Chapter 6 The First World War 1914- 1918

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					          Chapter 6


The First World War 1914-
           1918

      Social Studies 8-4
        Newfoundland at War

• World War I lasted from 1914 to 1918.

• It began as a conflict with Britain,
  France and Russia on one side (the
  Allies) and Germany and Austria-
  Hungary on the other.
Reasons why Newfoundlanders
 were involved in World War I
 1. thought the war would not last long
 2. signed up for adventure
 3. source of employment
 4. sense of pride and loyalty to their
  “mother country”, Great Britain.
 5. felt they would lose democratic
  government and security if they lost
                    • Patriotism:
                      sense of pride
                      or loyalty to
                      your country.

                    • Propaganda:
                      information used
                      to promote a
                      political cause
                      or point of view.
Propaganda poster
  War Posters – One method of Propaganda
   http://www.library.georgetown.edu/dept/speccoll/britpost/posters.htm




                                                           Adventure for
                                                            Young Men


 Be Patriotic.
Answer the Call
 War Posters – One method of Propaganda
  http://www.library.georgetown.edu/dept/speccoll/britpost/posters.htm


 Be Patriotic.                                       Negative of the Enemy
Answer the Call




                                Guilt
       Those Who Served
• The Book of Remembrance recorded all
  who died fighting for their country.

• Newfoundlanders and Labradorians
  served in many different branches of
  service during the war.
          Branches of Service
Military (those who fought):
-Royal Naval Reserve
-Newfoundland Regiment
-Canadian and Other Forces
Civilian (didn’t fight):
- Forestry Corps
- Volunteer Aid Detachment (VAD)
- Merchant Marine
Member of the Forestry   VAD Workers
       Corps
            Video and Audio

These are videos of Newfoundlanders during World
War I. The first video shows men marching into St.
John’s to leave for the war, and the other shows men
training for combat.


    http://www.heritage.nf.ca/greatwar/video/page2.html
   The Battle of Beaumont Hamel
                  pg. 131

• The Newfoundland Regiment fought in
  the Battle of the Somme at Beaumont
  Hamel in France.

• This was one of the most significant
  battles for Newfoundlanders in World
  War One.
      Beaumont Hamel- What
          Happened?
• The battle took place on July 1, 1916.

• The 801 members of the Newfoundland
  Regiment were ordered to advance out
  of their trenches and cross open ground
  called No Man’s Land towards the
  enemy position.
          What Happened?

• As they advanced, the soldiers were
  killed or injured by heavy machine gun
  fire, barbed wire, and artillery fire.

• The battle lasted only 30 minutes, and
  in that time, 710 soldiers were dead,
  wounded or missing.
Men ready for battle,
       1916.




                        Barbed wire at Beaumont Hamel
             Beaumont Hamel
                           An enemy shell bursting at
                             Beaumont Hamel, 1916




Newfoundland soldiers in
St. John’s Road support
trench, July 1, 1916.
  Beaumont Hamel Today




                  Y Ravine Cemetary
The Danger Tree
“A Display of Incredible Courage”

• The soldiers who fought in this battle
  were hailed as heroes because they
  kept going even as their friends and
  fellow soldiers died.

• Now, July 1 is considered Memorial
  Day.
“Recruiting Sargeant” –Great Big
              Sea
• The 1st verse deals with men enlisting
  for the war and the blue puttees.
• 2nd verse- the battle at Suvla Bay
  where many of the first 500 had their
  first fight
• 3rd verse- Beaumont Hamel
• 4th verse- the city of St. John’s
  mourning the loss of their sons.
         The Home Front
                  pg. 136

Women’s Patriotic Association
• assisted troops and offered support to
  family members.

• made bandages, knitted scarves, socks
  and hats, raised funds, visited grieving
  families and cared for injured veterans.
Women’s Patriotic Association




St. John’s Ambulance Division Making supplies, 1915
         The Home Front
Newfoundland Patriotic Organization
• Was run by volunteers, NOT the
  government.
• Responsible for recruiting members for
  service.
• Supplied equipment and other
  necessary items.
            Conscription
                   pg. 137

• After Beaumont Hamel, voluntary enlistment
  declined.

• To keep a strong army, the Newfoundland
  Regiment needed at least 1000 men.

• To build up the numbers of men, the
  government started conscription which is
  forced military service during war time in
  May 1918.
   For or Against Conscription??
                Chart on pg. 138



Look at the chart on
  page 138, and the
  views for and
  against conscription.

What do you think of
 conscription?

                          Newfoundland military personnel recruiting at
                          Harbour Grace, 1917.
 Impact of War in Newfoundland
Negative Impacts:

• Loss of many young men (chart on pg.
  140)

• Suffered financially. Newfoundland had to
  borrow a lot of money to fund the war, and
  had to pay it back, which would cause
  problems much later.
   Impact of War in Newfoundland

Positive Impacts:
• helped to define Newfoundland as equal
  to other self- governing members of the
  British Empire

• the involvement of women helped the
  woman’s suffrage movement to grow.
    Women’s Suffrage Movement
                    pg. 141-142
• Women’s suffrage
  refers to the right for
  women to vote in
  elections.

• Groups like the WPA
  and the VAD helped
  women to show what
  they were capable of.
  Women’s Suffrage Movement

• Suffragettes had to overcome many
  obstacles, including the negative
  attitudes of men.

• In 1925, all women over age 25 were
  finally allowed to vote.
       The Influenza Epidemic
                 pg. 144-145


• In 1918, a severe strain of influenza,
  refered to as the Spanish Flu, broke out.

• It came to Newfoundland in September
  1918, when soldiers returned home
  after the war.
      The Influenza Epidemic

• It hit Labrador very hard and spread
  rapidly via coastal boat.

• They had to bury people in mass graves
  and burn houses to stop the disease
  from spreading.
• More than 1/3 of the Inuit were killed.
      Primary Source Feature
              pg. 145
• Read this excerpt from the journal of
  Reverend Henry Gordon, who served
  as a missionary along the Cartwright
  area from 1915- 1925.

• Answer the 3 questions below it.

				
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