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					Maps!
                   Globes
   A globe is a scale
    model of the earth
   Since the earth is
    round, a globe
    presents the most
    accurate depiction
    of the earth.
   However, globes
    show very little
    geographic detail.
                   Maps
   A map is a symbolic representation
    of all or part of the planet on a flat
    surface.
   Unlike globes, maps can show small
    areas in great detail.
   Another advantage is maps can be
    folded and easily stored.
        Planar Map Projections
   These show the earth centered in such a way that
    a straight line coming from the center to any
    other point representing the shortest distance.
   These maps are the most accurate at the center
    and is often used for maps of the poles.
Cylindrical Projection Maps
                 These maps are based
                  on the projection of
                  the globe onto a
                  cylinder.
                 These are most
                  accurate at the
                  equator, but shapes
                  and distances are
                  distorted at the poles.
         Conic Projection Maps
   A conic projection
    comes from placing a
    cone over part of a
    globe.
   These are best suited
    for showing limited
    east-west areas that
    are not too far from
    the equator.
   Conic projections can
    indicate distances and
    directions accurately.
      Robinson Projection Maps
   On these maps, the sizes and shapes near
    the eastern and western edges of the map
    are accurate, however the poles are
    distorted.
    Winkel Tripel Projection Maps
   Most general
    reference maps are
    these kind.
   These provide a
    good balance
    between the size
    and shape of and
    areas shown.
    Goode’s Interrupted Equal-Area
           Projection Maps




   These maps looks like a globe that has
    been cut up and laid flat.
   These show the true size and shape of the
    Earth’s landmasses, but distances are
    distorted.
Mercator Projection
             These maps distort
              size and distance as it
              moves away from the
              Equator.
             This makes Greenland
              and Antarctica look
              larger than they would
              appear on a globe.
             They do accurately
              show true directions
              and shapes of land
              masses, making them
              useful for sea travel.
              Physical Maps




   Physical maps show the location and the
    shape of the Earth’s features.
   These maps use color or patterns to show
    elevation, mountains, rivers, etc.
            Great Circle Route
   The Earth has a
    curve to it,
    therefore the
    shortest distance
    between two place
    is on a curve.
   To find the
    shortest distance,
    airline pilots use a
    Great Circle Route.
              Political Maps




   These maps show boundaries between
    places.
   These maps also often show human-made
    features such as capitals, cities, roads,
    airports, railroads etc.
              Special Purpose Maps
   These are maps that emphasize a single idea or specific kind of
    information about an area.
   Some show:
     •   Elevation (relief)
     •   Climates
     •   Population Density
     •   Vegetation
     •   Economic Activity
     •   Natural Resources
                                  Reading Maps
Borders and
Boundaries-----
On political maps, boundary
lines highlight borders between
countries, states etc




Capitals
State and country capitals are
usually marked with a star




Compass Rose-
This is a marker that indicates
directions on the map


Map Key ------
Symbols represent info on the
map.
These are usually used on
political maps


Scale Bar------
Shows length in distance
     Assignment: Answer the following question
      in complete sentences using information
                  from your notes.
1.     What type of maps would be most useful for sailors going across the
       ocean, and why?
2.     What type of map would be most useful for airline pilots trying to figure
       out the shortest route between New York and Paris? Why this kind of
       map?
3.     What kind of map is the most accurate near the equator, but is
       distorted near the Poles?
4.     What kind of maps are the most accurate for looking at the poles?
5.     What kind of map is most widely used for normal maps?
6.     What kind of map shows the true size of the earth’s landmasses, but
       distances are distorted?
7.     What is the purpose of map keys?
8.     What do physical maps show?
9.     What do political maps show?
10.    What are three different types of special purpose maps?

				
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