Versailles and England_____________________________________________Western Civilization
Courtly Beginnings and the French Aristocracy
a. Formation of French Classical Style
b. Foundation of the Royal Academy, Louis XIV and principle advisor, Jean-Baptiste Colbert
c. Organize architecture in the service of the state
1. Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis the XIV, 1701.
Oil on canvas, approx. 9’2”x 6’3”
a. Very large Baroque portrait
b. Fanfares- short pompous works
c. “Rondeau” by Mouret
2. Claude Perrault, Louis Le Vau, and Charles Le Brun,
east façade of the Lourve, Paris, 1667-1670.
a. Gothic verticality replaced by horizontal sweep of façade
3. Pallace of Versialles, begun 1669,
and a small portion of the surrounding park (aerial view).
a. Symbol of Absolutism
b. The Chateau-over ¼ mile long
c. The Trianon
d. The Park-by André Le Nôtre
e. En Ville-east of palace
4. Plan of the park, palace, and town of Versailles
(after a 17th century engraving by Francois Blondel).
a. Whole design proclaims the mastery of human intelligence
over the disorderliness of nature
5. Royal Alley or Alley of the Green Carpet
6. Temple of Love
a. 1776 and 1783 architect Richard Mique built for Marie-Antoinette
8. Francois Girardon and Thomas Regnaudin,
Apollo Attended by the Nymphs, c. 1666-1672.
Marble, life size. Park of Versailles.
9. Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le Brun,
Gallerie Des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), Palace of Versialles, c. 1680.
a. Tunnel-like quality alleviated by hundreds of mirrors
10. Jules Hardouin-Mansart, Royal Chapel of the Palace of Versailles,
1698-1710. (Ceiling decorations by Antoine Coypel)
a. Royal Gallery
11. Christopher Wren, new St. Paul’s Cathedral,
a. Built in little over 30 years, Wren lived to see it completed
In Search of Pleasure: Rococo Art_____________________________________Western Civilization
a. Death Louis XIV in 1715, court of Versailles abandoned for pleasures of town life
b. Hotels (town houses) of Paris becomecenters of new style called Rococo
c. Sparkling gaiety cultivated by new age, reign of Louis XV
1. Germain Boffrand, Salon de la Princesse, Hotel de Soubise,
Paris, 1737-1740. Painting by Natoire, sculpture by J.B. Lemoine.
a. Arabesques, S shapes, C shapes, reverse-C shapes,
volutes and naturalistic plant forms,
a. Emphasis: carefree life of aristocracy
b. Subject: Love and Romance
c. Poets and painters express same sentiment
2. Antoine Watteau, L’Indifferent, c. 1716.
Oil on canvas, approx. 10”x 7”.
a. small portrait, “the indifferent one”
3. Watteau, Return from Cytheria, 1717-1719.
Oil on canvas, approx. 4’3”x 6’4”.
a. Island of eternal youth and love sacred to Aphrodite
4. Rosalba Carriera, Jean-Antoine Watteau, 1721.
Pastel on paper, 14 7/16” X 9 1/16”
a. Pastel—a new medium for finished works of art
5. Francois Boucher, Cupid a Captive, 1754.
Oil on canvas, approx. 66” x 34”.
a. Madame de Pompadour was major patron and supporter
6. Jean-Honore Fragonard, The Meeting, from the Loves of the Shepherds,
1771-73. Oil on canvas, 10’ 5 ¼” X 7’ 5/8”
a. 14 canvases commissioned by Madame du Barry, Louis XV’s last mistress
7. Jean-Honore Fragonard, The Swing, 1766.
Oil on canvas, approx. 35” x 32”.
a. typical “intrigue “ picture
8. Quentin de la Tour, Self-Portrait, c. 1751.
Pastel, approx. 25” x 21”.
a. The esprit of the Enlightenment personality
9. Clodion, Nymph and Satyr, c. 1775.
Terracotta, approx. 23” high.
a. Small, intimate and sensuous, designed for salons of the day
10. Clodion, The Invention of the Balloon, 1784.
Terracotta model for a monument, height 43 ½”
a. Work commorated the 1783 invention of the hot-air balloon
The Art Movement in England___________________________________________________________
a. With Stuarts on the throne visual arts gained importance
Reaction against the Rococo: The Taste for the “Natural”
a. Rejected artificial subjects
b. Denis Diderot, a leading Enlightenment figure, father of modern art criticism
11. Richard Boyle (Earl of Burlington) and William Kent,
Chiswick House, near London, begun 1725.
a. Simple, harmonious and useful Palladian design
12. John Singleton Copley, Paul Revere,
c. 1768-1770. Oil on canvas, 35”x 28 ½”.
a. American artist, immigrated to England
13. Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan,
c. 1785. Oil on canvas, approx. 7’2”x 5’.
a. Naturalistic representation and Rococo setting
14. Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun, Self-portrait, 1790.
Oil on canvas. 8’4”x 6’9”.
a. Woman ‘s role in society
b. Queen Marie Antoinette
15. Adelaide Labille-Guiard, Self-Portrait with Two Pupils,
1785. Oil on canvas, 6’11” X 4’11 ½ “
a. Commitment to enlarging the number of women painters in France
16. Antonio Canaletto, Basin of San Marco from San Giorgio Maggiore,
c. 1740. Oil on canvas.
a. A “grand tour”, mementos of their journeys
17. Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin, Grace at Table,
1740. Oil on canvas, 19’x 15”.
a. Moral values painted in quiet scenes of domestic life
b. Later work-pastels
18. William Hogarth, The Marriage Contract, from Marriage a la Mode,
1743-45. Oil on canvas, 28” X 36”.
a. Art should participate in the improvement of society
19. William Hogarth, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage a la Mode,
c. 1745. Oil on canvas, approx. 28”x 36”.
a. Satirized contemporary life with comic zest
b. Narrative paintings or prints in a sequence
c. Age English satirical writings, Henry Fielding’s, Tom Jones