1. The behavior of many people has been described 6. Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the
in terms of a spotlight effect. This means that they: influence of the collective unconscious in personality
A) tend to see themselves as being above average in development?
ability. A) Jung
B) perceive that their fate is determined by forces B) Adler
not under their personal control. C) Horney
C) overestimate the extent to which other people are D) Maslow
noticing them. E) Bandura
D) do all of the above.
7. The ________ classifies people according to Carl
2. Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her Jung's personality types.
overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she A) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst B) MMPI
would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children C) Locus of Control Scale
illustrates: D) Kagan Temperament Scale
A) rationalization. E) Cattell 16PF
C) reaction formation. 8. Which technique would psychologists use to
D) displacement. assess whether a cluster of characteristics that
E) projection. includes ambition, determination, persistence, and
self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?
3. A boy's sexual desires for his mother and feelings A) projective testing
of hostility toward his father constitute what Freud B) factor analysis
called: C) empirically derived testing
A) reaction formation. D) free association
B) the Oedipus complex.
C) reciprocal determinism. 9. Two-year-old Damien frequently refuses to obey
D) an oral fixation. his parents because he derives immense pleasure
E) displacement. from demonstrating his independence from their
control. Freud would have suggested that Damien is
4. Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized that going through the ________ stage of development.
personality development is strongly influenced by A) phallic
feelings of inferiority? B) anal
A) Jung C) genital
B) Allport D) latency
C) Horney E) oral
E) Adler 10. Neo-Freudians such as Adler and Horney
5. Freud suggested that adults with a passive and A) Freud placed too great an emphasis on the
submissive personality marked by a childlike unconscious mind.
dependency demonstrate signs of: B) Freud placed too great an emphasis on sexual
A) projection. and aggressive instincts.
B) an oral fixation. C) the years of childhood were more important in
C) an inferiority complex. the formation of personality than Freud had
D) reaction formation. indicated.
E) an Oedipus complex. D) Freud's ideas about the id, ego, and superego as
personality structures were incorrect.
E) All of the above were true.
11. Celine recently had a vivid dream that was 16. Walter Mischel's studies of college students'
strikingly similar to an ancient myth that she had conscientiousness revealed only a modest
never known about prior to the dream. This relationship between a student being conscientious
coincidence would have been of particular interest to: on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on
A) Adler. another occasion. According to Mischel, this should
B) Rogers. make psychologists more cautious about emphasizing
C) Allport. the consistency of:
D) Jung. A) repression.
E) Horney. B) self-efficacy.
C) personality traits.
12. During a phone call to the Psychic Network, D) reciprocal determinism.
Mark was told that “you often worry about things E) unconditional positive regard.
much more than you admit, even to your best
friends.” Mark's amazement at the psychic's apparent 17. Freud suggested that slips of the tongue
understanding of his personality best illustrates: illustrate an incomplete:
A) the spotlight effect. A) fixation.
B) an external locus of control. B) displacement.
C) unconditional positive regard. C) rationalization.
D) the Barnum effect. D) projection.
E) the self-reference phenomenon. E) repression.
13. Freud emphasized that unresolved childhood 18. According to Freud, the part of personality that
conflicts often lead to: represents our sense of right and wrong and our
A) reciprocal determinism. ideal standards is the:
B) the self-reference phenomenon. A) collective unconscious.
C) unconditional positive regard. B) ego.
D) an external locus of control. C) self-concept.
E) fixation. D) id.
14. For his class presentation, Bruce plans to discuss
the Big Five personality factors used by people 19. Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident
throughout the world to describe others or that few people realize he is actually riddled with
themselves. Which of the following is not a factor unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best
that Bruce will discuss? illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:
A) extraversion A) regression.
B) openness B) projection.
C) appreciation C) displacement.
D) conscientiousness D) rationalization.
E) neuroticism E) reaction formation.
15. The Oedipus and Electra complexes have their 20. The concept of personality most clearly
roots in the: embodies the notion of:
A) anal stage. A) moral integrity.
B) oral stage. B) self-consciousness.
C) latency stage. C) behavioral consistency.
D) phallic stage. D) self-actualization.
E) genital stage. E) gender identity.
21. Mr. Dutoit was asked by his psychotherapist to 26. Children who have witnessed a parent's murder
look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's
story about each. Mr. Dutoit was most likely taking concept of:
the: A) rationalization.
A) TAT. B) the Oedipus complex.
B) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. C) reaction formation.
C) MMPI. D) displacement.
D) Personal Orientation Inventory. E) repression.
E) Rorschach test.
27. People who cheat on their taxes are especially
22. Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who likely to think many others do as well. This belief is
are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others' most similar to Freud's concept of:
opinions illustrate: A) displacement.
A) reciprocal determinism. B) reaction formation.
B) extraversion. C) regression.
C) reaction formation. D) projection.
D) self-actualization. E) fixation.
E) an external locus of control.
28. A religious leader who attempts to overcome his
23. Contemporary psychology is best defined as the hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual
scientific study of: certainty illustrates most clearly the defense
A) conscious and unconscious mental activity. mechanism of:
B) observable responses to the environment. A) reaction formation.
C) behavior and mental processes. B) projection.
D) thoughts, feelings, and perceptions. C) regression.
E) maladaptive and adaptive behaviors. D) displacement.
24. Although she is intelligent and a good athlete,
Abigail believes that her low grades in school and 29. In suggesting that the mind is like an iceberg,
losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance
own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her of the:
conclusions best illustrate: A) ego.
A) an unstable explanation of the event. B) superego.
B) a specific explanation of the event. C) instincts.
C) an internal explanation of the event. D) unconscious.
D) a global explanation of the event. E) psychosexual stages.
E) reciprocal determinism.
30. Card players who attribute their wins to their
25. A psychologist at the campus mental health own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate:
center administered an empirically derived A) unconditional positive regard.
personality test to diagnose an emotionally troubled B) the Barnum effect.
student. Which test did the psychologist most likely C) reciprocal determinism.
administer? D) the spotlight effect.
A) the MMPI E) self-serving bias.
B) the TAT
C) the Rorschach 31. Humanistic psychology has been most closely
D) the Locus of Control Scale associated with an emphasis on the importance of:
E) the Myers-Briggs Inventory A) free association.
B) empirically derived tests.
C) reciprocal determinism.
D) a positive self-concept.
E) an external locus of control.
32. The school psychologist believes that having a 36. A person who is helpful and trusting most clearly
positive self-concept is necessary before students can ranks high on the Big Five trait dimension known as:
achieve their potential. Evidently, the school A) emotional stability.
psychologist is working within the ________ B) extraversion.
perspective. C) openness.
A) psychoanalytic D) agreeableness.
B) trait E) conscientiousness.
D) social-cognitive 37. A person who is careless and disorganized most
clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of:
33. After experiencing prolonged and seemingly A) emotional stability.
inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla B) extraversion.
became increasingly depressed and hopelessly C) openness.
resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best D) agreeableness.
illustrates: E) conscientiousness.
A) the spotlight effect.
B) an Electra complex. 38. The personality test Teresa is taking involves her
C) unconditional positive regard. describing random patterns of dots. What type of test
D) learned helplessness. is she taking?
E) defensive self-esteem. A) an empirically derived test
B) the MMPI
34. When 2-year-old Matthew was told he would get C) a personality inventory
no dessert until he finished the food on his plate, he D) a projective test
threw his plate on the floor in a temper tantrum. E) a trait test
Freud would have suggested that Matthew was
unable to resist the demands of his: 39. Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic
A) superego. contests depends so much on luck that it hardly pays
B) collective unconscious. to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her
C) ego. belief most clearly illustrates:
D) id. A) an Electra complex.
E) Oedipus complex. B) the spotlight effect.
C) the Barnum effect.
35. The pleasure principle is to the ________ as the D) self-serving bias.
reality principle is to the ________. E) an external locus of control.
A) oral stage; anal stage
B) id; superego 40. According to Rogers, three conditions are
C) id; ego necessary to promote growth in personality. These
D) Oedipus complex; Electra complex are:
E) conscious; unconscious A) honesty, sincerity, and empathy.
B) high self-esteem, honesty, and empathy.
C) high self-esteem, genuineness, and acceptance.
D) genuineness, acceptance, and empathy.
E) unstable, specific, and external explanations of