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									TEQUILA
 Tequila
Tequila is an agave-based spirit made
primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, 65
kilometres in the northwest of Guadalajara
and in the highlands (Los Altos) of the
western Mexican state of Jalisco.
   Tequila

• The volcanic soil in the region surrounding
  Tequila is particularly well suited to the
  growing of the blue agave, and more than
  300 million of the plants are harvested there
  each year.
   Blue Agave

• The blue agave grows natively in Jalisco,
  favoring the high altitudes of more than
  1,500 m and sandy soil.
• Commercial and wild agaves have very
  different life cycles.
• Both start as a large succulent, with spiky
  leaves, which can grow to over two meters
  in length.
   Blue Agave

• The flowers are pollinated by a native bat
  and produce several thousand seeds per
  plant.
• The plant then dies.
• The shoots are removed when about a year
  old from commercial plants to allow the
  heart to grow larger.
   Blue Agave

• Tequila is produced by removing the heart
  of the plant in its twelfth year, normally
  weighing between 35–90 kg (77–198 lb).
• This heart is stripped of leaves and heated
  to remove the sap, which is fermented and
  distilled.
     • Sap - šťáva
    Seven-step process

•   1. Harvest
•   2. Cooking
•   3. Shredding - drcení
•   4. Fermenting
•   5. Distillation
•   6. Ageing (reposado and añejo types)
•   7. Bottling
Harvest (Jima)
• Harvesting the agave plant remains a
  manual effort, unchanged by modern
  farming technologies.
• The agave is planted, and harvested by
  hand.
• The men who harvest it, the "jimadores",
  contain generations of knowledge about the
  plants and the ways in which they need to
  be harvested.
   Cooking

• Once the piñas have been harvested, they
  are usually split into halves or even
  quarters, depending on their size.
• These are carefully stuffed by hand into the
  ovens for cooking.
• Traditional distillers let the piñas soften in
  the steam ovens or for 50-72 hours at
  moderate heat.
   Shreding
• Crushing the baked agave to extract the
  juices
• Originally, the manufacturers beat the piñas
  with large wooden mallets to break them up
  once they were soft and cool, then
  stomping on them like grapes to get the
  juices out..
     • Mallet – palice, dřevěná palička
     • Stomp on it - šlápnout na to
   Shreding
• After baking the cooked hearts are taken to
  the crusher where they are broken up,
  mashed and squeezed by a variety of
  imperfect methods.
• The most common approach is to beat the
  material with huge wooden clubs, before
  trampling it to release the juice.
     • Club – palice, hůl, klacek
     • Trample – rošlapat, dupat (po)
   Shreding
• Modern distilleries use a mechanical
  crusher, or shredder, like a giant wood-
  chipping machine to process out the waste
  bagazo (the agave fibres, usually given
  away as animal food or used as fertilizer on
  the fields).
     • wood-chipping - štěpkování
   Fermentation
• There is a step in the production of alcohol
  that is outside the control of the humans
  who so carefully manage every other stage.
• It is almost magical, in that it occurs even
  without our intervention.
• That step is fermentation.
   Fermentation
• In technical terms, fermentation is the
  conversion of sugars to alcohol by yeast in
  anerobic conditions.
• Yeasts are funny creatures: a plant that
  seems willing to sacrifice itself for our
  benefit.
• They can take the sugars and
  carbohydrates and, through various
  enzymatic processes, turn them into alcohol
  as a waste product.
   Fermentation
• Fermentation has other limits such as
  temperature.
• Greater than 27°C kills the yeast less and
  than 15°C results in yeast activity which is
  too slow.
• Too high an amount of sugar in the solution
  can prevent fermentation.
     • Solution - roztok
   Distillation

• Distillation also varies among tequila
  distillers.
• Most claim to distill their ferment twice and
  some will proudly claim triple distillation.
• The first distillation is always a rough, low
  grade distillate and the second or third run
  is used to purify it.
   Ageing

• Of the five types of tequila, blanco (also
  called plata, white or silver) and joven (a
  mixto) are not aged.
• Blanco tequilas may be stored in sealed,
  stainless steel tanks, but this does not age
  the tequila.
   Ageing

• Reposado, añejo and extra añejo are all
  aged in wooden (oak) barrels.
• The most common barrels in use are
  previously-used American whisky barrels
  (Jack Daniels is the most commonly seen).
• However, there are also Canadian and
  French barrels to be seen in use.
   Ageing

• Wood also darkens the tequila, so newer
  barrels can rapidly make an añejo very
  dark.
• Barrels last 25-30 years, but each has only
  a five-year lifespan for any batch of tequila,
  after which all of the tannins are fully
  immersed into the tequila.
      • Tannin – tříslovina
      • Immerse - uložit
   Bottling

• Bottling is done using automated filling
  machines, and may also include a
  production line for washing bottles
  (automated), placing cork (sometimes done
  manually), applying labels, and checking for
  clarity and quality control.
• In some cases, labels are even hand-
  painted.
   Types of Tequila

• Tequila can only be produced in Mexico, in
  the Tequila Region, and must comply with
  strict Mexican government regulations.
• Tequila must be made with at least 51%
  blue agave juices.
• This tequila may be exported in bulk to be
  bottled in other countries.
• It may be Blanco, Gold, Reposado, or
  Añejo.
   Mezcal

• All liquors distilled from any agave plant are
  "mezcal", but only those made from the
  blue agave are branded as Tequila, all the
  others are mezcal.
• The most famous mezcal is distilled from a
  variety of agave grown in the state of
  Oaxaca in southern Mexico.
  Types of Tequila

Tequila 100% Agave
• Must be made with 100% blue agave juices
  and must be bottled at the distillery in
  Mexico.
• It may be Blanco, Reposado, or Añejo.
   Types of Tequila

Blanco or Silver
• This is the traditional tequila that started it
  all.
• This type of tequila must be bottled
  immediately after the distillation process.
• It is usually strong and is traditionally
  enjoyed in a "caballito" (2 oz small glass).
   Types of Tequila

Oro or Gold
• Is tequila Blanco mellowed by the addition
  of colorants and flavorings, caramel being
  the most common.
• It is the tequila of choice for frozen
  Margaritas.
     • Mellow - změknout
   Types of Tequila

Reposado or Rested
• It is Blanco that has been kept (or rested) in
  white oak barrels for more than two months
  and up to one year.
• The oak barrels give Reposado a mellowed
  taste, and its pale color.
• These tequilas have experienced
  exponential demand and high prices.
      • To experience - zažít
   Types of Tequila

Añejo or Aged
• It is Blanco tequila aged in white oak casks
  for more than a year.
• Maximum capacity of the casks should not
  exceed 600 liters (159 gallons).
• The amber (žlutá) color and woody flavor
  are picked up from the oak, and the
  oxidation that takes place through the
  porous wood develops the unique bouquet
  and taste.
   Types of Tequila
Reserva
• Although not a category in itself, it is a
  special Añejo that certain distillers keep in
  oak casks for up to 8 years.
• Reserva enters the big leagues of liquor
  both in taste and in price.
      • Cask - sud
The End

								
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