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					Sigmund Freud &
  Psychoanalysis
           Psych 7
          Chapter 1
Personal History
  Date of Birth: May 6, 1856 (Taurus)
  Date of Death: September 23,1939
  Location: Freiberg, Moravia
  Raised in: Vienna, Austria
  Lived in: Moravia, Austria, England
  Religion: Jew
  Schooling: University of Vienna (1873)
  Degree: Doctor of Medicine (age 26)




                                @2010 MLF
Professional Development
   Surgeon, General Medicine, Psychiatry
   Lecturer, University of Vienna
   Researcher
       Cocaine
       Hypnotism (Jean Charcot)
   “Psychoanalysis” term coined in 1896
   Writer
       “The Interpretation of Dreams” published 1900
       “The Psychopathology of Everyday Life” published 1901
Professional Development
   Vienna Psychoanalytic Society formed in
    1902. Members included:
       Alfred Adler, Sandor Ferenczi, Carl Gustav Jung,
        Otto Rank, Karl Abraham, Ernest Jones
       Fall out due to demands for loyalty and exclusivity
           Jung, Adler, and Rank left society and established
            their own theories and following
Professional Development
   Journals and papers published by Freud
       Collected works comprises more than 24 volumes
       Extensive collection of letters to other
        psychoanalysts and individuals
   Freud attempted to control and re-orient the
    practice of psychiatry
       Wanted to prevent distortion and misuse of his
        theory
Professional Development
   Maintained a private practice until his last
    days
   Suffered from ill health due to cancer of the
    mouth and jaw
   Underwent 33 operations to deal with cancer
   Died in London, where he went to live with
    his daughter, Anna, after the Nazi’s took over
    Austria in the Anschluss (March, 1938)
Intellectual Antecedents
   Freud’s thinking was an original synthesis of
    exposure to philosophy, scientific training,
    and personal exploration of the unconscious
       Philosophers
           Nietzsche, Schopenhauer
       Romantic Poets/Writers
           Brentano, Goethe, Schiller, Henry James
       Medical researchers
           Brucke and Charcot
       The Unconscious
           Greeks, Sufis,
Major Concepts
   Psychic Determinism
   Conscious, Preconscious, Unconscious
   Impulses
   Libido & Aggressive Energy
   Cathexis
Major Concepts
   Psychic Determinism
       All thought and behavior have meaning
       Nothing occurs randomly
       There is at least one, and possiblymultiple causes
        for every thought, feeling, memory, or action
       Every mental event is brought about by conscious
        or unconscious intention, determined by the
        events that preceded it
       No mental event occurs spontaneously
Major Concepts
   Conscious, Preconscious, Unconscious
       That which is self-evident. Most easily observed
        and studied
       Freud believed that the conscious mind was but a
        small portion of the total mind
       Includes only what we are aware of in any given
        moment
Major Concepts
   Conscious, Preconscious, Unconscious
       Portions of memory are part of the preconscious
           Procedural, semantic, episodic
       Similar to a holding areas for memories of a
        functioning consciousness
Major Concepts
   Conscious, Preconscious, Unconscious
       Comprised of the majority of the mind
       Instinctual elements that are not available to the
        conscious mind
       Certain material that is repressed and censored
           Not forgotten or lost; but not remembered
           Indirectly affects consciousness
       Has different temporal experience
           no matter how hold the memory, the emotional charge
            may still remain
Major Concepts
   Impulses (trieb)
       Sometimes mistranslated as “instinct”
       Pressures to act without conscious thought
        toward particular ends.
       The ultimate cause of all activity/
       Physical aspects (needs) and mental aspects
        (wishes) propel people to take action.
Major Concepts
   Impulses
       Four components
           Source (a part or all of the body)
           Aim (reduce the need until no more action is needed)
           Impetus (amount of force, energy, or pressure used to
            satisfy or gratify the need)
           Object (whatever thing or action allows satisfaction of
            the original desire)
       AKA tension-reduction model – return the body to
        a state of equilibrium
Major Concepts
   Impulses
       Early description was two opposing forces: sexual
        and aggressive (or destructive)
       Later described as “Life supporting” or “Death
        encouraging”
       Both assume a biological, ongoing, and
        unresolvable pair of conflicts
       Impulses are channels where energy flows, but
        the energy obeys “laws” of its own
Major Concepts
   Libido & Aggressive Energy
       Libido (Latin for wish or desire) is energy available
        to the life impulses
       Aggressive energy (death impulse) assumes the
        same general properties as libido
       Both have “mobility” – volatile energy, prone to
        changing attention; flowing in and out of areas of
        immediate concern
Major Concepts
   Cathexis
       The process by which the available libidinal
        energy in the psyche is attached or invested in a
        person, idea, or thing.
       Cathected libido is no longer mobile; unable to
        move to new objects. It is rooted in whatever part
        of the psyche that attracted it
       Psychoanalytic theory is concerned with
        understanding where libido has been
        inappropriately cathected, thus limiting the energy
        available elsewhere in the system
Structure of the Personality
   Freud provided a topographic map of the
    psyche, organizing his observations from his
    patients of their psychic conflicts and
    compromises
       Id (“das es”) – the “it”
       Ego (“das Ich”) – the “I”
       Super-Ego (“das uber-Ich”) – the “above I”
       These have come to have very different meanings
        from Freud’s original characterizations
Structure of the Personality



                               Super-Ego


  Id




                 Ego
Structure of the Personality
   The id is biologic and is the core
    from which personality emerges
   It is the reservoir of energy for the
    whole personality
   It is primitive and unorganized
   It Id
        does not mature with the            Id
    individual; rather it stays primitive
   Goals include: reduce tension,
    increase pleasure, minimize
    discomfort
Structure of the Personality
   Accomplishes goals through reflex actions
    (sneezing/blinking)

     “Naturally the
     id knows no
     values, no
     good and evil,
     no morality”
                                            Id
Structure of the Personality
   The ego is in contact with external
    reality
   It serves and placates the id’s
    demands
   It has the task of insuring the       Ego
    health, safety, and sanity of the
    personality
   It protects the id & draws energy
    from it
Structure of the Personality
   The ego relates past events to
    external events in the present then
    either avoids, adapts, or modifies
    as needed
   The ego monitors tension                Ego
       a rise in tension is discomfort
       a lowering of tension is pleasure
   The ego pursues pleasure and
    seeks to avoid/minimize pain
Structure of the Personality
   The ego is created by the id to
    cope with stress
   To successfully cope, the ego
    controls the id’s impulses
                                      Ego
Structure of the Personality
   The Super-ego is created by the
    ego
   It serves as judge or censor over
    the activities and thoughts of the   Super-Ego

    ego
   It is the repository of the moral
    codes, standards of conduct, and
    constructs of inhibitions for the
    personality
Structure of the Personality
   Functions of the Super-Ego
       Conscience
       Self-observation
       Formation of ideals                Super-Ego

   Conscious activities act to restrict
   Unconscious activities appear as
    compulsions or prohibitions
Structure of the Personality
   Children develop a super-ego that
    is based on a model of their
    parents’ super-ego’s
   This mirrors the tradition of the   Super-Ego

    culture the child is raised in
Structure of the Personality
   The goal of the psyche is to maintain and
    regain (when necessary) a dynamic
    equilibrium that maximizes the pleasure of
    tension reduction
   The energy arises from the id; the ego
    realistically deals with the basic drives of
    the id and the super-ego’s restraints; the
    super-ego acts as a moral brake to the
    ego’s practical concerns, limiting its
    flexibility
 Structure of the Personality



                                Moral Brake
                                Conscious
Energy Source                   Unconscious
Unconscious




                Moderator
                Conscious
                Unconscious
Structure of the Personality
   The primary goal of psychoanalysis is
     to strengthen the ego
     make it independent of the overly strict concerns of the
      superego
     to increase its capacity to become aware of control
      material formerly repressed or hidden in the id


         “Certainly large portions of the ego
         and superego can remain
         unconscious, are, in fact, normally
         unconscious. That means to say
         that the individual knows nothing of
         their contents, and that it requires
         an expenditure of effort to make
         him conscious of them.”
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Freud’s theory of development incorporates
    the personality structure
   As the child develops, changes occur in what
    the child desires and how those desires are
    gratified
   One becomes “fixated” when one fails to
    progress to the next stage and remains
    overly involved in a particular stage using
    simpler or more childlike strategies for
    gratification
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Oral Stage (Birth – 18 months)
       Basic Drive: Nourishment
       Tension: Hunger, thirst, fatigue
       Pleasure: being held, rocked, cuddled
   Libidinal energy is centered around the
    mouth; as child develops other body parts
    provide gratification, but mouth is cathected
    permanently
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Late Oral Stage (after teeth have come in)
       Aggressive instinct gratification (biting the breast)
   Adults fixated at this stage may exhibit
    sarcasm, tend to gossip, tear at one’s food
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Anal Stage (ages 2-4)
       Children acquire control over bowel and bladder
       Such control is a new source of pleasure
           Brings attention and praise from parents
           May bring unwanted attention if toilet training becomes
            focus of this stage
       Confusion arises with contradiction experienced
        between parental praise for bowel
        movements/urination and idea that the toilet is
        “dirty” and defecation is “bad”
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Anal Stage (ages 2-4)
       Toilet training is peculiarly an industrialized,
        Western cultural phenomenon. Not all cultures
        experience “problems” at this stage of
        development
       Adult fixations of this stage include excessive
        orderlieness, obstinancy, being “cheap”
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Phallic Stage (ages 2-6)
       The period when a child becomes aware of either
        having a penis or lacking one
       Stimulating the genitals is a pleasurable
        experience resulting in excitement. This
        excitement is linked with the close physical
        presence of the child’s parents
       The child is struggling for the intimacy his/her
        parents share
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Phallic Stage (ages 2-6)
       Children in this stage frequently become jealous
        of attention parents give to one another
       Children may develop fears about sexual issues
       Parents are perceived as potential threats to
        fulfilling the needs of the child.
       In male children, the father becomes a rival for the
        affection of the mother; in female children, the
        mother becomes a rival for the affection of the
        father
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Phallic Stage (ages 2-6)
       The Oedipus complex – words to remember:
           Know your parents, otherwise, you may kill your
            father, sleep with your mother, raise four children by
            her, then find out the truth from a blind psychic and
            end up gouging your eyes out.
       Electra Complex – Jung’s term (not Freud’s)
        where Electra kills her mother
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Phallic Stage (ages 2-6)
       Fears of castration (for boys) and love of the
        opposite sex parent can’t be fully resolved
       During childhood, this complex is repressed
       This is one of the superego’s first tasks – to keep
        the conflict out of consciousness and to protect
        the child from acting it out
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Freud’s views on women are highly
    controversial.


       “A girl remains in the Oedipus
       situation for an indefinite period.
       She only abandons it late in life,
       and then incompletely.”
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   The Latency Period (ages 5 – puberty)
       The superego successfully represses the
        unresolvable sexual desires of the phallic period.
       Children expand their circle of contacts to include
        friends, school, sports, and other skills
       This is a relatively uneventful time psychologically
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Genital Stage (puberty on)
       Libidinal energy returns (big time!)
       Awareness of sexual identities emerges and
        children look to find ways to fulfill their erotic and
        interpersonal needs
       Freud postulated that homosexuality resulted from
        lack of adequate development at this stage.
           In spite of evidence to the contrary, this belief still
            persists for some psychoanalysts
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
   Freud’s Views About Women
       Though successfully and completely refuted by
        subsequent scholarship today, Freud’s views of
        women reflected both the misogyny of the culture
        and the patriarchal views of the times.
       Terms coined by Freud are still present in our
        language (e.g., penis envy, inferiority complex)
DYNAMICS, ANXIETY, ANNA FREUD & THE
DEFENSE MECHANISMS, PSYCHOANALYSIS, &
DREAMWORK . . .

   Psychoanalysis addresses the key role of
    anxiety in the maintenance of neurosis
    (maladaptive, repetitive behaviors)
   Anxiety is triggered by an expected (foreseen)
    increase in tension or displeasure
   It can happen in any situation (real or
    imagined)
   It occurs when there is a threat to some part of
    the body or psyche that is to great to be
    ignored or mastered
DYNAMICS, ANXIETY, ANNA FREUD & THE
DEFENSE MECHANISMS, PSYCHOANALYSIS, &
DREAMWORK . . .

   Potential events that cause anxiety
       Loss of a desired object
       Loss of love
       Loss of identity
       Loss of love for self
DYNAMICS, ANXIETY, ANNA FREUD & THE
DEFENSE MECHANISMS, PSYCHOANALYSIS, &
DREAMWORK . . .

   Anxiety is decreased by
       Direct action (minimizes impact)
       Use of defense mechanisms
   Freud’s daughter, Anna
       Developed & made major
        contributions to her father’s
        theory
       Was a well-respected
        psychoanalyst in her own right
       Described defense mechanisms
DYNAMICS, ANXIETY, ANNA FREUD & THE
DEFENSE MECHANISMS, PSYCHOANALYSIS, &
DREAMWORK . . .

   Repression
   Denial
   Rationalization
   Reaction Formation
   Projection
   Isolation
   Regression
   Sublimation
DYNAMICS, ANXIETY, ANNA FREUD & THE
DEFENSE MECHANISMS, PSYCHOANALYSIS, &
DREAMWORK . . .


Psychoanalysis is the name (1) of a
procedure for the investigation of mental
processes that are almost inaccessible in any
other way, (2) of a method (based upon that
investigation) for the treatment of neurotic
disorders, and (3) a collection of psychological
information obtained along those lines, which
is gradually being accumulated into a new
scientific discipline. (1924)
DYNAMICS, ANXIETY, ANNA FREUD & THE
DEFENSE MECHANISMS, PSYCHOANALYSIS, &
DREAMWORK . . .



                                        Freud’s
                                        Couch
DYNAMICS, ANXIETY, ANNA FREUD & THE
DEFENSE MECHANISMS, PSYCHOANALYSIS, &
DREAMWORK . . .



                                        Freud’s
                                        Office
DYNAMICS, ANXIETY, ANNA FREUD & THE
DEFENSE MECHANISMS, PSYCHOANALYSIS, &
DREAMWORK . . .

   Psychoanalysis – The Theory
       Analysis works to overcome the natural
        resistance and bring the id’s painful,
        repressed memories back into the
        conscious
       Once freed, the ego establishes new levels
        of satisfaction in all areas of functioning
       Resolving anxieties rooted in childhood
        frees blocked energy for more realistic and
        complete gratification of needs
DYNAMICS, ANXIETY, ANNA FREUD & THE
DEFENSE MECHANISMS, PSYCHOANALYSIS, &
DREAMWORK . . .

   Psychoanalysis – The Process
       Dreamwork and free association
           Dreams develop to meet specific needs
           Wish fulfillment
           Repetitive dreams
       Interpretation facilitates recovery of
        unconscious material
       Transference/Countertransference
Summary
   Energy is at the core of Freud’s
    concepts of the unconscious,
    psychological development, personality,
    and neurosis
   The Body is the core of experience
       Sexual expression (oral, anal, genital)
       Freud based much of his theory on biology,
        however, he is remembered more for his
        writings on sex
Summary
   Social Relationships
       Adult interactions and relationships are greatly
        influenced by early childhood experiences
       Early prototypes (mother-child, father-child, and
        sibling-child) are used unconsciously to
        measure subsequent relationships
       Choices of lovers, friends, bosses, enemies,
        derive from these parent-child bonds
       Our lives are spent re-working the unresolved
        aspects of our early relationships
Summary
   Emotions
       Freud demonstrated that we are NOT primarily
        rational beings, but are driven by powerful
        emotional forces arising from the unconscious
       Emotions are the avenues of release for tension
        and pleasure
       Emotions may keep certain memories out of
        awareness
       Through observing appropriate and inappropriate
        expressions of emotion, we can uncover and
        understand the motivating forces within emotions
Summary
   Intellect
       Freud believed in evolution and in reason
       His discoveries challenged his central belief that
        we are rational beings
       He believed that through introspection and
        intellect, a person could achieve a high degree of
        freedom from unfulfilled remnants of past events
       If the original drive will not be suppressed, the
        ego, using the intellect, must devise safe and
        sufficient methods of gratification
Summary
   Self
       The self is the total being: body and instincts;
        conscious and unconscious parts of the mind
Summary
   Therapist/Therapy
       Freud was concerned with practical applications
        of his theory
       The goal of psychoanalysis is to help the patient
        established the best possible level of ego
        functioning, given the inevitable conflicts arising
        from the environment, the superego, and the id
Summary
   Role of the Psychoanalyst
       Help the patient recall, recover, and reintegrate
        unconscious material
       Do not influence the patient’s process
       Remain a “blank slate”
       Interpret material only when the patient is capable
        of incorporating it
Summary
   Contributions
       Language of the psyche
       Influenced more than psychology and medicine;
        literature, cinema, philosophy
       Looked upon now as an historic figure, not a
        contemporary

				
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