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   „Why do people choose particular goals?“
    „What specific motives drives behavior?“
„What individual differences in motivation account
     for the variability of people behavior?“
„How we can motivate people to behave in certain
    ways – eating certain foods, shopping?“

Motivation refers to the causes of behavior –
 to external and internal forces, that move
 person to behave in particular way at
 particular time.
Motivation refers to the factors that direct
 and energize behavior. These factors
 underlie behavior and are called motives.
         Explaining motivation

1.   Instinct approaches: Innate motivation
2.   Drive reduction approaches: Homeostasis
3.   Incentive approaches: Motivation´s pull
4.   Arousal approaches: Excitement seeking
5.   Cognitive approaches: Thoughts behind
6.   Humanistic approach: Self-actualisation
    1.   Instinct approaches: Innate
 Motivation is the result of instincts - inborn
  patterns of behavior that are biologically
  determined, not learned.
 Instincts are preprogrammed sets of behavior
  essential to our survival.

Cons: Human behavior is very complex and
  instinctual theories cannot explain this
     2. Drive-reduction approaches:
   Drive is inner motivational tension, that
  energises behavior in order to fulfill the
 Drives push us to obtain our basic
  biological requirements.
 We distinguish primary and secondary
  drives (achievement need).
 Homeostasis is the maintenance of
  optimal level of internal biological balance.
       3. Incentive approaches:
             Motivation´s pull
 The theory explaining motivation in term
  of external stimuli.
 Incentive is the external stimulus that acts
  as an anticipated reward (we are drawn to
 Internal motives (drives) work in „tandem“
  with external motives (incentives).
4. Arousal approaches: Excitement
 One explanation of motivation – we
  behave in certain way to maintain a
  certain preffered level of arrousal.
 Every person has individual level of
  stimulation and activity which is optimal
  for him.
 Some people actively seek for challenging
  and dangerous situations.
5. Cognitive approaches: Thoughts
   Cognitive approaches focuses on the role
    of our thoughts, expectations and
    understanding of the world.
    – Intrinsic motivation – we perform certain
      activity for our own enjoyment.
    – Extrinsic motivation – we participate in activity
      for a reward (money, social agreement).
    6. Humanistic approach: Self-
 Our needs are hierarchically ordered from
  most fundamental biological needs to
  higher-order ones.
 In Maslow theory the highest needs are
  self-actualisation and transcendence.
 Without having lower needs fulfilled, we
  cannot think of self-actualisation.
               Maslow´s Hierarchy
   1) Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.;

   2) Safety/security: out of danger;

   3) Belonginess and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted;

   4) Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and

   5) Cognitive: to know, to understand, and explore;

   6) Aesthetic: symmetry, order, and beauty;

   7) Self-actualization: to find self-fulfillment and realize one's
    potential; and

   8) Self-transcendence: to connect to something beyond the ego or
    to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential.
    Self-actualized people
 being problem-focused
 incorporating an ongoing freshness of
  appreciation of life
 a concern about personal growth
 the ability to have peak experiences
 The first four layers of the pyramid are what
  Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "D-needs":
  the individual does not feel anything if they are
  met, but feels anxious if they are not met. The
  deficiency needs are:
Physiological needs
 The physiological needs of the organism (those
  enabling homeostasis) take first precedence.
  These consist mainly of:
      Excretion, Eating, Drinking, Sleeping, Sex, Shelter,
        – If some needs are not fulfilled, a human's physiological needs
          take the highest priority. Physiological needs can control
          thoughts and behaviors, and can cause people to feel sickness,
          pain, and discomfort.
            Safety needs

 When physiological needs are met, the
  need for safety will emerge. When one
  stage is fulfilled, a person naturally moves
  to the next. These include:
 Personal security from crime.
 Security as against company lay-offs
 Health and well-being
 Safety net against accidents/illness and
  the adverse impacts
   After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer
    of human needs is social. This psychological aspect of Maslow's
    hierarchy involves emotionally-based relationships in general,
    such as:
    – friendship
    – sexual intimacy
    – having a supportive and communicative family
         Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes
          from a large social group (such as clubs, office culture, religious groups,
          professional organizations, sports teams, gangs) or small social connections
          (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants).
          They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the
          absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness,
          social anxiety, and depression. This need for belonging can often overcome
          the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer
          pressure. e.g. an anorexic ignores the need to eat and the security of health
          for a feeling of belonging.
                        Esteem needs

   All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-
    respect, and to respect others.
   People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an
    activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel
    accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at
    this level can result in low self-esteem, inferiority complexes.
   People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek
    fame or glory, which again depends on others.
   It may be noted, however, that many people with low self-esteem will
    not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving
    fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves
    internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent
    one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.
             Growth needs

   Though the deficiency needs may be seen
    as "basic", and can be met and neutralized
    (i.e. they stop being motivators in one's
    life), self-actualization and transcendence
    are "being" or "growth needs" (also
    termed "B-needs"), i.e. they are enduring
    motivations or drivers of behavior.
           Cognitive needs

   Maslow believed that humans have the
    need to increase their intelligence and
    thereby chase knowledge. Cognitive needs
    is the expression of the natural human
    need to learn, explore, discover and
    create to get a better understanding of
    the world around them.
          Aesthetic needs
Based on Maslow's beliefs, it is stated in the
 hierarchy that humans need beautiful
 imagery or something new and
 aesthetically pleasing to continue up
 towards Self-Actualization.
Humans need to refresh themselves in the
 presence and beauty of nature while
 carefully absorbing and observing their
 surroundings to extract the beauty that
 the world has to offer.
 Self-actualization
 Self-actualization--a concept Maslow
  attributed to Kurt Goldstein, a mentor to
  Maslow--is the instinctual need of humans
  to make the most of their abilities and to
  strive to be the best they can.
       Maslow writes the following of
          self-actualizing people:
   They embrace the facts and realities of the world (including
    themselves) rather than denying or avoiding them.
   They are spontaneous in their ideas and actions.
   They are creative.
   They are interested in solving problems; this often includes the
    problems of others. Solving these problems is often a key focus
    in their lives.
   They feel a closeness to other people, and generally appreciate
   They have a system of morality that is fully internalized and
    independent of external authority.
   They have discernment and are able to view all things in an
    objective manner.
   In short, self-actualization is reaching one's fullest potential.
 Maslow later divided the top of the triangle to add
  self-transcendence which is also sometimes referred
  to as spiritual needs. Spiritual Needs are a little
  different from other needs, accessible from many
 Maslow believes that we should study and cultivate
  peak experiences as a way of providing a route to
  achieve personal growth, integration, and fulfillment.
  Individuals most likely to have peak experiences are
  self-actualizing, mature, healthy, and self-fulfilled. All
  individuals are capable of peak experiences. Those
  who do not have them somehow suppress or deny
         Need for achievement
   A stable, learned characteristic in which
    satisfaction comes from striving for and
    achieving a level of excellence either
    individually or in cooperation.
    – People high in achievement motivation choose
      tasks that are of intermediate difficulty.
    – People low in achievement motivation choose
      tasks that are either too easy or too difficult.
           Need for affiliation
   A need to establish and maintain
    relationship with other people. To be in
    meaningfull relationship, fell trustwothy
    and can trust, feel responsible and can be
    responsible. It enhance personal strenght
              Need for power
   A tendency to want to make an impression
    or have an impact on others in order to be
    seen as a powerfull individual. To be
    respected and worth of interest- authority.

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