EEOP Program Overview

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					      Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals
Environmental Education Outreach Program




             Leading Causes of
               Lung Cancer
              Mansel Nelson, ITEP
           First Leading Cause
              of Lung Cancer
• Smoking is leading cause of lung cancer
• Causes an estimated 160,000 deaths in the
  U.S. every year (American Cancer Society,
  2004
• Rate among women is rising
  – Now exceeds breast cancer


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         Second Leading
       Cause of Lung Cancer
• Radon is number one cause of lung cancer
  among non-smokers
• Second leading cause of lung cancer
• Responsible for about 21,000 lung cancer
  deaths every year
• About 2,900 among people who have never
  smoked

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       Third Leading Cause
          of Lung Cancer
• Secondhand smoke is third leading cause of
  lung cancer
• Estimated 3,000 lung cancer deaths every
  year
• About 1,000 never smoked; about 2,000
  former smokers


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Another Leading Cause of Cancer

• Asbestos exposure
• Highest risk
  – Mining, milling, manufacturing of asbestos
  – Use asbestos and its products




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          Synergistic Connections
                    (Radon and Smoking)

• Radon and smoking are synergistic
• Smokers: 62 of 1,000 people will die of lung cancer
• Never-smokers: 7.3 of 1,000 for never-smokers
• Never-smoker at 1.3 pCi/L (indoor average): 2 in 1,000
  chance of dying from lung cancer
• Smoker at 1.3 pCi/L (indoor average): 20 in 1,000 chance
  of dying from lung cancer


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    Synergistic Connections
            (Asbestos and Smoking)


• Exposure to asbestos increases risk of
  developing lung disease
• Risk made worse by smoking




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Smoking
                      Smoking
• Harms nearly every bodily organ
• Causing many diseases, degrades health
• Estimated 438,000 deaths (nearly 1 of 5 deaths) each year
  in U.S.
• More than by all deaths from human immunodeficiency
  virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle
  injuries, suicides, and murders combined


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             Smoking (cont.)
• Cancer is second leading cause of death
• First disease directly linked to smoking
• Risk of dying from lung cancer
   – 23x higher among men
   – 13x higher among women
• Smoking causes cancers of bladder, oral cavity,
  pharynx, larynx (voice box), esophagus, cervix,
  kidney, lung, pancreas, and stomach, and acute
  myeloid leukemia

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        Smoking (cont.)
• Smokers 2–4 times more likely to develop
  coronary heart disease
• Smoking doubles a person’s risk for stroke
• Smokers more than 10x as likely than
  nonsmokers to develop peripheral vascular
  disease


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              Smoking (cont.)
• Causes tenfold increase in risk of dying from
  chronic obstructive lung disease
• Many adverse reproductive and early childhood
  effects, including increased risk for infertility,
  preterm delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight, and
  sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
• Postmenopausal women smokers have lower bone
  density


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Radon
                 Radon
• Radon in air is ubiquitous
• Found in outdoor air and indoor air of
  buildings of all kinds
• No known safe level of radon




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               Radon (cont.)
• Red alert - radon level above 4 pCi/L (pico Curies
  per Liter)
• Yellow alert - radon levels between 2 pCi/L and 4
  pCi/L
• Average radon indoor air about 1.3 pCi/L



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Radon found in all
    50 states




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        Radon in Drinking Water
• Recent research confirms drinking-water-
  related cancer deaths
• Primarily due to lung cancer




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Radon “Daughters”




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        Radon in Lungs

                  • Radon or decay
                    products inhaled
                  • Particles irradiate
                    lungs
Radon
                  • Irradiation can
                    cause lung cancer



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Radon in Buildings

          • From soil
          • Lower parts of building at
            greatest risk
          • “Stack effect”




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Radon Testing




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Radon Mitigation




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Second-Hand Smoke
Environmental Tobacco Smoke
          (ETS)
      Surgeon General Report

      Second-Hand Smoke
Single greatest avoidable cause of disease and
death




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           Surgeon General Report
            Second-Hand Smoke
• Millions of Americans, children and adults, still
  exposed to second-hand smoke
• Second-hand smoke exposure causes disease and
  premature death in children and adults who do not
  smoke



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        Surgeon General Report
       Second-Hand Smoke (cont.)
Children exposed to secondhand smoke at
    increased risk for
  –   Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
  –   Acute respiratory infections
  –   Ear problems
  –   More severe asthma



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    Surgeon General Report
   Second-Hand Smoke (cont.)




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           Surgeon General Report
          Second-Hand Smoke (cont.)
• Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke has
  immediate adverse effects
  – Cardiovascular system and causes
  – Coronary heart disease
  – Lung cancer




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  Surgeon General Report
 Second-Hand Smoke (cont.)
The scientific evidence
indicates there is no
risk-free level of exposure
to secondhand smoke

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        Surgeon General Report
       Second-Hand Smoke (cont.)
• Eliminating smoking in indoor spaces fully
  protects nonsmokers
• Following actions DO Not protect
  nonsmokers
  – Separating smokers from nonsmokers
  – Cleaning the air
  – Ventilating buildings

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Asbestos
Asbestos
  What does it look like?
   fibrous, friable (able to
    crumble) and fluffy,
    almost like a muddy
    brown or white cotton
    wool




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   Asbestos – Health Impacts
• Lung Cancer
• Asbestosis – serious, progressive, long-term
  non-cancer disease of the lungs
• Mesothelioma – rare form of cancer found
  in thin lining (membrane) of lungs



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          Where is Asbestos Found?

•   Acoustic insulator
•   Thermal insulation
•   Fire proofing
•   Other building materials
•   Brake pads / drum
•   Brake linings
•   Asbestos-cement
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          Isn’t Asbestos Banned?

Asbestos is NOT a banned substance.
• In 1989, EPA banned all NEW uses of
  asbestos
• Uses established before 1989 are still allowed




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           Health Risk

Intact, undisturbed asbestos-
 containing materials generally do
 not pose a health risk




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                  Schools
• Perform inspections and re-inspection
  every three years of asbestos-containing
  material
• Asbestos management plan
• Notification to parent, teacher, and
  employee organizations
• Provide custodial staff with asbestos-
  awareness training
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                  Work Place
• U.S. Occupational Safety and Health
  Administration (OSHA) has issued
  revised regulations covering asbestos
  exposure.
• In construction, there are special regulated-
  area requirements for asbestos removal,
  renovation, and demolition operations.

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                      Home
• Materials containing asbestos that are not
  disturbed or deteriorated do not, in
  general, pose a health risk and can be left
  alone.
• If you are concerned, contact EPA or
  Health Department
  - test your home
  - locate a company that is trained to remove or
  contain the fibers.
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Synergism of Asbestos and Smoking
• Cigarette smoke and asbestos together
  significantly increase your chances of
  getting lung cancer.
• If you have been exposed to asbestos you
  should stop smoking.
• This may be the most important action
  that you can take to improve your health
  and decrease your risk of cancer.
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           Tobacco Resources

• http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/
• http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/second
  handsmoke/
• www.cancer.org
• www.lungusa.org
• www.nci.nih.gov/

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            Radon Resources

• http://www.epa.gov/radon/healthrisks.html
• www.neha-nrpp.org/
• www.nrsb.org
• http://www.epa.gov/radon/zonemap/alaska.htm
• http://www.uaf.edu/ces/publications/freepubs/
  RAD-01250.pdf

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           Asbestos References

• http://www.epa.gov/asbestos/

• http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp61.html

• http://ehs.okstate.edu/training/OSHASBES.HTM

• http://www.epa.gov/asbestos/pubs/asbestos_in_sc
  hools.html


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Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP)

    Mansel A. Nelson, Senior Program Coordinator
    Environmental Education Outreach Program (EEOP)
    Northern Arizona University (NAU)
    http://www.nau.edu/eeop/
    mansel.nelson@nau.edu

    Voice 928 523 1275
    FAX 928 523 1280
    PO Box 5768, Flagstaff, AZ 86011
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