„Why do people choose particular goals?“
„What specific motives drives behavior?“
„What individual differences in motivation account
for the variability of people behavior?“
„How we can motivate people to behave in certain
ways – eating certain foods, shopping?“
Motivation refers to the causes of behavior –
to external and internal forces, that move
person to behave in particular way at
Motivation refers to the factors that direct
and energize behavior. These factors
underlie behavior and are called motives.
1. Instinct approaches: Innate motivation
2. Drive reduction approaches: Homeostasis
3. Incentive approaches: Motivation´s pull
4. Arousal approaches: Excitement seeking
5. Cognitive approaches: Thoughts behind
6. Humanistic approach: Self-actualisation
1. Instinct approaches: Innate
Motivation is the result of instincts - inborn
patterns of behavior that are biologically
determined, not learned.
Instincts are preprogrammed sets of behavior
essential to our survival.
Cons: Human behavior is very complex and
instinctual theories cannot explain this
2. Drive-reduction approaches:
Drive is inner motivational tension, that
energises behavior in order to fulfill the
Drives push us to obtain our basic
We distinguish primary and secondary
drives (achievement need).
Homeostasis is the maintenance of
optimal level of internal biological balance.
3. Incentive approaches:
The theory explaining motivation in term
of external stimuli.
Incentive is the external stimulus that acts
as an anticipated reward (we are drawn to
Internal motives (drives) work in „tandem“
with external motives (incentives).
4. Arousal approaches: Excitement
One explanation of motivation – we
behave in certain way to maintain a
certain preffered level of arrousal.
Every person has individual level of
stimulation and activity which is optimal
Some people actively seek for challenging
and dangerous situations.
5. Cognitive approaches: Thoughts
Cognitive approaches focuses on the role
of our thoughts, expectations and
understanding of the world.
– Intrinsic motivation – we perform certain
activity for our own enjoyment.
– Extrinsic motivation – we participate in activity
for a reward (money, social agreement).
6. Humanistic approach: Self-
Our needs are hierarchically ordered from
most fundamental biological needs to
In Maslow theory the highest needs are
self-actualisation and transcendence.
Without having lower needs fulfilled, we
cannot think of self-actualisation.
1) Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.;
2) Safety/security: out of danger;
3) Belonginess and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted;
4) Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and
5) Cognitive: to know, to understand, and explore;
6) Aesthetic: symmetry, order, and beauty;
7) Self-actualization: to find self-fulfillment and realize one's
8) Self-transcendence: to connect to something beyond the ego or
to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential.
incorporating an ongoing freshness of
appreciation of life
a concern about personal growth
the ability to have peak experiences
The first four layers of the pyramid are what
Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs":
the individual does not feel anything if they are
met, but feels anxious if they are not met. The
deficiency needs are:
The physiological needs of the organism (those
enabling homeostasis) take first precedence.
These consist mainly of:
Excretion, Eating, Drinking, Sleeping, Sex, Shelter,
– If some needs are not fulfilled, a human's physiological needs
take the highest priority. Physiological needs can control
thoughts and behaviors, and can cause people to feel sickness,
pain, and discomfort.
When physiological needs are met, the
need for safety will emerge. When one
stage is fulfilled, a person naturally moves
to the next. These include:
Personal security from crime.
Security as against company lay-offs
Health and well-being
Safety net against accidents/illness and
the adverse impacts
After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer
of human needs is social. This psychological aspect of Maslow's
hierarchy involves emotionally-based relationships in general,
– sexual intimacy
– having a supportive and communicative family
Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes
from a large social group (such as clubs, office culture, religious groups,
professional organizations, sports teams, gangs) or small social connections
(family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants).
They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the
absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness,
social anxiety, and depression. This need for belonging can often overcome
the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer
pressure. e.g. an anorexic ignores the need to eat and the security of health
for a feeling of belonging.
All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-
respect, and to respect others.
People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an
activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel
accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at
this level can result in low self-esteem, inferiority complexes.
People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek
fame or glory, which again depends on others.
It may be noted, however, that many people with low self-esteem will
not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving
fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves
internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent
one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.
Though the deficiency needs may be seen
as "basic", and can be met and neutralized
(i.e. they stop being motivators in one's
life), self-actualization and transcendence
are "being" or "growth needs" (also
termed "B-needs"), i.e. they are enduring
motivations or drivers of behavior.
Maslow believed that humans have the
need to increase their intelligence and
thereby chase knowledge. Cognitive needs
is the expression of the natural human
need to learn, explore, discover and
create to get a better understanding of
the world around them.
Based on Maslow's beliefs, it is stated in the
hierarchy that humans need beautiful
imagery or something new and
aesthetically pleasing to continue up
Humans need to refresh themselves in the
presence and beauty of nature while
carefully absorbing and observing their
surroundings to extract the beauty that
the world has to offer.
Self-actualization--a concept Maslow
attributed to Kurt Goldstein, a mentor to
Maslow--is the instinctual need of humans
to make the most of their abilities and to
strive to be the best they can.
Maslow writes the following of
They embrace the facts and realities of the world (including
themselves) rather than denying or avoiding them.
They are spontaneous in their ideas and actions.
They are creative.
They are interested in solving problems; this often includes the
problems of others. Solving these problems is often a key focus
in their lives.
They feel a closeness to other people, and generally appreciate
They have a system of morality that is fully internalized and
independent of external authority.
They have discernment and are able to view all things in an
In short, self-actualization is reaching one's fullest potential.
Maslow later divided the top of the triangle to add
self-transcendence which is also sometimes referred
to as spiritual needs. Spiritual Needs are a little
different from other needs, accessible from many
Maslow believes that we should study and cultivate
peak experiences as a way of providing a route to
achieve personal growth, integration, and fulfillment.
Individuals most likely to have peak experiences are
self-actualizing, mature, healthy, and self-fulfilled. All
individuals are capable of peak experiences. Those
who do not have them somehow suppress or deny
Need for achievement
A stable, learned characteristic in which
satisfaction comes from striving for and
achieving a level of excellence either
individually or in cooperation.
– People high in achievement motivation choose
tasks that are of intermediate difficulty.
– People low in achievement motivation choose
tasks that are either too easy or too difficult.
Need for affiliation
A need to establish and maintain
relationship with other people. To be in
meaningfull relationship, fell trustwothy
and can trust, feel responsible and can be
responsible. It enhance personal strenght
Need for power
A tendency to want to make an impression
or have an impact on others in order to be
seen as a powerfull individual. To be
respected and worth of interest- authority.