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LISTENING Wikispaces Powered By Docstoc
					Listening
Objectives:
1.   State why listening is important
2.   Distinguish hearing from listening
3.   Provide various meanings of listening
4.   Describe the nature and stages of the
     listening process
5.   Explain the purposes of listening
6.   Identify the barriers to effective listening
7.   Suggest ways to improve listening
8.   Identify ways to give and receive feedback
9.   Recognize various propaganda techniques
Listening Quiz
1
A. selfish
B. interesting
C. generous
2
A. comical
B. honest
C. ungrateful
3
A. spoiled
B. clever
C. easygoing
4
A. punctual
B. bland
C. skeptical
5
A. bigmouth
B. depressing
C. pushy
6
A. talented
B. brilliant
C. inconsiderate
7
A. sloppy
B. frank
C. helpless
8
A. childish
B. nasty
C. cultured
9
A. creative
B. timid
C. narrow-minded
10
A. forgetful
B. ambitious
C. disorganized
 Most basic of the four major areas of
language development
 Listening is the first language skill
which we develop – S. Lundsteen (Wolvin,
1988)
 As children, we listen before we speak,
we speak before we read and read before
we write.
                Listening Facts

                                             % of Time We Use
Mode of Comm.     Formal Years of Training
                                                the Mode


   Writing               12 years                 10%
  Reading               6-8 years                 15%
  Speaking              1-2 years                 30%

  Listening         0-very few hours              45%
Listening Facts
•Confident people tend to listen to content better than
 unconfident people.
•How much of what we know have we learned by    85%
 listening?
•What percentage of the time are we distracted, 75%
 preoccupied or forgetful?
                                                50%
•How much do we usually recall immediately after we
 listen to someone talk?                        25%
•How much to we recall after 48 hours?
Quick Facts about Listening


•What percentage of the time do we       45%
 spend listening?
•What percentage of the population       Less than 2%
 had had formal educational
 experience with listening?


                              From the International
                              Listening Association
Hearing…
  is the physiological process of receiving
   aural and visual stimuli.
  It begins when the listener takes in the
   sound of the speaker’s voice.
  It is the passive phase of speech
   reception since we can hear without
   effort.
  Good hearing is important to listening
   because hearing provides the raw
   material on which the listening process
   operates.
  Good hearing though is not synonymous
   to good listening. (Clevenger, 1971)
Listening…
   is more than hearing.
   It is the described as the active phase of
     speech reception, a physiological process
     guided and controlled by the habits,
     attitudes, and conscious intentions of the
     listener.
   He chooses from those complex stimuli
     certain information that will be useful in
     formulating his response.
   These distinctions are helpful in clarifying
     the meaning of listening.
                Definitions of Listening…

 If“hearing is the apprehension (to
 become aware of through the senses) of
 sound and listening is the
 comprehension (to embrace or
 understand a thing) of aural symbols,
 then, listening can be more accurately
 defined as “the attachment of meaning
 to aural symbols.”
                            (Nichols, 1954)
               Definitions of Listening…

 A term for a whole group of mental
processes which enable us to interpret
the meaning of messages. It is a
cognitive process that involves
perception, comprehension, and other
mental processes.
               (Baird and Knower, 1968)
              Definitions of Listening…


   a process of receiving, attending to
 As
and assigning meaning to aural stimuli.

                        (Wolvin, 1988)
           Definitions of Listening…


 “…is the combination of what we
hear, what we understand, and
what we remember.”

                    (Brooks, 1993)
“Responses”
11.
A. Sorry, it's not mine.
B. Yes, please.
C. Yes, I wish you would.
12.
A. That's fine.
B. I promise to do it.
C. No kidding.
13.
A. Yes. Thanks for offering.
B. No way. You still owe me $15.
C. I'm glad for you.
14.
A. Yes, you may.
B. Sure. Go ahead.
C. Sorry, I can't today.
15.
A. I'm glad you think so.
B. You are sure.
C. I'd be glad to.
16.
A. Sorry, I'll do it right now.
B. Yes. I'll tell him you called.
C. You decide.
17.
A. Yes. You can keep it.
B. Yeah. I'll bring it on Monday.
C. Sure. How much is it?
18.
A. Okay. What time?
B. Yes, you may go.
C. No. You can drop it.
                 The Nature of Listening…
1.Listening is a dynamic,
  transactional process.

 It involves both the speaker and the listener as
 they send and receive messages. Therefore, it is
 THEIR responsibility to make sure that messages
 originating from the source must be
 understood, interpreted, and evaluated by the
 receiver.
                 The Nature of Listening…
2. Listening is an active process
  not a passive one.

 DeVito (1982) stresses that listening does not
 just happen; you have to make it happen.
 It demands physical energy which the listener
 needs so that he can focus on the message
 cues.
 It requires mental energy so the listener can
 actively participate as decoder of the speaker’s
 messages as well as encoder of his return
 messages or feedback.
                                       The Nature of Listening…
3. Listening is a complex process.




auditory acuity    auditory analysis
                                                                 note
                      mental                                 sequencing
masking                                  identification of
                  reorganization                               forming
                                             words             sensory
                                                             impressions
                                                             appreciation
            The Stages of Listening…

(1)HEARING
(2)IDENTIFYING and RECOGNIZING
(3)AUDING
                  The Stages of Listening…
HEARING
• auditory acuity – ability of the ear to
  respond to various frequencies or tones at
  various intensities, referred to as levels of
  loudness

Human speech frequencies range from
 250 to 4,000 cycles per second
 although the critical range of auditory
 acuity is 1000 and 2500 cycles per
 second.
                The Stages of Listening…
HEARING
• masking – occurs when the background
  noise received by the ear falls within the
  same frequency range as the message one
  is intending to receive.

  Competing conversation often
  “masks” the intended oral message.
  Meanwhile, “white noise” results
  when the competing or extraneous
  sound are composed of all
  frequencies.
                 The Stages of Listening…

HEARING

• auditory fatigue - results from continuous
  exposure to sounds of certain frequencies
                 The Stages of Listening…
IDENTIFYING and RECOGNIZING
• auditory analysis – process of comparing
  the sounds that are heard with the ones
  that are familiar to the listener; the
  sounds are recognized according to their
  likenesses and differences

• mental reorganization – listener uses a
  system that will help him/her retain and
  structure the incoming sounds
                 The Stages of Listening…
IDENTIFYING and RECOGNIZING

• association – upon hearing to certain
  sounds, a listener already ‘links’ these
  sounds with previous experiences,
  memories, and backgrounds
                 The Stages of Listening…
AUDING – listener assimilates the words and
  responds to them with understanding and
  feeling

• indexing – arranging the listening material
  according to importance
• making comparisons
                 The Stages of Listening…
AUDING

• noting sequence – arranging the material
  according to time, space, position, or some
  other relationship
• forming sensory impressions – translating
  the material to sensory images
• Appreciating – responding to the
  “aesthetic nature of the message”
                   Purposes in Listening…

1) Appreciative listening – listening for
   pleasure or enjoyment
2) Empathic listening – listening to
   provide emotional support
3) Comprehensive listening – listening to
   derive information, facts, ideas, and
   principles
4) Critical listening – listening to make an
   evaluation in order to make an
   intellectual judgment, to criticize, to
   evaluate ideas of others
         Barriers to Effective Listening…
1) Hastily branding the subject as
   uninteresting or irrelevant.
   SUGGESTION: Seek ways to make the
   subject interesting and useful to you.
2) Focusing attention on appearance or
   delivery.
   SUGGESTION: Judge content NOT delivery.
3) Avoiding difficult and unpleasant material.
   SUGGESTION: Practice listening in a wide
   variety of situations.
         Barriers to Effective Listening…


4) Getting over stimulated by what the
   speaker’s say.
   SUGGESTION: Keep your emotions in
   check.
5) Listening primarily for facts.
   SUGGESTION: Focus on ideas.
         Barriers to Effective Listening…
6) Trying to outline everything that the
   speaker says.
 Key-word outline
 Precis writing or precis method
 Fact versus principle
 Mapping
 Annotation method
 Cornell System (Walter Paule)

Becoming a better note-taker will surely help
  you become a better listener.
Mind Map Sample
          Barriers to Effective Listening…
7) Faking attention.
   SUGGESTION: Don’t pretend to listen.
8) Creating or yielding easily to distractions.
    SUGGESTION: Fight or resist distraction.
9) Engaging in “private planning”.
    SUGGESTION: Set aside unrelated
   personal problems or concerns.
10) Wasting the advantages f thought speed.
    SUGGESTION: Capitalize on the
   advantages of thought speed.
             Guides to Effective Listening…
(1) Listen actively.
(2) Listen with empathy. Feel what the speaker
    feels.
(3) Listen for total meaning.
(4) Listen with an open mind.
(5) Give effective feedback. Feedback is the
    response or reaction (overt and covert) of the
    listener as perceived by the source in the
    communication transaction.
    Effective feedback is immediate, honest, appropriate,
    clear, and informative.
(6) Listen critically.
                    Propaganda Techniques
(1) Name-calling a device that affixes an
    unfavorable label or name to a person or
    thing.
(2) Glittering generalities – attaching a vague
    but virtuous-sounding label to a person,
    cause or object.
(3) Irrelevant personal attacks
(4) False appeal to authority.
(5) Transfer.
(6) Half-truth.
                   Propaganda Techniques
(7) Card-stacking – selecting only favorable
     evidence and omitting unfavorable
     evidence.
(8) Plain-folks device – stresses humble
     origins and modest background.
(9) Bandwagon
(10) False causality – assigns a false or wrong
     cause to a certain happening or effect
(11) False analogy – results when the instances
     compared are not closely similar in all
     essential respects.
(12) Hasty generalization – a claim made on the
     basis of too little evidence.

				
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