1-Detection of metal objects buried under ground This project

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					1-Detection of metal objects buried under ground
This project concerns the design of an instrument that may detect buried objects under
ground. In Cyprus, there are heavily minded locations within the buffer zone where
thousands of land-mines (metal anti-tank and plastic anti-personnel) are buried. The process
of cleaning these landmines are very costly, time consuming and dangerous by hand
without using electronic devices. Therefore, a device that can detect such objects buried
underground will be a significant contribution towards the solution of this humanitarian
problem. Also, in geographies like Cyprus where many archeological sites are available,
detecting metal parts without digging may help the archeologists to decide the locations
that are worthwhile excavating. Another use of the instrument may be detecting water pipes
underground or within the walls of a building. The instrument may prevent accidental
damage of water and other metal pipes in or around buildings where the construction of
surrounding buildings is yet to be completed such as in METU-NCC.

The instrument will transmit a signal to a surface (ground/wall) and then detect the
reflected signal by a receiver. According to the reflected signal strength, the instrument will
decide whether there is metal object buried underneath and indicate the size of this object to
the user.

The detector should have the following parts:
•    Isolated transmit and receive antennas that are suitable to the selected frequency of
•    Transmitter and receiver modules that can generate, transmit and receive the selected
     signal type at the frequency of operation.
•    A received signal strength indicator (visual or audio) that can indicate the size of the
     buried object to the user.
•    A power supply (battery powered) that can operate the device for at least 20-30

Optional: The primary objective is to detect metal objects, but it will be exceptional if
techniques are found that may facilitate the detection of other materials.

2-Distance and direction detection by using RF signals
In geographies like Cyprus/Turkey earthquakes are frequent; therefore a device that can
detect the direction and distance of a transmitting device in its proximity may save the lives
of people who need help. The device will detect the RF signals from a transmitter that may
be designed by the team, or signals from a GSM mobile phone. Although GSM network
provides a service that identifies the location of a mobile phone, this system is only useful
when the signals from the mobile phone can reach the base stations (BTS). Therefore, if a
GSM phone is buried underneath rubble, BTS cannot detect the phone and thus its location
cannot be identified. The device is required to indicate the direction of the transmitting-
device/GSM-telephone and also the strength of the received signal.

The detector should have the following parts:
•     A receiving antenna (or antennas) (directional or omni-directional) that will receive
      RF signals from a GSM telephone or from a transmitter that will be designed by the
•     A receiver that is capable of receiving and detecting signals as small as -102 dBm
      (minimum signal strength that can be detected by a GSM phone).
•     A mechanism to identify the direction of the received signal and indicate the distance
      of the transmitter from the device.
•     A power supply (battery powered) that can operate the device for at least 20-30

3-A WLAN repeater that operates without mains supply.
There are areas in Cyprus where land telephone lines are not available. For daily life
communications, people have the alternative of using GSM network, but when it comes
having access to the internet, using GSM (GPRS) network is not a practical solution since it
is extremely expensive, unreliable and low data rate. The only alternative is to use wireless
internet technology (WLAN, IEEE 802.11b/g), but the coverage of these networks in
Cyprus today is very limited and the signals are very weak at most of the locations. The
team in this project will construct a repeater that can extend the coverage area of a WLAN
router and thus enable the people living at remote locations and black-spots (no signal
areas) to use internet by using Wireless ADSL technology. The repeater will be powered by
using any source of renewable energy and will not be connected to any mains power
supply. This will enable the repeater to be deployed at remote locations and provide

The repeater should have the following
•     A directional antenna that will receive weak WLAN signals from a WLAN router.
•     A receiver that can detect weak WLAN signals and carry out necessary signal
      processing to improve the signal quality.
•     A transmitter that will retransmit the received signal with sufficient power that can be
      detected by WLAN receivers (laptops, PDAs) in the area.
•     A power supply with rechargeable batteries utilizing renewable energy sources.

4-An audio (guitar) amplifier that operates without mains supply
Artists usually find it difficult to perform at remote locations where mains power supply is
difficult to obtain. The team will design an audio amplifier that can pick signals from a
microphone or a guitar and send audible signals via a loud-speaker. The amplifier will
operate without mains supply and should have at least 5 W output power.
The amplifier should have:
•     A module that will provide the amplifier with power without being connected to the
      mains supply.
•     Batteries and a battery charging module to enable the device being operational for
      one hour when there is no any source of energy.
•     An audio amplifier module that has an equalizer, volume and gain control facilities.
•     Sound effects such as distortion, echo, wha-wha and delay.
5-Through wall remote control
Remote controls send signals by using infra-red (IR) that cannot go through walls and other
obstacles. Therefore, unless you are in the same room with the instrument (Hi-Fi, TV,
satellite receiver, DVD player, etc.), you cannot control it by using its remote control. The
device that will be constructed in this project will use RF techniques and enable the user to
control any device from any location in the house and thus provide flexibility to the user in
daily life. The transmitter and receiver should be capable of communicating over 15 meters
in order to provide proper operation.

The device should have the following:
•    An RF transmitter that will receive IR signals from remote controls. The transmitter
     will modulate and transmit the received signal at a selected RF frequency.
•    An RF receiver that will receive the transmitted RF signal, demodulate it and transmit
     the IR signal to the target equipment.

6-FM Transmitter to broadcast audio signals from an MP3 player or from another
People want to listen to the music saved in their MP3 players while driving without needing
to wear headphones. The device that will be designed by the team will receive an input
signal from an MP3 player or from another source and broadcast it in the FM band (88-108
MHz). The device should preferably receive the power input from the USB port of the MP3
player or from the cigarette lighter socket in a car. The transmitter should be able to tune
the transmit frequency over the entire FM band (88-108 MHz) and transmit signals that can
be detected by a radio receiver at least within 5 meters. The device should automatically
switch off when there is no input audio signal for more than a minute and switch on
automatically when an audio signal is connected.

The FM transmitter should have the following parts:
•    Modules that will provide transmission in the FM band with the facility of transmit
     frequency tuning.
•    A power supply module with a shut-down circuitry to protect the device from
     abnormal high voltage.
•    A compact FM antenna that will enable the device to be small and portable.

  P.S: Please come and speak to me about these projects and tell me the ones you have
                 found the most interesting and are willing to pursue.

                                    Tayfun Nesimoğlu

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