FORTRAN by yurtgc548

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 8

									FORTRAN




          Boz
           Before FORTRAN

   Machine language and assembly
    code.
   Programmers had many problems to
    overcome.
       Lack of instruction sets
       Primitive stream arrangements
       Extremely limited number representation
        Before FORTRAN

   Assembly and Machine required deep
    knowledge of how computers worked
   Looping was complicated and
    disorganized
   Few types, mainly int and char
   Programming was cryptic, as was
    debugging
    FORTRAN – FORmula TRANslator

   John Backus
   Designed originally for use with the
    IBM 704.
   The compiler was optimized
   Had many skeptics
   Much easier to learn then Machine
    code or Assembly
    FORTRAN – FORmula TRANslator

   Statically Typed
   Compiled (some iterations are still
    translated)
   Originally a spaghetti/procedural
    language (FORTRAN 66/77)
   Recent and current versions allow
    vector and object programming
    (FORTRAN 90/2003)
      Who Used it and Why?

   initially by programmers using highly
    numerical intensive programs.
   Once people recognized its
    effectiveness and ease of use, it
    quickly became the standard for all of
    IBM computers
   Other imperative languages were
    created, but FORTRAN became a
       What was so special about
             FORTRAN?

   Was the first “higher level” language
   Error checking was much clearer
   Instead of cryptic assembly or machine
    code, programmers could use
    algebraic notation
   FORTRAN organized looping and
    other complex data types
                      Bibliography
Backus, John. “The History of FORTRAN I, II, and III.” ACM SIGPLAN
   Notices 13.8 (1978): 165-180.

Constable, George, ed. Understanding Computers: Computer
   Languages. Time-Life Books, Inc, 1986.

“Fortran.” Wikipedia. 4 April. 2006. 4 April. 2006.
    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortran>

Horowitz, Ellis. Fundamentals of Programming Languages. Maryland:
    Computer Science Press, 1984.

Sebesta, Robert. Concepts of Programming Languages. California:
   Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. 1989.

								
To top