds                                                        A      D
  15.   I am easily distracted by sounds                                                                  A      D
  16.   I easily forget what I read unless I talk about it                                                A      D
  17.   I would rather listen to the radio than watch television                                          A      D
  18.   My hand-writing is not very good                                                                  A      D
  19.   When faced with a problem, I tend to talk it through                                              A      D
  20.   I express my emotions verbally                                                                    A      D
  21.   I would rather be in a group discussion than read about a topic                                   A      D
  22.   I prefer talking on the telephone rather than writing a letter to someone                         A      D
  23.   I would rather participate in athletic events than watch them                                     A      D
  24.   I prefer going to museums where I can touch the exhibits                                          A      D
  25.   My handwriting deteriorates when the space becomes smaller                                        A      D
  26.   Movement usually accompanies my mental picture                                                    A      D
  27.   I like being outdoors and doing things like biking, camping, swimming, hiking, etc                A      D
  28.   I remember best what was done rather than what was seen or talked about                           A      D
  29.   When faced with a problem, I often select the solution involving the greatest activity            A      D
  30.   I like to make models or other handcrafted items                                                  A      D
  31.   I would rather do experiments rather than read about them                                         A      D
  32.   My body language is a good indicator of my emotions                                               A      D
  33.   I have difficulty remembering verbal directions if I have not done the activity before            A      D
             Interpreting The Instrument’s Score

          Totals the number of “A” responses in items 1 – 11:
                     This is your visual score.

          Total the number of “A” responses in items 12 – 22:
                     This is your auditory score.

          Total the number of “A” responses in items 23 – 33:
                     This is your tactile / kinesthetic score.

If you scored a lot higher in any one area: This indicates that this modality is very
probably your preference during a protracted and complex learning situation.

If you scored a lot lower in any one area: This indicates that this modality is not
likely to be your preference(s) in a learning situation.

If you got similar scores in all three areas: This indicates that you can learn things
in almost any way they are presented.
 MS/HS Health                            THE GOOD LIFE . . .
                                  Making Choices About Tobacco Use

          All products must:                                                 Differentiating Product
           Use key facts from class and research                                    Options
           Make a complete case                                               By Learning Profile
           Provide defensible evidence for the class
           Weigh varied viewpoints
           Be appropriate/useful for its target audience
           Give evidence of revision & quality in content & presentation
           Be thought-provoking rather than predictable


                       Visual                                                   Oral
• Story boards for TV “ad” using few/no words to        • Radio spot (public information with music timed
make the point                                           lead-in)
• Comic book parody with smoking super heroes /         • Nightline (Ted Koppel, Cokie Roberts with teen
super heroines                                           who smokes, tobacco farmer, tobacco CEO,
                                                         person with emphysema)
                       Written                                               Kinesthetic
• Brochure for pediatrician’s office – patients ages    • Pantomime of struggle of “will” regarding
9-16 as target audience – with graphics                 smoking, including a decision with rationale
• Research and write an editorial that compares         • Act out a printed skit on pressure to smoke and
the relative costs and benefits of tobacco to N.C. –    reasons not to smoke
submit for publication
Analytic Processors Learn Best With:

                    Quiet
             Bright Illumination
               Formal seating
          Snacking when relaxed
       Persistent – on – task behavior
                Works alone


Global Processors Learn Best With:

          Sound (music or voices)
              Soft illumination
              Informal seating
       Snacking while concentrating
              Frequent breaks
  Work with others (when beginning a task)
           Some Preferred Ways of Knowing
         According to Hemispheric Specialization
LEFT BRAIN SPECIALIZATION:               RIGHT BRAIN SPECIALIZATION:
•   Prefers verbal explanations          •   Prefers visual explanations
•   Uses language to remember            •   Uses images to remember
•   Processes information                •   Processes information holistically
    sequentially                         •   Produces ideas intuitively
•   Produces ideas logically             •   Prefers abstract thinking tasks
•   Prefers concrete thinking tasks      •   Deals with several tasks at a time
•   Deals with one task at a time        •   Prefers synthesizing activities
•   Prefers analyzing activities         •   Improvises with materials
•   Prefers proper working materials         available
•   Likes structured experiences         •   Likes open, fluid experiences
•   Prefers to learn facts and details   •   Prefers to gain general overview
•   Approaches problems seriously        •   Approaches problems playfully
              Intelligence Preference
Human brains are “wired” differently in different individuals.
Although all normally functioning people use all parts of their brains,
each of us is “wired” to be better in some areas than in others
(Gardner, Sternberg).


Differentiation based on a student’s intelligence preference
generally suggests allowing the student to work in a preferred mode
and helping the student to develop that capacity further.


Sometimes teachers also ask students to extend their preferred
modes of working, or they opt to use a student’s preferred areas to
support growth in less comfortable areas.
         EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING
TYPE               CHARACTERISTICS                LIKES TO               IS GOOD AT          LEARNS BEST BY
LINGUISTIC         Learns through the             Read                   Memorizing          Saying, hearing and
                   manipulation of words.                                names, places,      seeing words
LEARNER            Loves to read and write in
                                                  Write
“The Word                                         Tell stories           dates and trivia
                   order to explain themselves.
Player”            They also tend to enjoy
                   talking
LOGICAL/           Looks for patterns when        Do experiments         Math                Categorizing
                   solving problems. Creates a    Figure things out
Mathematical       set of standards and follows
                                                                         Reasoning           Classifying
Learner            them when researching in a     Work with numbers      Logic               Working with abstract
“The Questioner”   sequential manner.             Ask questions          Problem solving     patterns/relationships
                                                  Explore patterns and
                                                  relationships
SPATIAL            Learns through pictures,       Draw, build, design    Imagining things    Visualizing
LEARNER            charts, graphs, diagrams,      and create things      Sensing changes
                   and art.
                                                                                             Dreaming
“The Visualizer”                                  Daydream               Mazes/puzzles       Using the mind’s eye
                                                  Look at                Reading maps,       Working with
                                                  pictures/slides        charts              colors/pictures
                                                  Watch movies
                                                  Play with machines
MUSICAL            Learning is often easier for   Sing, hum tunes        Picking up sounds   Rhythm
LEARNER            these students when set to                            Remembering
                   music or rhythm
                                                  Listen to music                            Melody
“The Music                                        Play an instrument     melodies
                                                                                             Music
Lover”                                                                   Noticing pitches/
                                                  Respond to music
                                                                         rhythms
                                                                         Keeping time
                   EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING, Cont’d
TYPE                CHARACTERISTICS                LIKES TO            IS GOOD AT            LEARNS BEST BY
BODILY/             Eager to solve problems        Move around         Physical activities   Touching
                    physically. Often doesn’t                          (Sports/dance/        Moving
Kinesthetic         read directions but just
                                                   Touch and talk
Learner             starts on a project            Use body            acting)               Interacting with space
“The Mover”                                        language            crafts                Processing knowledge
                                                                                             through bodily
                                                                                             sensations
INTERpersonal       Likes group work and           Have lots of        Understanding         Sharing
                    working cooperatively to       friends             people                Comparing
Learner             solve problems. Has an
“The Socializer”                                   Talk to people      Leading others        Relating
                    interest in their community.
                                                   Join groups         Organizing            Cooperating
                                                                       Communicating         interviewing
                                                                       Manipulating
                                                                       Mediating conflicts
INTRApersonal       Enjoys the opportunity to      Work alone          Understanding self    Working along
                    reflect and work                                   Focusing inward on    Individualized projects
Learner             independently. Often quiet
                                                   Pursue own
“The Individual”                                                       feelings/dreams       Self-paced instruction
                    and would rather work on         interests
                    his/her own than in a                              Pursuing interests/   Having own space
                    group.                                               goals
                                                                       Being original
NATURALIST          Enjoys relating things to      Physically          Exploring natural     Doing observations
“The Nature         their environment. Have a      experience nature   phenomenon            Recording events in
Lover”              strong connection to
                                                   Do observations     Seeing connections    Nature
                    nature.
                                                   Responds to         Seeing patterns       Working in pairs
                                                   patterning nature   Reflective Thinking   Doing long term projects
                                 The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
        This quiz can help you determine where your true intelligence lies. Read each statement.
If it truly expresses some characteristics of yours for the most part, write a T in the blank. If it doesn’t
   describe you accurately, write down an F. If it is sometimes true, sometimes false, leave it blank.
     1.____ I’d rather draw a map than give someone verbal directions.
     2.____ I can play (or used to play) a musical instrument.
     3.____ I can associate music with my moods.
     4.____ I can add or multiply quickly in my head.
     5.____ I like to work with calculators and computers.
     6.____ I pick up new dance steps quickly.
     7.____ It’s easy for me to say what I think in an argument or debate.
     8.____ I enjoy a good lecture, speech, or sermon.
     9.____ I always know north from south no matter where I am.
    10.____ Life seems empty without music.
    11.____ I always understand the directions that come with new gadgets or appliances.
    12.____ I like to work puzzles and play games.
    13.____ Learning to ride a bike or skates was easy.
    14.____ I am irritated when I hear an argument or statement that sounds illogical.
    15.____ My sense of balance and coordination is good.
    16.____ I often see patterns and relationships between numbers faster and easier than others.
    17.____ I enjoy building models or sculpting.
    18.____ I’m good at finding the fine points of word meanings.
    19.____ I can look at an object one way and see it turned sideways or backwards just as easily.
    20.____ I often connect a piece of music with some event in my life.
    21.____ I like to work with numbers and figures.
    22.____ Just looking at shapes of buildings and structures is pleasurable to me.
    23.____ I like to hum, whistle, and sing in the shower or when I’m alone.
    24.____ I’m good at athletics.
    25.____ I’d like to study the structure and logic of languages.
    26.____ I’m usually aware of the expressions on my face.
    27.____ I’m sensitive to the expressions on other people’s faces.
    28.____ I stay “in touch” with my moods. I have no trouble identifying them.
    29.____ I am sensitive to the moods of others.
    30.____ I have a good sense of what others think of me.
                                       SCORING SHEET
  Place a check mark by each item which you marked as “true”. Add your totals. A total of four in any
of the categories A through E indicates strong ability. In categories F through G a score of one or more
                           means you have abilities in these areas as well.


           A                      B                   C                     D
           Linguistic             Logical             Musical               Spatial
                                  Mathematical
           7._______              4._______          2._______             1._______
           8._______              5._______          3._______             9._______
          14._______             12._______         10._______            11._______
          18._______             16._______         20._______            19._______
          25._______             21._______         23._______            22._______



            E                      F                  G
            Body -                Intrapersonal      Interpersonal
           Kinesthetic
            6.______              26._______         27.________
           13.______              28._______         29.________
           15.______                                 30.________
           17.______
           24.______
              STERNBERG’S INTELLIGENCES
  ANALYTICAL                  Linear – (Schoolhouse Smart) - Sequential

  PRACTICAL                   Street Smart – Contextual – Focus on Use

  CREATIVE                    Innovator – Outside the Box – What If Thinker

An idea for assessing students according to Sternberg’s intelligences
would be to five the following scenario:
Imagine you are driving with your parents and they are listening to the
radio. An interesting piece comes on about something you do not know. As
you listen, you get more and more interested. What do you want to know?
         Do you want to know all the little details that go into it?
         Do you want to know how it is being used?
         Do you want to know only enough information to think of other
                   things to do?
Students who choose the first question fall into the analytic intelligence, the
second corresponds to practical and those who choose the final question
are the creative learners.
        Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences
ANALYTICAL           Linear – Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential
  Show the parts of _________ and how they work.
  Explain why _______ works the way it does.
  Diagram how __________ affects __________________.
  Identify the key parts of _____________________.
  Present a step-by-step approach to _________________.

PRACTICAL            Street smart – Contextual – Focus on Use
  Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work.
  Show how we could apply _____ to solve this real life problem ____.
  Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used.
  Here’s a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of
            ______________, develop a plan to address the problem.

 CREATIVE          Innovator – Outside the Box – What If - Improver
  Find a new way to show _____________.
  Use unusual materials to explain ________________.
  Use humor to show ____________________.
  Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________.
  Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________.
  Become a ____ and use your “new” perspectives to help us think about
  ____________.
                Tall Tales                           Differentiation According To
                Grade 3                                 Learning Profile Using
                                                      Sternberg’s Intelligences
                     What makes a Tall Tale
      Know:          Definition of fact and exaggeration

                         An exaggeration starts with a fact and stretches it.
    Understand:          People sometimes exaggerate to make their stories or deeds seem more
                         wonderful or scarier.
                                                                                  Johnny Appleseed’s
        Do:          Distinguish fact and exaggeration
                                                                                  Facts       Exaggeration
                                 Analytical Task
                    Listen to or read Johnny Appleseed and
                       complete the organizer as you do.
           Practical Task                                                     Here’s why Johnny exaggerates.
Think of a time when you or someone you know was sort of like the Johnny Appleseed
story and told a tall tale about something that happened. Write and draw both the factual
or true version of the story and the tall tale version.

                             Creative Task – RAFT assignment
         Role           Audience             Format                                 Topic
     Someone in         Our class          Diary entry        Let me tell you what happened while Johnny A.
      our class                                               and I were on the way to school today . . .


                                                                                                       Tomlinson * 00
          Biology – A Lesson Using Sternberg’s
    Intelligences to Differentiate by Learning Profile
Learning Goals:
 Know - Names of cell parts, functions of cell parts
 Understand - A cell is a system with interrelated parts
 Do – Analyze the interrelationships of cell parts/functions
       Present understandings in a clear, useful, interesting and fresh way.
 After whole class study of a cell, students choose one of the following sense-making activities.
Analytical: Use a cause/effect chain or some other format you develop to show how each part of a cell
     affects other parts as well as the whole. Use labels, directional markers, and other symbols as
     appropriate to ensure that someone who is pretty clueless about how a cell works will be enlightened
     after they study your work.
Practical: Look around you in your world or the broader world for systems that could serve as analogies for
     the cell. Select your best analogy (“best” most clearly matched, most explanatory or enlightening).
     Devise a way to make the analogy clear and visible to an audience of peers, ensuring that they will
     develop clearer and richer insights about how a cell works by sharing in your work. Be sure to
     emphasize both the indi9vidual functions of cell parts and the interrelationships among the parts.
Creative: Use unlikely stuff to depict the structure and function of the cell, with emphasis on interrelationships
     among each of the parts. You should select your materials carefully to reveal something important about
     the cell, it’s parts, and their interrelationships your ahas should trigger ours.
                                                           or
Tell a story that helps us understand a cell as a system with interdependent actors or characters, a plot to
     carry out, a setting, and even a potential conflict. Use your own imagination and narrative preferences to
     help us gain insights into this remarkable system.
Students share their work in a 3 format – first triads of students who completed the same option, then triads
     with each of the 3 categories represented.
This is then followed by a teacher-led, whole class discussion of cells as systems, then a “Teacher Challenge”
     in which the teacher asks students to make analogies or other sorts of comparisons between cells, cell
     parts, or interrelationships and objects, photos, or examples produced by the teacher.
            My Way . . .                   An Expression Style Inventory
                                              K. E. Kettle, J.S. Rensull, M. G. Rissa
                                                          University of Connecticut
Products provide students and professionals with a way to express what they have learned to an
audience. This survey will help determine the kinds of products YOU are interested in creating.
My Name is: _____________________________________________________________
Instructions:
Read each statement and circle the number that shows to what extent YOU are interested in creating
that type of product. (Do not worry if you are unsure of how to make the product.
       1 = Not at all interested; 2 = Of little interest; 3 = Moderately interested; 4 = Interested; 5 = Very interested

 1.      Writing stories                           12345              11.     Writing for a newspaper         12345
 2.      Discussing what I have learned            12345              12.     Discussing ideas                12345
 3.      Painting a picture                        12345              13.     Drawing pictures for a book     12345
 4.      Designing a computer software                                14.     Designing an interactive computer
         project                                   12345                       project                        12345
 5.      Filming & editing a video                 12345              15.     Filming & editing a television
 6.      Creating a company                        12345                       show                           12345
 7.      Helping in the community                  12345              16.     Operating a business            12345
 8.      Acting in a play                          12345              17.     Working to help others          12345
 9.      Building an invention                     12345              18.     Acting out an event             12345
 10.     Playing a musical instrument              12345              19.     Building a project              12345
                                    My Way . . .
                        An Expression Style Inventory
20.   Playing in a band               12345       37.   Helping others by fundraising   12345
21.   Writing for a magazine          12345       38.   Performing a skit               12345
22.   Talking about my project        12345       39.   Constructing a working model 1 2 3 4 5
23.   Making a clay sculpture of a                40.   Performing music               12345
       character                      12345       41.   Writing a report               12345
24.   Designing information for the               42.   Talking about my experiences 1 2 3 4 5
       computer internet              12345       43.   Making a clay sculpture of a
25.   Filming & editing a movie       12345              scene                         12345
26.   Marketing a product             12345       44.   Designing a multi-media computer
27.   Helping others by supporting                       show                          12345
       a social cause                 12345       45.   Selecting slides & music for a
28.   Acting out a story              12345              slide show                    12345
29.   Repairing a machine             12345       46.   Managing investments           12345
30.   Composing music                 12345       47.   Collecting clothing or food to
31.   Writing an essay                12345              help others                   12345
32.   Discussing my research          12345       48.   Role-playing a character       12345
33.   Painting a mural                12345       49.   Assembling a kit               12345
34.   Designing a computer game       12345       50.   Playing in an orchestra        12345
35.   Recording & editing a radio show1 2 3 4 5
36.   Marketing an idea               12345
                  My Way . . . A Profile

Instructions: Write your score beside each number. Add each ROW to determine
              YOUR expression style profile.
Products                                                                   TOTAL
Written             1.____ 11.____ 21.____ 31.____ 41.____                 _____
Oral                2.____ 12.____ 22.____ 32.____ 42.____                 _____
Artistic            3.____ 13.____ 23.____ 33.____ 43.____                 _____
Computer            4.____ 14.____ 24.____ 34.____ 44.____                 _____
Audio/Visual        5.____ 15.____ 25.____ 35.____ 45.____                 _____
Commercial          6.____ 16.____ 26.____ 36.____ 46.____                 _____
Service             7.____ 17.____ 27.____ 37.____ 47.____                 _____
Dramatization       8.____ 18.____ 28.____ 38.____ 48.____                 _____
Manipulative        9.____ 19.____ 29.____ 39.____ 49.____                 _____
Musical             10.___ 20.____ 30.____ 40.____ 50.____                 _____
                  The Quick Click Profile for MS/HS/Adult
     Instructions: Below, identify those behaviors which are MOST – TO- LEAST characteristic of you in a specific
       Context. Assign “4” points to the MOST characteristic, “3” to the next most, then “2” and then “1” to the
                                             LEAST. See the example below.
         ONE                           TWO                              THREE                      FOUR
Goal-Oriented                  Enthusiastic                    Steadfast                    Analytical
Confident                      Personable                      Patient                      Cautious
Directing                      Optimistic                      Systematic                   Conscientious
Competitive                    Spontaneous                     Easy Going                   Perfectionist
Determined                     Persuasive                      Agreeable                    Curious
Daring                         Impulsive                       Stable                       Precise
Restless                       Emotional                       Protective                   Doubting
Courageous                     Charming                        Accommodating                Consistent
               TOTAL                          TOTAL                           TOTAL                         TOTAL



                                                  GRAND TOTAL = 80
                                                     EXAMPLE
 Restless               3      Talkative              4     Sensitive                   1   Restrained              2
 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COUNTING:
 1.   Total the numbers in each of the four columns.
 2.   Check your accuracy to totaling all the columns together. This should equal 80.
                     Quick Click Profile for MS/HS/Adult
                                     HOW TO RECOGNIZE STYLE

                     Director              Influencer        Stabilizer         Perfectionist

Rate of Decision     Very fast             Quick             Indecisive         Methodical

Emotions             Anger/outburst        Excited/Shows     Hides Feelings     None
                                           emotion
Information Needed   Some general          Minimal           Some               Much detail

Openness             Direct/to the point   Very open and     Reserved/limited   Closed/selective
                                           talkative
Conflict             Argumentative         Will verbalize    Dislikes/avoids    Will argue points or
                                                                                facts
Hand Gestures        Plenty                Many              Some               Minimal

Activity w/other     Selective             A great deal      Some               Limited
students
Note Taking          Rare                  Some              Average            Much

Independence         Very                  Some              Little             Somewhat

Control              Angers Easily         Up/enthusiastic   Supportive         Quiet

Organization         Some                  Limited           Organized          Compulsive

Speech               Fast                  Talkative         Slow               Very Slow
       STYLE (one)                         STYLE (two)
      THE DIRECTOR                       THE INFLUENCER
          Goal Oriented                     People Oriented
        Accepts Challenge                      Optimistic
  Excellent at Problem Solving                Enthusiastic
     Likes Immediate Results                  Motivational
     Makes Quick Decisions                Good Communicator
Likes Leading and Taking Control        Good Counselor or Coach
              Direct                           Interactive
    Takes Risks and is Daring                 Entertaining
                                                 Intuitive
           DESIRES:
     Prestige and authority                   DESIRES:
          Challenges                       Public recognition
        Varied activities                Freedom of expression
    Opportunity for individual              Group activities
       accomplishments                  Opportunities to verbalize

      STYLE (three)                        STYLE (four)
     THE STABILIZER                    THE PERFECTIONIST
          Consistent                           Cautious
            Patient                            Analytical
     Desire to Help Others                Attention To Details
             Loyal                             Diplomatic
        Good Listener                    Checks for Accuracy
     Calm Excited People                      Perfectionist
          Predictable                       Critical Thinker
        Task oriented                  Uses Systematic Approach

            DESIRES:                            DESIRES:
           Appreciation                  Quality and excellence
   Harmonious environment                Reserved atmosphere
   Identification with a group                    Details
  Credit for work accomplished     Opportunity to demonstrate expertise
                                Four Types of Learners
If students want to know:                       They like               They have skills of:
                            •   using personal experience    •   discussion
                            •   affective classrooms         •   listening
                            •   inquiry                      •   processing
        WHY?                •   meaning / clarity            •   brainstorming
                            •   cooperative / group work     •   sharing ideas
                            •   active classrooms            •   interacting
                            •   insight
                            •   information                  •   observing
                            •   individual work              •   analyzing
                            •   lecture                      •   classifying
       WHAT?                •   facts, figures, details      •   drawing
                            •   direct instruction           •   conclusions
                            •   routine, repetition, drill
                            •   getting to the point         •   experimenting
                            •   practical application        •   manipulating
                            •   hands-on activities          •   following directions
                            •   to be active in learning     •   problem solving
        HOW?                •   produce a product            •   building on givens
                            •   tinker                       •   making things work
                            •   instructor as coach
                            •   plans, time lines
                            •   new things                   •   applying
                            •   change                       •   testing
     What Can               •   self discovery               •   creating
   This Become?             •   learning randomly            •   risking
                            •   intuition and inquiry        •   enriching
                            •   whole picture                •   integration
                                    How Do You Like To Learn?
1. I study best when it is quiet.                                              Yes   No
2. I am able to ignore the noise of other people talking while I am working.   Yes   No
3. I like to work at a table or desk.                                          Yes   No
4. I like to work on the floor.                                                Yes   No
5. I work hard for myself.                                                     Yes   No
6. I work hard for my parents or teacher.                                      Yes   No
7. I will work on an assignment until it is completed, no matter what.         Yes   No
8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my work and do not finish it.               Yes   No
9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to have exact steps on how to
     complete it.                                                             Yes    No
10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to create my own steps on how
      to complete it                                                           Yes   No
11. I like to work by myself.                                                  Yes   No
12. I like to work in pairs or in groups.                                      Yes    No
13. I like to have an unlimited amount of time to work on an assignment.       Yes   No
14. I like to have a certain amount of time to work on an assignment.          Yes   No
15. I like to learn by moving and doing.                                       Yes   No
16. I like to learn while sitting at my desk.                                  Yes   No
  Observations   A   V   K   M   P   C
    Names
Peter
Paul
Mary
John
Ringo
Starr
   Smith Cards


Name



                 Interests
Examples of Content…
Know, Understand, Do
Mortimer Adler’s List of the Most Important Concepts in Western Civilization
   1.    Angel                   37.   Idea                 73.    Punishment
   2.    Animal                  38.   Immortality          74.    Quality
   3.    Aristocracy             39.   Induction            75.    Quantity
   4.    Art                     40.   Infinity             76.    Reasoning
   5.    Astronomy               41.   Judgment             77.    Relation
   6.    Beauty                  42.   Justice              78.    Religion
   7.    Being                   43.   Labor                79.    Revolution
   8.    Cause                   44.   Language             80.    Rhetoric
   9.    Chance                  45.   Law                  81.    Same/Other
   10.   Change                  46.   Liberty              82.    Science
   11.   Citizen                 47.   Life and death       83.    Sense
   12.   Constitution            48.   Logic                84.    Sign/Symbol
   13.   Courage                 49.   Love                 85.    Sin
   14.   Custom and convention   50.   Man                  86.    Slavery
   15.   Definition              51.   Mathematics          87.    Soul
   16.   Democracy               52.   Matter               88.    Space
   17.   Desire                  53.   Mechanics            89.    State
   18.   Dialectic               54.   Medicine             90.    Temperance
   19.   Duty                    55.   Memory/Imagination   91.    Theology
   20.   Education               56.   Metaphysics          92.    Time
   21.   Element                 57.   Mind                 93.    Truth
   22.   Emotion                 58.   Monarchy             94.    Tyranny
   23.   Eternity                59.   Nature               95.    Universe
   24.   Evolution               60.   Necessity            96.    Virtue/Vice
   25.   Experience              61.   Oligarchy            97.    War & Peace
   26.   Family                  62.   One and Many         98.    Wealth
   27.   Fate                    63.   Opinion              99.    Will
   28.   Form                    64.   Opposition           100.   Wisdom
   29.   God                     65.   Philosophy           101.   World
   30.   Good and Evil           66.   Physics
   31.   Government              67.   Pleasure and Pain
   32.   Habit                   68.   Poetry
   33.   Happiness               69.   Principle
   34.   History                 70.   Progress
   35.   Honor                   71.   Prophecy
   36.   hypothesis              72.   Prudence
                         Know

Know – These are the facts, vocabulary, dates, places,
  names and examples you want them to give you.

The know is massively forgettable. Keep in mind that the
  brain does not know the difference between useful and
  useless information.


          “Teaching facts in isolation
               is like trying to
             pump water uphill.”
                                Carol Ann Tomlinson
                   Understand
        (Major Concepts and Subconcepts)
These are the written statements of truth, the core to the
  meaning(s) of the lesson(s) or unit. These are what
  connect the parts of a subject to the student’s life and to
  other subjects.

It is through the understanding component of instruction of
    instruction that we teach our students to truly grasp the
    “point” of the lesson or the experience.

Understandings are purposeful, they focus on the key ideas
  that require students to understand information and
  make connections while evaluating the relationship that
  exist within the understandings.
                   Skills (do / be like)
These are the basic skills of any discipline. They include
  the thinking skills such as analyzing, evaluating, and
  synthesizing. These are the skills of planning, the skills
  of being an independent learner, the skills of setting and
  following criteria, the skills of using the tools of
  knowledge such as adding, dividing, understanding
  multiple perspectives, following a timeline, using latitude
  and longitude to locate a city on a map, interpreting a
  map, or following the steps of the scientific method.

The skill portion encourages the students to “think” like the
  professionals who use the knowledge and skill daily as a
  matter of how they do business. This is what it means to
  “be like” a doctor, a scientist, a writer, or an artist.
                              Unit Overview
                  Grade 3: Biography / Autobiography
Know                                           Be Able to Do
 biography (definitions/ characteristics)       Define personal goals / traits
 autobiography (definition / characteristics    Describe / illustrate personal goals / traits
 descriptive adjectives (definition list)       Uuse description effectively
 traits                                         Write in complete sentences
 theme (definition / examples)                  Share writing with others
Understand                                      Evaluate own writing according to set
 Our decisions affect our lives                    criteria
 Today’s decisions affect now and later         Interpret biographical writing
 It’s important to know traits you admire       Write autobiographically
     and to try to practice those things
 Successful people try to be true to what
     they believe
 Sometimes live doesn’t work like we want
     it to
 We can learn from both good times and
     difficult times
 People’s lives affect one another
                           Unit Overview
                Grade 3: Biography / Autobiography
General Unit Sequence

•   Teacher introduces biography / autobiography by reading from several of
    each
•   Students & teacher generate a list of characteristics of biography and
    autobiography
•   In pairs, students read a biography and map the traits (d/r)
•   In pairs students read an autobiography and map the traits (d/i)
•   Teacher introduces idea of human traits / personality traits. Class generates
    list.
•   Students develop a “Name the Trait” clue for the class based on a person in
    one of the biographies and autobiographies. Class generates themes from
    teacher-read selections.
•   Students do a “Theme Match” in which some students who have quotes on
    cards that suggest theme words on cards.
•   Students select a biography or autobiography to read (d/i&r). Periodic
    sharing in varied ways.
                           Unit Overview
                Grade 3: Biography / Autobiography
General Unit Sequence (cont’d)
•   Teacher introduces ideas of students as biographers and themes in
    students’ own lives.
•   Students complete and share Traits and Themes Class Autobiographies
    (d/r).
•   Teacher leads whole class discussions on interpreting biography /
    autobiography.
•   Students do interpretive “maps” of student choice books and share with
    peers (d/r).
•   Students and teacher create interpretive timeline of the class as a whole.
•   Students create own interpretive timeline.
•   Students and teacher turn the class timeline into an autobiographical piece
    and assess their work according to a qauality checklist. They revise for
    improvement.
•   Students turn own timelines into autobiographical sketches, self and peer
    assess, revise, and publish for someone special (d/r).
•   Students and teacher add a dedication to the class autobiography to
    highlight a theme of the piece.
•   Students add dedication to their sketches to highlight a theme in
•   their lives.
Principles, Generalizations, or Big Ideas Are


         Core – at the heart of the discipline

         Enduring – have lasting value

         Transferable – to other topics, subjects
                         and contexts

         Connective – help students understand
                      facts, skills, other ideas
                      and their lives
    Scenario of a Differentiated Classroom
Background
Ms Largent has taught in a differentiated classroom for most of her 15
  years as a teacher. Differentiation has become a natural and relatively
  automatic way for her to think about teaching and learning. She and
  her U.S. History students have spent much of this school year
  exploring the concepts of stability, change, and revolution. They
  have related these key concepts to the ebb and flow of history, making
  parallels to the time period they are studying, current events, students’
  own lives, and other subjects such as literature and science. This helps
  students make connections between what they study in history, other
  areas they study, and their own lives.

More recently, students have been looking at the idea of revolution in the
  past by looking at current trends in technology. Students are
  investigating two parallel generalizations: (1) revolution affects
  individuals as nations, and (2) people affect revolution. Key skills for the
  unit are appropriate use and interpretations of research materials, and
  support of ideas with appropriate evidence.
  Scenario

Getting Started
To ensure that all students have the necessary background, students have
   worked on several tasks this week. First, Ms Largent gave a pre-test on
   the chapter. Students who had considerable background knowledge
   began working with tasks designed to come after acquisition of
   background knowledge. Other students completed a K-W-L activity
   and then read the text chapter on the Industrial Revolution. By their own
   choice, some read with reading buddies and some alone. During the
   course of two days, the teacher met with small reading and
   discussion groups of 6 – 8 students. With struggling learners, she
   read key passages to them, had them read key passages aloud, and
   ensured their understanding of essential ideas and events. She also
   helped them think about their experiences and how those experiences
   might link with those of early adolescents during the Industrial
   Revolution. With two other small groups, she probed their
   comprehension of the chapter and then posed questions about how
   changes in technology affected society then and now, for better and for
   worse. With one group of advanced learners, she had students
   propose and discuss social, economic, and political costs and benefits
   of the Industrial Revolution. Later, in a whole class discussion, she
   raised all the these ideas again.
   Scenario
To prepare for a chapter test, Ms Largent assigned mixed readiness review
   teams and gave them a teacher-prepared review protocol clarifying what
   students needed to know and understand for the test. Students took part in a
   Teams-Games-Tournament review, studying in mixed readiness teams, and
   participating in the games portion of the review at similar readiness tables.
   This allowed the teacher to adjust questions to an appropriate challenge level
   for individual students, but still enabled all students were required to answer.
   One set of students, however, had an essay question closely related to their
   own experience and to the class discussions. Another set of students had a
   question requiring them to venture further into unexplored applications.

Expanding the Study
To move from specifics about the Industrial Revolution to a broader application of
   key understandings, students selected one of ten “modern revolutionary”
   figures to investigate as a way of seeing how people affect revolution. The
   students worked independently for a day and then formed a cluster with
   other students who selected the same revolutionary figure. They decided how
   their cluster should show what a revolutionary figure does. The cluster groups
   could decide to make a caricature, create a blueprint for a revolutionary, draft
   a reference book entry on what a revolutionary is and does, or act out their
   response. In most classes, there were six or seven cluster groups. After
   preparing the product, each cluster group gave one presentation to 2-3 other
   cluster groups. Finally, Ms Largent led the class in making a list of
   generalizations about how revolutionaries affect change.
Scenario


Next, some students used excerpts from either Katherine Paterson’s novel, Liddie
  or Harriette Arnow’s novel The Dollmaker (both set in the Industrial Revolution –
  the former written at a relatively basic reading level, the latter at a more
  advanced reading level) to investigate how revolution affects individuals and
  how individuals affect revolution. Ms Largent assigned students to one of four
  groups based largely on her assessment of student readiness in reading,
  abstractness of thinking, and independence in research. In some instances,
  however, she placed students in groups based on learning style needs (e.g.
  students who might need to hear rather than read passages).

One group listened to a tape of key passages from Lyddie, distilling how and why
  the main character became first a factory worker, then an organizer for better
  working conditions. They then worked in pairs on the computer to create a time
  for better working conditions. They then worked in pairs on the computer to
  create a time line of data and events demonstrating how the character was
  initially affected by events in a revolution and then came to affect events in that
  revolution.

A second group read specified portions of Lyddie and a folder of articles on
   current factory conditions in developing countries. Their task was to work in
   groups of three to produce an authentic conversation between Lyddie and two
   fact-based fictional characters from contemporary sweat shops in which the
   three shared problems, dreams and a plan of action.
 Scenario


A third groups listened to excerpts from The Dollmaker. They then
   selected a partner from their groups and investigated benefits to
   contemporary society that can be traced to the Industrial Revolution.
   Working with their partners, they created a written or made-for-TV
   Editorial on the proposition that the cost of the industrial Revolution was
   (or was not) worth its benefits.

A fourth group read designated excerpts from both Lyddie and The
   Dollmaker. They then researched the current computer revolution and
   used what they learned to create on of three products: (1) a series of
   comparative editorial cartoons based on the Industrial Revolution and
   the Computer revolution, (2) a computer revolution version of version of
   an episode paralleling Lyddie or The Dollmaker, or (3) a TV
   newsmagazine style segment on how the computer revolution is
   affecting people and how people are affecting the computer revolution.
   Students in the TV newsmagazine group will need more time to
   complete their work, but will periodically work on their task rather than
   doing homework and class work that focus on skills and information they
   have already mastered.
  Scenario


Applying What Has Been Learned

At the end of the Industrial Revolution study, all students will select
   someone who revolutionized a field of interest to them (e.g.
   women’s rights, sports, medicine, aviation, civil rights, physics,
   music, their own community). Each student will complete a
   product called “Dangerous Minds: Understanding People Who
   Revolutionize the World.” There are two versions of the
   product assignment. One is more transformational, abstract,
   open-ended and complex than the other in content, process
   production, and rubrics. Ms Largent’s goal in assigning a given
   version of the product to a particular student is to push that
   student a bit further than he is comfortable going in knowledge,
   insight, thinking, planning, research, use of skills, and production.
   All students must demonstrate an understanding of the key
   concepts and generalizations for the unit, and appropriate
   application of the unit’s key skills.
       RECOMMENDED WEBSITES FOR DIFFERENTIATED
             LESSON IDEAS AND EXAMPLES

www.mcrel.org (Mid Continent Research Education Laboratory)
www.nctm.org (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics)
www.reading.org (International Reading Association)
www.ericec.org (Eric Clearinghouse)
www.austega.com/gifted (Australian Education 2020 Project)
www.bced.gov.bc.ca/bced (British Columbia Ministry of Education)
www.ascd.org (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development)
www.sricboces.org/Goals2000/index.html (New York State project for development of
differentiated lessons)
www.rogertaylor.com (Roger Taylor’s site with prepared lessons, some free, some for
sale. Membership information included.)
http://school.aol.com (Safe links to many learning sites for various levels of students
on a multitude of subjects.)
 Resources Related to Differentiated Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms
            Association For Supervision and Curriculum Development. (1994). Challenging gifted learners in
the regular classroom. Alexandria, VA: Author. (video staff development set)

            Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (1997). Differentiating instruction.
Alexandria, VA: Author. (video staff development set)

           Archambault, F., Westberg, K., Brown, S., Hallmark, B., Zhang, W., & Emmons, C. (1993).
Classroom practices used with giften third and fourth grade students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted,
16. 103-119.

           Bacharach, N., Hasslen, R., & Anderson, J. (1995) Learning together: A manual for multiage
grouping. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

             Bateman, B. (1993) Learning disabilities: The changing landscape. Journal of Learning
Disabilities, 25(1), 29-36.

           Bingham, A. (1995) Exploring the multiage classroom. York, ME: Stenhouse.

           Cohen, E., & Benton, J. (1988) Making groupwork work. American Educator, 12(3) 10-17, 45-46.

            Cole, R. (1995). Educating everybody’s children: Diverse teaching strategies for diverse
learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

          Krumboltz, J., & Yeh, C. (1996, December). Competitive grading sabotages good teaching. Phi
Delta Kappan, 324-326.

           Lee, C., & Jackson, R. (1992). Faking it. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers.

          Maeda, B.l (1994). The multi-age classroom: An inside look at one community of learners.
Cypress, CA: Creative Teaching Press.
            MacCracken, M. (1986). Turnabout children, New York: Signet Books.

           Ostrow, J., (1995). A room with a different view: First through third graders build community
and create curriculum. New York: Stenhouse.

          Strachota, B. (1996). On their side: Helping children take charge of their learning. Greenfield,
MA: Northeast Society for Children.

            Tomlinson, C. (1995). Deciding to differentiate instruction in middle school: One school’s
journey. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39, 77-87.

           Tomlinson, C. (1995). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria,
VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

              Tomlinson, C. (1996). Differentiating instruction for mixed ability classrooms: A professional
inquiry kit. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

            Tomlinson, C. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners.
Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

              Tomlinson, C., Moon, T., & Callahan, C. (1998). How well are we addressing academic
diversity in the middle school? Middle School Journal, 29(3), 3-11.

            Weinbrenner, S. (1992). Teaching gifted kids in the regular classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free
Spirit.

           Winebrenner, S. (1996). Teaching kids with learning difficulties in the regular classroom.
Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.

(Provided By – Carol Ann Tomlinson, Ed.D. Room 179 Ruffner Hall, U.Va. 405 Emmet St. Charlottesville,
VA 22903 Phone 804 924-7161).

				
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