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					Coastal Management Strategies II:
      Seashores and Parks

     Ethan Estey and Brannon Quel
The National Parks Service was formed in 1916 to manage
and regulate federal parks, monuments, and reserves
previously managed by the Department of the Interior

NPS Mission: " promote and regulate the use of
the...national parks...which purpose is to conserve the scenery
and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein
and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner
and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the
enjoyment of future generations."
There are several different categories of parks managed by the

 •National Park                  •National Cemetery
 •National Monument              •National Seashore
 •National Preserve              •National Lakeshore
 •National Recreational Area     •National River
 •National Historic Site         •National Parkway
 •National Memorial              •National Trail
 •National Battlefield
General Management Policies for the NPS

•Endangered Species
•Wetland Management
•Exotic Species
•Pest Management
•Fisheries Management
   Specific National Seashore Examples

•Cape Cod National Seashore
•Assateague Island National Seashore
•Cape Hattaras National Seashore
•Cape Lookout National Seashore
•Cape Canaveral National Seashore
                Endangered Species

•The National Parks Service is required to follow the
guidelines of the Endangered Species Act.
•National Parks are an ideal setting for the recovery of
threatened and endangered plants and animals.
•130 of 967 endangered plants and animals are found in the
boundaries of national parks.
•Conserve endangered and threatened plant and animal
species and protect the habitat in which they live.
               Wetland Management

•The NPS entered a 50:50 cost share operation with the U.S.
Fish and Wild Service to conduct wetland inventories for all
the national parks.
•Many wetlands in the parks has been afflicted with drainage,
pollution, diking, filling, and related activities, while other
wetlands have remained in perfect condition
•The parks have been mandated to protect wetlands and
restore areas that have been depredated by human impacts
                       Exotic Species
•The NPS defines exotic species as “those occurring outside
their native ranges in a given place as a result of actions by
•Parks must be maintained as naturally as possible. Their
definition of exotic species allows them to take action and have
them removed from the park so it can be restored to its natural
•Exotic species can negatively effect the native landscape,
interfere with the natural food web, and hybridize with native
•There are presently 535 projects to eradicate exotic species.
                  Pest Management

•Pest management includes all exotic species plus any native
species that jeopardizes the safety and health national parks
and the public (ie mice that carry disease)
•The NPS formed Integrated Pest Management to deal with
pests at a park-by-park basis.
•Pest populations are monitored and no actions are taken until
the population goes above the recommended threshold limit.
              Fisheries Management

•The National Park Service has recognized that fishing is part
of the history and heritage of the park system.
•Recreational and commercial fishing is allowed designated
areas of the park.
•Areas may be closed to protect spawning and nursery area.
•Fisheries restoration of depleted stocks and endangered and
threatened species is a high priority in national parks.
Assateague Island National Seashore

       Annual Budget: $2,958,000.00
       Annual Visitation: 1,895,592
        Park Covers 39,730 Acres
      Assateague Island National Seashore

•Assateague Island National Seashore is a barrier island which is
located in both Maryland and Virginia.
•Management of the seashore is divided between three agencies.
•The Assateague Island National Seashore is managed by the
National Parks Service
•Assateague State Park is managed by Maryland’s State Park
•Chincoteague Wildlife Refuge is monitored by the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service.
Maryland District
Assateague State Park (Maryland)
Assateague State Park (Maryland)

The primary mission of Assateague State Park is to
provide recreational use of its resources
Swimming, hiking, rollarblading,
pets, and driving on the beach (by
permit only) are allowed in the
Maryland District of the Park

                                     There are several campsites at
                                     Assateague that are open year-
Pony Management

          The Assateague herd of
          ponies are managed by the
          National Parks Service.
          The ponies are penned in
          a confined area and
          sterilization is used to
          maintain the herd
Virginia District
     Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge

•Established in 1944 as a refuge for migratory birds
•Is not named Assateague National Wildlife Refuge since all refuges
are named after a town, person, or wildlife species.
•This refuge is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and
recreation is not its primary mission.
     Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge

         Groundwater Management for Migratory Birds

•Maintains groundwater levels for 2600 acres of refuge with 14 moist
soil management units
•Can lower level of water in the spring to create a mudflat habitat
for shorebirds.
•Lower groundwater to concentrate fish is pools for water birds.
•During the fall the soil management units are closed to trap water
for migratory birds.
               Sika Elk (Cervus nippon)

•Hunting is allowed on the island during posted seasons.
•Sika Elk are considered an exotic species and have no natural
predators on the island.
•Camping is not allowed at any
part of the Refuge.

•In-line skating and skate
boarding are not allowed in the

•Pets are not allowed
inside the refuge (even if
they are in a car)
Pony Management

         The Ponies on Chincoteague
         are allowed to roam free and
         The heard is maintained
         annually by the Chincoteague
         fire department.
Cape Hatteras National Seashore

               Annual Budget is $5,762,000.00
               Annual Visitation is 2,772,420
               Park Covers 30,321 Acres
•The Cape Hatteras National Seashore covers 70 miles of
shoreline over three barrier islands: Bodie, Hatteras, and
•The Seashore contains several state parks and the Pea Island
Wildlife Refuge.
•Prior to the addition of Highway 12, the Seashore attracted
approximately 200,000 people a year. Now it attracts close to
3 million.
•This increase in visitation has made it difficult to manage the
natural resources and accommodate recreation.
Land Use and Nesting Shorebirds

              During the late spring and early
              summer colonial shorebirds
              (birds that nest in colonies such
              as terns, skimmers, and oyster
              catchers) and solitary shorebirds
              (piping plovers) will mate and
              construct nests on Cape Hatteras
              National Seashore.
•The nests are simple
depressions in the open
•The nests typically contain
3-4 eggs that are small and
easily camouflaged.
•Park Rangers will monitor
the bird population during
the summer.
•If disturbed, many birds will “dive-
bomb” intruders, leaving the nest
vulnerable to predators and solar
•The park will close entire sections of
the beach to pedestrians, pets, and
•Due to the bird managment plans,
Cape Hatteras National Seashore has
been designated a “Globally
Important Bird Area” by the
American Bird Conservancy
Cape Lookout National Seashore

             Annual Budget: $1,282,000.00
             Annual Visitation: 558,043
             Park Covers 28,243 Acres
•Cape Lookout National Seashore is 56 miles long and is
composed of South Core Banks, North Core Banks, and
Shackleford Banks.
•The Seashore is only accessible by private boat or public
passenger ferry.
•Even though there are no roads to Cape Lookout, some
ferries can transport ORVs to the island.
                Sea Beach Amaranth
                                •Federally protected plant
                                species that grows at Cape
                                •Considered a pioneer species
                                since it grows on overwash
                                fans, new dune, and other
                                open sandy areas

•Amaranth is managed at Cape Lookout by closing off sections
of beach that it is present and allowing sand to move naturally.
Sea Turtles

      •Loggerheads nest at Cape
      Lookout during the summer
      and Park Rangers and
      Volunteers will mark nests as
      they occur.
      •Once the eggs get close to
      hatching, all vehicular traffic
      will be directed behind the
      nests to allow the hatchlings a
      smooth runway to the sea.
Wild Horses

    •Shackelford Banks is home to
    over 100 wild horses.
    •The herd is left wild to roam and
    graze, but park service does
    manage the population
    •Periodically, horses will be
    rounded up off the island for
    •Contraceptive drugs are given to
    minimize the birth rate.
Cumberland Island
National Seashore

  Park covers 36,415 acres
  1999 attendance: 44,127
 Annual budget: $1,376,000
            Cumberland Island
Located off the coast of Georgia near the mouth of
the St. Marys River
Georgia’s largest and southernmost barrier island
stretching 17.5 miles long

Fees: Day use $4 carload Annual $20
      No bathroom facilities
      $2/day Backcountry (7 day max)
      $4/day Sea Camp (7 day max)
           Island Background
Human occupation began about 4,000 years ago
Shifted hands between Spanish, British, and Indians
1881 Carnegie family acquired 4,000 acres built
numerous mansions
1972 National Park Service procured most of the
land for National Seashore
          Island Lighthouse
Lighthouse exists on north end of Cumberland

Built in 1838, deactivated in 1915
Lighthouse is now privately
No longer open to the public
     Natural Aspect of Park
Large draw to the island is the beautiful scenery
and abundant wildlife

Salt Marshes (16,850 acres marsh, mudflats)
      Important to wildlife as
            1. nursery to juvenile animals
            2. supports large population of
               shellfish, plants, birds
Maritime Forest
     Littered with huge oaks
     and Spanish moss
     Here there is numerous
     wildlife such as white
     tailed deer, raccoons, and
     even armadillo (1974)

Dunes and beach
     Eventually the forests give
     way to rolling dune
     Sandpipers, osprey,
     loggerhead turtles
     Cumberland Island Museum
Began in 1985 to preserve historical and biological

Run by board of directors and funded through
      private donations
      gift shop
Has no exhibits or displays, visitors can look
     through specimens, historical materials, and
Cape Cod National Seashore

    Park encompasses 43,604 acres
      1999 attendance 4,944,963
     Annual budget: $4,739,000
  Cape Cod National Seashore
Found in Cape Cod Massachusetts
Two districts
      North district located at Race Point,
      South District located at Marconi Station,
      South Wellfleet
Within park
      over 40 miles of beaches
      numerous kettle ponds
      11 self guided nature trails
             Major Attractions
Salt Pond visitors center
      Built in 1965, Seashores main visitor facility
      500,000 visitors annually

Has a variety of attractions:
            shows movies on area every 1/2 hour
            a number of trails (walking and bike)
            museum shows natural history
           Activities Continued
      Can hunt on Seashore grounds for deer,
      upland game, and migratory waterfowl
      To minimize conflicts of interest hunting is
      prohibited from March, 1 through August 31
      All other state regulations apply

     Variety of fresh and saltwater species
     Salt pond closed for flounder
          Activities Continued
Beaches largest attraction to seashore
      There are six swimming beaches found
      along the Cape’s oceanside
      All have shower and bathroom facilities
      All offer beach access by boardwalk
      All are lifeguarded from June 26-August 29

      There is no camping permitted
Joshua A. Nickerson Conservation Program
     National Seashore Management Division
     supported by fund
     Group of scientists who monitor well being
     of Cape’s natural resources

Current Projects
           protecting nesting habitat of piping
           restoration of salt marsh habitat in
           Herring Run river area
       Conservation Fund Cont.
Makes grants available for scientists and
      designed to support research, social
      science, and conservation at National
      Students and researchers write proposals
      to compete for small grants to support
      education and research
            Programs Continued
Cape Cod Water Resources Management Program
     Originated in 1981, updated in 1999
     Prepared by Seashore staff and Univ. of Mass.

Goals include
           1.provide information on park background
           and water resource management issues
           2.clarify NPSP legislation mandates
           3.Encourage communication between state,
           regional, and local authorities
Cape Canaveral National Seashore

          Park covers: 57,662 acres
          1999 attendance 846,512
         Annual budget $2,024,000
               Cape Canaveral
Park located in Florida and has two districts
      North district is in Volusia County (near New
      Visitors Center is open daily
      South district is in Brevard County (near
      Closed to public during space shuttle operation

Canaveral National Seashore covers 57,000 acres
Has longest stretch of undeveloped beach in Florida,
24 miles
             Park Information
Park hours Winter: 6:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m.
            Summer: 6:00 a.m-8:00 p.m.
Fees: There is a daily use fee
      $5 per vehicle
      $1 per walk in or bike
      $28 annual pass
               Beach Access
Beach access at both districts by boardwalks
which cross dunes
Lifeguards on duty from Memorial day to Labor
day from 10:00-5:45
There is no water available, no showers, and no
public telephones
               Beach Safety
Cape Canaveral offers safety advice due to
numerous dangers

Rip Currents: swim across rip not directly
     against it
     Lightning: Central Florida is the lightening
     capital of the world (get off the beach)
     Portuguese Man of War: Contact park
     ranger if stun. Apply mixture of 50% water
     and 50% vinegar
              Camping and Trails
Camping is Available in North District only
         Backcountry from Nov.1-Apr.30
         Designated islands year round
         No facilities for R.V. camping

         Four walking trails and 1 canoe trail located
         in North District
         Horseback riding is available in both districts
There are 1,045 plant species
Around 310 species of birds
Fourteen endangered species make their home in
the Cape Canaveral National Seashore
Sea Turtle
West Indian Manatee
Southern Bald Eagle
Florida Scrub Jay
  Various Rules and Regulations
No pets are allowed on beach or in buildings
      must be kept on leash in all other areas in
Metal detectors are prohibited
Fires allowed in contained grills only
No glass containers are allowed on the beach
           Kennedy Space Center
Owns land managed by NPS and Merrit Island
Naional Wildlife Refuge
Joint effort by the three to
      1. Protect from development
      2.preserve history, wildlife, and diverse habitat

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