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Psychoanalytic Theory Core Concepts: 1. Psychic Determinism 2. Unconscious Motivation 3. Child development 4. Conflict Sub-Theories: Economic/Drive Theory ( Dual Instinct ) Topographic ( UNC, Preconscious, CON ) Structural ( ID, EGO, SUPEREGO ) Instincts: Eros (libido) Thanatos (death/aggression) Love and Death (Creation and Destruction) Cathexis (investment of psychic energy) Fixation (getting stuck) Structures of the Mind Id instinctual gratification Pleasure Principle / Primary Process Ego reality testing Reality Principle / Secondary Process Superego Personality Structure Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses Id and the constraints of the Ego & Superego. Psychosexual Development Oral (0-18 mo.) Pleasure zone: mouth; Activities: sucking, mouthing, biting etc. Anal (18-36 mo.) Pleasure zone: anus Activity: elimination & retention of feces (control) Phallic (3-6 yo) Oedipus Complex Latency Genital Personality fixed by the end of Phallic stage Anxiety and Defense Repression Defense Mechanisms Examples: Projection, Displacement, Reaction Formation, etc. Character Fixed patterns of conflict and defense. Criticism of Freud Overemphasis on unconscious processes Overemphasis on “sexual” development Neglect of interpersonal environment and social learning Overemphasis on early development Difficult to operationalize and test Biased by era and culture Post-Freudian Theories Evolution of the theory Move away from primary focus on instincts and more toward ego capacities Greater emphasis on social/interpersonal relations Development as on-going process Similarities: Dynamic UNC, Conflict, Stages of Development Jung Psychic energy(not necessarily sexual, self- actualization) Collective UNC (transpersonal, inherited) Archetypes (myth, art, culture, religion, etc.) Anima/Animus Introversion/Extraversion Adler “Individual Psychology” unique individuality and unified strivings of the whole person Ego functions Social environment Inferiority/Superiority Compensatory Motivation Inferiority Complex Erikson Psychosocial Development 8 stages, development throughout the lifespan Crises 1.Trust 2. Autonomy 5. Identity 6. Intimacy OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY Interpersonal relations and the development of the SELF Internalized “object” representations Fundamental role of ATTACHMENT as primary need Klein Stages: 1. (Schizoid) Fusion “Mommy and I are one” 2. (Paranoid) Good bad splitting similar to “bi-polar representations” (Kernberg) 3. (Depressive) Integration ambivalence & compromise “good enough mothering” Attachment MAHLER, BOWLBY, AINSWORTH, KERNBERG etc. responsive parenting secure/anxious/avoidant attachments Kohut SELF PSYCHOLOGY Self-objects Functions Mirroring Horney psychosocial and sociocultural factors “womb envy” ASSESSMENT tip of the iceberg ambiguous stimuli Projective Testing Rorschach TAT Murray’s Needs “higher order motives” Interrater/Interjudge reliability Empirical evidence Criticism superficial isolated artificial Empirical evidence 1. UNC processing Automaticity 2. UNC motivation Nisbet & Wilson (unconscious behavior) Silverman (subliminal activation) 3. Repression Mixed results Repressed Memory Debate Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event. Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit).
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