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Challenging the Dominant Paradigm

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					Challenging the
Dominant Paradigm:
Theories on Children, Systems &
Effects
Chapter 8. Pgs. 185-216
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   At the end of this lesson you should be able
    to identify the following theories:

   1.   Overview
   2.   TV Violence Theories
   3.   Social Learning Theory
   4.   Active View of Television Viewing
   5.   Development Perspectives
   6.   System Theories of Communication
         Process.
 7. The rise of the System Theory
 8. Mathematical Theory of
     Communication
 9. Modeling System
   10. Cybernetic Theory
   By 1960’s about 90% of homes in US
    reached by TV & its influence in a
    social system.

   A system theory was created. Theory
    that examines the mass
    communication process as composed
    of inter-related parts that work
    together to meet some goals.
   Psychologist turned their attention to
    mass media esp. TV which later
    created the theory of social cognitive
    i.e. learning takes place through
    interactions with many factors such as
    behaviors, personal factors & the
    environment.
Social Cognitive Theory

   This is a theory where learning takes
    place through interaction with the
    environment that involves reciprocal
    causation of behavior, personal
    factors & environmental events.

   (work of White, 1972; Miller & Dollard
    (19411); Bendura, 1965, 1971,1994;
    Berkowitz, 1965; Potter, 1997)
   About this time, there is a greater concerned in
    America on the effects of TV because of the
    following reasons:

   1. More women entered the workforce resulting
       both parents working outside homes.
   2. Migrations to urban areas.
   3. TV is very popular & the focus increased on
       the real world of violence. John & Robert
       Kennedy and Martin Luther King were
       dignitaries that were assassinated. The world
       is a dangerous place to lived.
   4. Social movement such as Civil
       Rights & anti Vietnam war protests
       catch the attention of the
       nation.

   5. Young people were listening to new
       unfamiliar music.
   6. There exist a generation gap between
       conservative , middle-class parents & their
       liberal, radical parents.

   7. Evidence showed that families, school and
       churches became less important to children.
       Children are being socialized more and more
       away from home and classrooms.
   8. TV became target criticism esp.
       on violence \ programming
       forming social instability.

   9. Riots everywhere -in Los
    Angeles, Detroit and Cleveland.
   President’s Johnson established a National
    Commission to locate causes of violence.
    This Commission recommended changes in
    both news reporting and entertainment.

   Research suggest the idea of CATHARSIS
    or SUBLIMATION Hypothesis i.e. the idea
    that viewing violence is sufficient purge to
    satisfy a person’s aggressive drive &
    therefore most likelihood reduces a person
    aggressive behavior.
B. Social Learning Theory

   Human learn from observation.
   IMITATION is the direct reproduction
    of observed behavior.

   IDENTIFICATION is a form of
    imitation in which copying a model ,
    wanting & trying to be like a model in
    terms of characters or quality.
   Miller & Dollard argued that imitation
    learning occurred when observers
    were motivated to learn , when the
    cues or elements of the behavior to
    be learned were present and when
    he/she perform the same behavior
    were positively reinforced.
   SOCIAL LEARNING is applying both
    imitation and identification to explain how
    people learn through observations of others
    in their environment.

   SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY is that
    observers can acquire symbolic
    representations of behaviors & these
    ‘pictures’ provide information on which to
    base on their subsequent behavior. E.g.
    behavior depicted on screen.
   MODELING is a efficient way to learn
    a wide range of behaviors & solutions
    to problems that we would otherwise
    learn slowly or pay high price to learn
    the same thing.

   OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING refers
    to when the observation of the
    behavior is sufficient to learn that
    behavior.
   AGGRASIVE CUES refer to media
    portrayals of violence and expected to show
    higher level subsequent aggression.

   PRIMING EFFECTS refers to the idea that
    presentation in media heighten the
    likelihood that people will develop similar
    thoughts about those things in the real
    world.
   CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES –
    referring to the environmental
    variables surrounding the presentation
    of violence (e.g. reward/punishment,
    consequences, motive, realism,
    humor, media characters, arousal).
Theory of TV Viewing

   ACTIVE THEORY – refer to viewing of TV
    consumption that assumes viewer
    comprehension causes attention (effects)

   DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE refers
    to view that child undergo cognitive growth
    and adulthood influence. Part of the
    intellectual development through media
    exposure (Sesame's Street).
   CHILDREN’ SOCIALIZATION – this
    is the view that children learning
    beyond social cognition. It also
    involves process of socialization.

   EARLY WINDOW – refers to the idea
    that television allows children to see
    the world before they have the skill to
    successfully act on it.
   STRENGTH
   Causal link between the media and
    behavior.
   Applies across several viewer and
    viewing situations
   Has strong explanatory power (e.g.
    catharsis, cues etc)
   WEAKNESSES
   Lab. Demonstration raises questions of
    generalizability.
    Demonstration might overestimate media
    power.
   Has difficulty explaining long term effects.
   Underestimate people’s active use of media
   Focuses too narrow on individual rather
    than cultural.
Part II
     B. System Theory
   This theory examines the role of mass
    communication process consisted of interrelated
    parts that work together to meet some goals. It
    can influence & control one another through
    communication and feedback loops.

   Some system are capable of monitoring the
    environment and alter their operations in
    response to environmental changes.

   Bukley, 1967; Wiener1954, 1961; Shannon &
    Weaver 1949; Fisher & Fisher, 1996; Westly &
    MacLean 1957.
   Engineers are concerned with
    designing a system which
    communication links efficiently
    transmit information accurately.
    Communication is a means to an end.
   COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS –
    Systems that function primarily to
    facilitate communication.
   TH E RISE OF THE SYSTEM THEORY
   In 1960’s engineers development of system
    theories based on the idea of Cybernetics
    i.e. is the study of regulation & control in
    complex machines.

   CYBERNETICS investigates how
    communication links between various parts
    of machine to perform very complex tasks
    and adjusted to changes taking place in its
    external environment. e.g. in weapon
    system, radar, air conditioning,
   FEEDBACK LOOPS referring to
    ongoing adjustments in systems.

   Complex machines rely on feedback
    loops as a means of making ongoing
    adjustments to change caused by the
    environment. Feedback loops enable
    sources to monitor the influence of
    their message.
C. Mathematical Theory
   of Communication
   Shannon & Weaver (1949) created a
    system model known as the
    Mathematical Theory of
    Communication. The components of
    this theory consisted of SIGNAL,
    INFORMATION, NOISE, REDUNDANT,
    CHANNEL & CHANNEL CAPACITY.
   SIGNAL – the flow of communication from
    one part of the system to the other.

   INFORMATION BIT – individual elements
    of the signal.

   NOISE – The difference between the signal
    sent and the signal received.
   REDUNDANT – when the system contains
    many bits carrying the same information

   CHANNEL – the carrier of the signal

   CARRYING CAPACITY –the ability for the
    channel to transmit complex and simple
    accurate signal
   Shannon & Weaver (1949)
    Mathematical Model led to the
    development of the INFORMATION
    THEORY.

   A theory that attempts to explain the
    process of communication.
Information Theory
   This theory attempts to explain the
    application of mechanical notions of
    information flow to the understanding of all
    forms of communication & applied it to
    human communication.

   Using the concept of SYSTEM MODELING.
    The system of this model is
    INTERDEPENDENCE to each other
    (relationships) as such that changes in one
    element changes the other elements.
   This theory was then adopted
    replacing the TRANSMISSIONAL
    Model that assumes the message
    source dominates the communication
    process, & that the primary outcome
    of the process is the effects on the
    receiver.
   E.g of the TRANSMISSIONAL Model is
    Lasswell’s Theory (1949) Who Says
    What Through what Medium with
    What Effects.
   System theory has greatest practical impact
    on communication. In particular the system
    theory can be applied both close system
    (Homeostatic) or open system
    (dynamically balanced).

   E.g of close system applied on machines air
    conditioning, machines using some form of
    automatic regulator etc.
   E.g. of open system like the biological
    organism in our body. Using electrical
    & chemical messages transmitted by
    nervous and circulatory system our
    organs functions and make adjustment
    accordingly. The same analogy is
    applied on human communications.
Critics of the System
Model Theory
   Two types of critics argued strongly against
    this theory:
   (a) The humanistic scholars
   (b) The Social Scientists

    Dehumanizing & overly simplistic. This is
    just an elaborate metaphors or analogies. It
    is not suitable to explain complex human
    interrelationships. People are not like
    machines.
System theorists argued that the model
  can represent quite complicated
  phenomena. The Simulation Model for
  example is capable of analyzing
  complex social system in which
  interrelationships between agents are
  represented.
   Another critics of the system theory is that
    the system assumed that the structure
    functions accordingly as designed.
    Functionally properly and maintaining a
    proper relationships with other parts.
   Our body, one organ tells the other organ
    what to do – control & command. But in the
    process of communication, communication
    sometimes play different roles.
   As an improvement to the system theory
    model other scholars suggested the
    introduction of SECOND ORDER OF
    CYBERNATIC THEORY.
   These theorists argued that many system
    theory often continually undergo
    fundamental sometimes chaotic,
    transformations of their own structures. As
    such that it is not possible to predict by
    simply examining the past behavior of the
    system.
   By the end of this lessons you should
    have learned the following topics:
   2. TV Violence Theories
   3. Social Learning Theory
   4. Active View of Television Viewing
   5.Development Perspectives
   6. System Theories of Communication
       Process.
            Thank You

   7. The rise of the System Theory
   8. Mathematical Theory of
       Communication
   9. Modeling System
   10. Cybernetic Theories

				
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