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					Installing and Administering Linux
        Nick Pilon and Ryan Ernst

           27th October 2005




            – Typeset by FoilTEX –
                        Objectives



• We will not cover actual Linux installation procedures.

• We will cover a basic overview of things you need to keep in
  mind when installing.

• We will cover basic administration concerns.

• Try and give you a starting point to learn to install and
  administer Linux.
  – Boostrap past the difficult stuff.




                              1
                      Terminology



Linux Properly GNU/Linux, but that’s a mouthful!

Distro Distribution of Linux. Distros are how Linux itself is
  packaged, and provide mechanisms for installing Linux and
  manging the install.

Package The most common mechanism for installing a pro-
  gram onto a Linux system. A program or set of related
  programs “packaged up” for easy downloading and installa-
  tion.

Package Manager A program responsible for manging the
  packages installed on a machine; allows for installation,
  configuration, and uninstallation of packages.


                             2
                   Hardware Support


• Most reliable method is to check the Hardware HOWTO:
  http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO/

• Hardware not on the list may be supported, but is a more
  iffy proposition.

• Take note of the hardware on your machine before the install,
  and find out how much work will be needed to enable it.

• Find out if you just need to install a kernel module, or if it
  requires more extensive software support?

• Sometimes hardware will work in one distribution but not
  another. Google can often be helpful in determining which
  distros it will work with.

                               3
                Knoppix and Live CDs



• A good way to test hardware compatibility is by using
  Knoppix or another Live CD distro.

• A distribution of Linux that allows a full system to be booted
  from just a CD.

• Provide a way for you to test Linux on your machine without
  touching the contents of the hard disk, and scout for any
  difficulties you may encounter during your install.




                               4
              Distribution Availability



• Red Hat (Fedora - http://fedora.redhat.com)

• Mandriva (formerly Mandrake, http://mandriva.com)

• Debian (http://www.debian.org)

• Ubuntu (http://www.ubuntulinux.org)

• Suse (http://www.novell.com/linux/suse)

• Gentoo (http://www.gentoo.org)

• Can ask for CDs of many of these from the help desk, or
  download and burn your own.

                            5
                Distribution Selection


• Go with what you’re familiar with first.

• Precompiled binary packages can save time and hassle.
  Most distributions and pieces of software have precompiled
  packages.

• A distribution with wide community support can help you
  find answers.

• Good documentation is a must - before downloading or
  starting an install process, read over relevant online docu-
  mentation.

• Check distro-specific hardware compatibility lists, if they’re
  available.

                              6
                Package Management


• Package management systems are the main things that
  differentiate distributions.

• Learn to use at least the basic features of the package
  management system for your distro.

• Two general models:
  – Central repository. Used by Debian, Gentoo, Ubuntu. A
    central store of software is maintained by the distribution’s
    authors, and software and upgrades can be installed from
    it.
  – Distributed packages. Package creation and maintenance
    is the responsibility of individual software authors. Usually
    up to the administrator to watch for upgrades.

                               7
                    Finding Software



• If your distribution has a central repository, use the search
  tools for it.

• If your distribution doesn’t, your work is slightly harder.
  There are several resources that can help you:
  – Google. (http://www.google.com/linux)
  – Freshmeat (http://freshmeat.net/)

• Freshmeat provides a listing of open source projects, cate-
  gorized in various ways.




                              8
                   Compiling Software



• Some software does not come packaged. You will have to
  compile it yourself.

• First step is to read up on the build process and make sure
  you have all dependencies installed. This usually means
  “development” packages, which include appropriate headers
  and libraries.

• Most software will use autoconf, this gives a very simple
  build sequence:
  – ./configure
  – make
  – make install


                             9
           Basic Software You Will Need



• A compiler and associated libraries and tools. gcc and the
  GNU suite are used by everyone; no questions here.

• A shell. bash is an old favourite, but there are many options.

• An editor. Please learn emacs or vim, they will make your
  life much easier.

• Your distribution’s package management tool.

• Probably X.org, a free X server, and either KDE or GNOME,
  whichever you prefer. (KDE!)



                              10
                     Shell Commands



• Learn to use man, and learn to read man pages.

• Basic shell redirection:
  – command > output file
  – command < input file
  – command1 | command2

• Learn basic shell utilities: head, tail, less, cd, ls, grep, find,
  xargs, ps, netstat

• Learn more complex shell utilities and scripting languages as
  necessary.



                               11
                       Policies



• Agree on a root password with your group members, and
  devise some standard way of documenting things done as
  root, services running, etc.
  – Root can do anything on the system.
  – Document what you do with root.

• For extra convenience, set up sudo, so you can execute
  things as root without changing users.




                           12
                   Filesystem Layout



/usr “Global” system files used during normal operation, in-
  cluding programs and shared libraries.

/bin Programs the system needs immediately when it boots.
  Basic system software.

/home User home directories get stored under here. This is
  where they put their files.

/etc Configuration files.

/var Files and folders that change frequently. temp files, logs,
  mail folders, htdocs folder.


                              13
                     Configuration


• Most applications put their config files in a folder under
  /etc.

• Vary in format between applications.

• Typically use # to start comments, just like Perl and shell
  scripts.

• Most applications come with sample config files with most
  options commented out, which you can edit to get a func-
  tioning configuration.
  – Much easier than writing one from scratch!

• Options are well-documented, but assume you’re familiar
  with program documentation.

                             14
                             Logs


• Applications write log files that contain details as to their
  operation.

• Applications support providing different levels of detail in
  their logs through Log Levels.
  – Usually configurable in the application’s config files.

• Convention is that application logs are stored under /var/log,
  in a file or directory named after the program.

• Some log entries are stored in common files too - system.log,
  daemon.log, etc.

• Use tail -f to view a log in real time.

                               15
                   Helping Yourself



• Google or another search engine is your best friend. Also
  http://www.tldp.org

• Do you know what’s going wrong? If error messages aren’t
  getting printed to the console, check the application’s log
  files.

• When possible, do searches based on the exact text of error
  messages.
  – These will often take you to official forums or mailing
    lists. You may have to follow several conversation threads
    to find your answer.

• Have you read the relevant sections of the manual?

                             16
• If you’re getting frustrated, remember to take a break!




                             17
                   Asking For Help



• Most projects maintain a mailing list or forum where users
  can ask for help.

• Make sure you’ve done a search for similar problems or
  questions.

• Describe in detail what you’ve already attempted and what
  sources you’ve consulted.
  – Remember to be polite when asking questions. The
    people answering them typically aren’t getting paid.




                            18
              Error Resolution Process



• Where are you getting the error?
  – For problems with installation, most programs come with
    INSTALL files or some other documentation.
  – Configuration problems? Keep backups around, and try
    rolling back and making the changes in small chunks.
  – Getting an application running? Some packages may need
    substantial additional work to get going.
    ∗ This is for security on programs that can be dangerous
      or annoying if misconfigured.
    ∗ exim and other mail transfer programs are a good
      example.




                            19

				
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