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Psychoanalytic Theory

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 27

									Psychoanalytic Theory
              Core Concepts:
   1. Psychic Determinism
   2. Unconscious Motivation
   3. Child development
   4. Conflict
               Sub-Theories:


   Economic/Drive Theory ( Dual Instinct )
   Topographic ( UNC, Preconscious, CON )
   Structural ( ID, EGO, SUPEREGO )
                    Instincts:

   Eros (libido)

   Thanatos (death/aggression)

   Love and Death (Creation and Destruction)
   Cathexis (investment of psychic energy)
   Fixation (getting stuck)
          Structures of the Mind
  Id
instinctual gratification
Pleasure Principle / Primary Process

  Ego
reality testing
Reality Principle / Secondary Process

   Superego
         Personality Structure
 Personality develops as a result of our efforts to
resolve conflicts between our biological impulses
  Id and the constraints of the Ego & Superego.
     Psychosexual Development
   Oral (0-18 mo.)
Pleasure zone: mouth;
Activities: sucking, mouthing, biting etc.
 Anal (18-36 mo.)

Pleasure zone: anus
Activity: elimination & retention of feces (control)
 Phallic (3-6 yo)

Oedipus Complex
   Latency

   Genital



   Personality fixed by the end of Phallic stage
             Anxiety and Defense


   Repression

 Defense Mechanisms
Examples:
Projection, Displacement, Reaction Formation,
  etc.
   Character

Fixed patterns of conflict and defense.
              Criticism of Freud
   Overemphasis on unconscious processes
   Overemphasis on “sexual” development
   Neglect of interpersonal environment and
    social learning
   Overemphasis on early development

   Difficult to operationalize and test
   Biased by era and culture
      Post-Freudian Theories
Evolution of the theory
 Move away from primary focus on instincts and
  more toward ego capacities
 Greater emphasis on social/interpersonal
  relations
 Development as on-going process

Similarities:
Dynamic UNC, Conflict, Stages of Development
                      Jung
Psychic energy(not necessarily sexual, self-
actualization)
Collective UNC (transpersonal, inherited)

Archetypes

(myth, art, culture, religion, etc.)

Anima/Animus

Introversion/Extraversion
                         Adler
   “Individual Psychology” unique individuality and
    unified strivings of the whole person

   Ego functions
   Social environment

   Inferiority/Superiority
   Compensatory Motivation
   Inferiority Complex
                   Erikson

  Psychosocial Development
8 stages, development throughout the lifespan
 Crises

1.Trust
2. Autonomy
5. Identity
6. Intimacy
    OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY
   Interpersonal relations and the development
    of the SELF

   Internalized “object” representations
   Fundamental role of ATTACHMENT as
    primary need
                    Klein
Stages:
 1. (Schizoid) Fusion “Mommy and I are one”
 2. (Paranoid) Good bad splitting
   similar to “bi-polar representations”
  (Kernberg)
 3. (Depressive) Integration ambivalence &
  compromise

   “good enough mothering”
                Attachment

   MAHLER, BOWLBY, AINSWORTH,
    KERNBERG etc.

   responsive parenting
   secure/anxious/avoidant attachments
                   Kohut
   SELF PSYCHOLOGY

   Self-objects
   Functions
   Mirroring
                     Horney

   psychosocial and sociocultural factors

   “womb envy”
                ASSESSMENT

   tip of the iceberg

   ambiguous stimuli
              Projective Testing

   Rorschach

TAT
Murray’s Needs        “higher order motives”

   Interrater/Interjudge reliability
             Empirical evidence

   Criticism

   superficial
   isolated
   artificial
           Empirical evidence
1. UNC processing
 Automaticity

2. UNC motivation
Nisbet & Wilson (unconscious behavior)
Silverman (subliminal activation)

3. Repression
Mixed results
Repressed Memory Debate
Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories
 when questioned about the event.
Group A: How fast were the cars going
       when they hit each other?

Group B: How fast were the cars going
        when they smashed into each
        other?
A week later they were asked: Was there
 any broken glass? Group B (smashed into)
 reported more broken glass than Group A
 (hit).

								
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