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Physical Fitness of Football Players

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									                        Physical Fitness of Football Players

                   Is physical fitness of football players very good?

CHAPTER 1
               INTRODUCTION

        The term “Education” is relative in its meanings. Some define it as training
process that comes about through study and instruction while others say it is a
series of experience that enables a person to better understanding of new
experiences.
Physical education refers to various body characteristics, such as physical
strength, physical development, physical process, physical health and physical
experience. Physical education plays an integral part in education process. But it
is limited to the development of the purely physical aspects of the human
organism “Body Building” and “Physical Fitness” will scarcely understand the
language of physical educations as a process concerned primarily with the
development of skills in muscular activity and person who speak physical
education as agency for the promotion of good.
To find the origins of football you have to go back to the Middle Ages, when
whole communities took part in what was described as Mob fold football. Various
forms of which survived until very recently. However, it wasn’t until 1883 that the
formation of the football association. By 1890 the game had developed largely
into the formation that we are familiar with today- the law of the game, the number
of players taking part, the dimensions and field markings have all undergone very
little change since then. This continuity probably explains why the game is as
popular today as it has ever been, even advancing its frontiers world-wide to be
enjoyed by audiences on a global level. Football may be the world’s best loved
game” but it is ago an extremely competitive sport where mediocrity has no place
whatever level you play the game at, you owe it to yourself and your team-mates.
According to the world’s top coaches, the two most important ingredients in a
footballer are fitness and skill. It is impossible to say which is more important, so
it is essential that all players work at both. Fortunately fitness will help you avoid
the first situation where your legs refuse to do what you brain asked them to do.
Football is of course a game that was invented to give pleasure and the fit the
plays it, the more pleasure it brings.
Physical fitness is the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively. It
consists of health-related physical fitness sand skill-related physical fitness,
which has eleven different components, each of which contributes to total quality
of life. Physical fitness is associated with a person’s ability to work effectively, to
enjoy leisure time, to be healthy, to resist hypo kinetic disease and to meet
emergency situations. It is related to but different from health, wellness, and the
psychological, sociological, emotional, and spiritual components of fitness
although the development of physical fitness is the result of many things, optimal
physical fitness is not possible without regular exercise. Now the general
question arises about fitness for soccer. The sustained use of energy over a
period of time brings on a state of fatigue and the more unfit a person is the
                                                                                     1
quicker fatigue sets in. when this occurs movement becomes difficult and the
body fails to make its normal responses to the dictates of the brain even the brain
itself becomes sluggish in its decision making capacity. Fortunately, this
condition soon disappears completely with the introduction of oxygen from the
lungs and throughout the body. The blood in the lungs is energized by an intake
of oxygen retuning to the heart for recirculation throughout the body. This action
revitalizes the muscles and induces recovery from the fatigued state.
The thesis is designed to define and analyze the term fitness and physical fitness
and to discuss the implications these terms have for the football player. The
concepts provide the facts about each component of fitness, as well as picture
and description of best exercise and activities for attaining each part of fitness.
All football players registered with Islamabad football association are facing
physical fitness problems, methods and techniques of evaluating physical fitness
was not known to anyone. Therefore this study was conducted for the first time in
Islamabad to find out physical fitness methods and techniques which will be
helpful to coaches, players and clubs in future.

 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    The study was designed to investigate the physical fitness of football players
of Islamabad clubs.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
This study aimed at achieving the following objectives.
   1.    to find out the physical fitness of football players in Islamabad
   2.    To explore the root causes of physical fitness of football players.
   3.    To create awareness in players about physical fitness for football.
   4.    To give recommendations to coaches to play their role in solving the
         physical fitness of players.

            1.  SIGNIFACANCE OF STUDY
    Football players have so many problems but their physical fitness is utmost
important because this problem directly effects the development of quality
players. Therefore the study emphasis on physical fitness which is often the most
effective way for a footballer to improve his game. Being fit to complete for 90
minutes is no mean feat. The study tells players that it takes discipline,
dedication and many hours on the training ground.

1.        The result of study will help to understand fitness problems of Islamabad
          players.
2.        The study will help to reduce the problems of players in physical fitness
          related to football.
3.        the study would enable the football players to fully develop their potential
          and become physical fit players


            2.    RESEARCH QUESTION’S
     1.     Is physical fitness of football players very good?
                                                                                     2
     2.   Whether football players of Islamabad clubs are physical fitness and
          conscious minded?
     3.   Is balance diet available for the football players?


           3.   METHOLODOGY
Survey method was conducted for the collection of data of this research.
1.7 POPULATION
       The population of the study was all the football players of Islamabad clubs.
1.       Sample
       In this research 10 football clubs of Islamabad were randomly selected 200
football players taken as a sample. The selection of the sample was carried out by
random sampling without any discrimination.
2.       Instrument of Research
       In this research selection of instrument depends on a nature of problem to
be studied. An instrument is necessary to test research hypothesis or answer the
research questions/objectives. The researcher decided to develop questionnaire
as an instrument for research. The questionnaire consisting of 22 questions,

1.7.3 Collection of Data
     The questionnaire was distributed and collected from players personally by
the researcher.
 2.  ANALYSIS OF DATA
     The collected data were tabulated and analyzed. Analysis was carried out in
percentage. The explanations of calculation of data were shown in the table. In
next chapter findings were enlisted, conclusions and recommendations were
made on the basis of analysis of data.
1.9   DELIMITATION
The study was delimited to football players of Islamabad football Clubs.




CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF REALTED LITERAL TURE
                                                                                   3
       This chapter consists of two parts in part one, some definition’s and detail
about the physical fitness of the players is given where part two deal with the
research primarily done on the topic
          1. Education
       The term education is of relative importance for some it is a training
process that comes about through study and instruction while for others it is a
series of experience that enables a person to better understanding of new
experiences.
          2. PHYSICAL EDUCATION
   Hetherington listed two things with which physical education is concerned.
First physical education is concerned with big-muscle activities and the benefits
that may be derived there form and second with it contribution to the health and
growth of the child so that he may realize as much as possible form the
educational process without having growth of handicapped.
   1.     Sharman: he described that physical education is that part of education
          that takes place through activities involving the motor mechanism of the
          human body and resulting in the individual formulating behavior
          patterns.
   2.     Nash: Nash (year 2001) pointed out that physical education is one phase
          of the total education process and that it utilize activity derives inherent
          in each individual to develop a person organically, neuromuscular,
          intellectually and emotionally. (Philosophical basis, 2001, p.77)
   In the light of all definitions physical education is an integral part of the total
   education process, in a field of Endeavour that has its aim of development of
   the physically, mentally, emotionally and socially fit citizen through the
   medium of physical activities that have been selected with a view to realizing
   these out-comes. (Bucher, 1972, P.6)
   Education then may be defined as planned development experience for all
   children and youth. Physical education is the use of vigorous activity as
   planned development experience for all children and youth. Physical
   education is the only part of the educational programmed in which the child is
   not merely encouraged to move but is taught to move effectively.
   Effectiveness of movement depends on its purpose which may differ at
   different time the child may run as fast as he can, to win a race or to tag
   another player.
   Though physical education we make sure that a child’s movements are the
   most suitable one’s for his stage of development. (Halsey, 1952, p.2)
   Physical education is limited to the development of the purely physical
   aspects of the human organism; body building and physical fitness will
   scarcely understand the language of another who thinks of physical education
   as a process concerned primarily with the development of skills in muscular
   activities. And persons who speak physical education as an agency for the
   promotion of good “citizen” or of “health”(Nixon, 1953, P.3)
   Fundamentally, physical education is concerned with individuals, situations,
   reactions and modifications. The only distinction between physical education
   and other form of education lies in the fact that physical education is concern


                                                                                    4
   largely with types of situations and responses characterized by muscular and
   emotional activities, by vigorous muscular.
   Physical education is defined as that phase of the whole process of education
   which is concerned with the vigorous muscular activities and related
   responses (Blanchard and Collinrs, 1940, p.350)
   The first physical education was the parents who taught their son how to
   throw, to jump and to climb, or in company with others instructed in the
   standards of the group to which he belonged. (William, 1932, p.7)

         1.    2.3    IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
       The world physical education refers to the body. It is often used in
reference to various body characteristics, such as physical strength, physical
health and physical appearance. It refers to the body as contrasted to mind.
Therefore why you add to the word education, the word physical and use the
world physical education, you are you are referring to the process of education
that concerns activities that develop and maintain the human body. When an
individual is playing a game, swimming, marching, working out on the parallel
bars, skating or performing in anyone of the gamut of physical education
activities that aid in the development and maintenance of his body, education is
taking place at the same time. This education may be determined. It helps in
building of a strong and cohesive society or it inhibits the attainment of
educational objects will depend on to a great extent upon the leadership
responsible for its direction.
Physical education is an important aspect of the education process. It is not a file
or an ornament tucked on to the school programme as a means of helping
children busy. It is instead a vital part of education. Through a will-directed
physical education programme, children develop skills for the worthy use of
leisure time, engage in activities conduce to healthful living, develop socially and
contribute to their physical and metal health. (Bucher, 1972, p.176)
       Physical education an integral part of the total education process, is a field
of Endeavour that has as its aim, the development of the physically, mentally,
emotionally, and socially fit citizen through the medium of physical activities that
have been selected with a view to realize these outcomes.
Physical education is limited to the development of the purely physical aspects of
the human organism Body Building and Physical |fitness will scarcely understand
the language of physical educations as a process concerned primarily with the
development of skills in muscular activity and person who speak physical
education as an agency for the promotion of good citizen or of health.
2.4 THE HISTOYR OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS
       In prehistoric times physical education was, without doubt, the chief mean
and kid of education. At that time education was aimed at the cultivation of such
specific skills and activities as hunting, warfare, and other pursuits of importance
in the life of uncivilized and semi-civilized man.
       Man of western civilization has evolved slowly to his present attitude
toward physical education and sports and their role, if any, in formal education
and the school curriculum So called Golden Age of ancient Greece, Physical


                                                                                   5
activates and sports of sundry type were held in high esteem and were
considered to be on an equal with the other phase of the total education of men.
       Sport in the domination from o expression of physical culture (planned
physical education, sport, physical exercise, and all forms of activities leisure
pursuits) and signifies the striving to succeed in physical efficiency, on the basis
oh the norms and rule in contest of all types.
       Luschen, a sport sociology, states that “Sports in a miniature of real life”; it
“intensifies the dynamic process of life is self”. They and many other believes
that play is a valuable ingredient in sport (Donald, 1997, P.25)

2.5 What is Sport?

       Before examining the theories that have been proposed to explain the
reasons why men engages in sport, it seems desirable to define sport (commonly
referred to by sport sociologist as sport, in the singular) and other terms that are
similar and that are sometimes used interchangeably. Play, games and physical
education share many common element that sport; in fact, some authorities do
not make large distinctions n the purpose served by the three.
       Staley, physical educator from the university on Illinois proposed in the
1930s that physical education be called sport education. This was in recognition
of the large sport content of physical education programme. (Donald, 1977, p.25).

2.6   Why people engage in Sport?


       Many peoples state that they enjoy working out and that they feel much
better after they engage in vigorous physical activity. Several theories have been
propounded to explain these feelings and why man engages in physical activities
and sport-what values he derives from such participation. Some of there theories
overlap one another and, in fact, may bee similar expect for name. Psychiatrists,
sociologist, psychologist, educators, medical doctors, physical educators and
other experts have advanced a number of theories that explain why such
participations is a source of enjoyment and produces a sense o contemned. The
human organisms are highly complex: no single explanation will apply to
different people or even the same person. Undoubtedly, many of the reasons
listed in there theories are all working together, often on a subconscious level, to
motivate and induce sport participation (Donald, 1977, p.25).
    1. Aesthetic Theory: By playing and engaging in sports man’s creative
       imagination is satisfied; he creates beauty through movement and play.
       Sport itself can process beauty and artistic qualities.
    2. Domination Theory: Sports participations allows one, with in certain rules
       and boundaries, to exercise his desire to dominate, this fulfilling a basic
       human desire.
    3. Energy Theory: Man has a surplus of energy that he dose not expended in
       work and that he needs to discharge in a wholesome way-play and sports
       afford one acceptable way.

                                                                                     6
      4. Recapitulation Theory: In sport participation, mans recapitulates his
         cultural history-the danger and victories of his ancestors-and capture a
         new old combats and battles.
      5. Recreation Theory: During work man “uses himself up” play restores him
         and supplies newly created incentive and energy.
      6. Will to power theory: This theory proposes that is aggressive in order to
         win. From infancy on, he demonstrates his superiority and mastery of the
         environment in an attempt to gain adult strength.

2.7    Football
       To find the origins of football you have to go back to the Middle Ages,
when whole communities took part in what was described as ‘Mob folk football’,
various from of which survived until very recently . However, it was not until 1883
that the game obtained some structure with the formation of the Football
Association. By 1890 the game had developed largely into the formation that we
are familiar with today-the “laws of the game “, the number of players taking part ,
the dimensions and field marking have all undergone very little change since.
This continuity probably explains why the game is as popular today as it ever was
even advancing its frontiers word-wide to be enjoyed by audiences in their
millions.
       It used to be said that ‘footballers are born, not made ‘. This is a sweeping
statement but nevertheless true in some aspect. We are born with a sense of
balance and timing, more acute in some individuals than in others. The impetus
to use these gifts to develop the skills required to play football is usually
generated by the child’s parents and elders.
       One of the first presents given to children is a ball and even before they are

able to stand and walk confidently they are encouraged to kick it. This then, is the

Extent to which football is engrained in our way of life is it any wonder then that

its popularity never wanes?

           Moving on from these infant days , it is the duty of all concerned and

connected with the development of young players to ensure that they do not

destroy the huge reservoir of inters and potential or damaged the fledge ling

talent given to their charge .

The skills of control, passing, shooting, heading or running with the ball are all
necessary requirements for any youngster aspiring to succeed. In their formative
years its is important that young players are encouraged to practice the basic
skills and play the game as often as possible , without too much attention being
paid to their suitability for particular positions or fixed role in a game .

                                                                                      7
       The ability to perform the whole range of skills efficiently in game with
opposition is essential. However, it is inevitable that most youngsters will have
strengths and weaknesses. Some will have strong physical attributes such as
pace or power, while others will have incredible close control skill or goal-scoring
ability. These are the factors that eventually will dictate where players can
perform to their best advantage that is in defense, midfield or attack.
       Mental dexterity, however, is a quality that is required in all areas of the
filed and during every second of the game .It is a rather vague asset, sometimes
called craft or composure and is probably best defined an acute awareness of
surrounding events and possibilities. Mental skills can only be acquired by
playing and being exposed to game situations. It is a talent that develops to a
higher degree in some players that in others, and it is probably the ingredient that
allows certain players to achieve greatness in the football since. (A.F.M2000, p.99)
2.7.1 FIFA
       FIFA is the governing body of soccer. Its primary objective is to grow the
Game        of     soccer       and      ensure          that   game     flourishes.
The objectives of FIFA are:

(a) To improve the game of football constantly and promote it globally in the light
of its unifying, educational, cultural and humanitarian values, particularly through
youth and Development programmers.

(b) To organize its own international competitions.

(c) To draw up regulations and provisions and ensure their Enforcement.

(d) To control every type of Association of Football by taking appropriate steps to
prevent infringements of the Statutes, regulations or decisions of FIFA or of the
Laws of the Game.

(e) To prevent all methods or practices which might put in danger the integrity of
matches or competitions or give rise to abuse of Association promoting friendly
relations

1. FIFA shall promote friendly relations:

(a) Between Members, Confederations, clubs, Officials and Players. Every person
and organization involved in the game of football is obliged to observe the
Statutes, regulations and the principles of fair play;

(b) In society for humanitarian objectives.


                                                                                  8
2 FIFA shall provide the necessary institutional means to resolve any

Dispute that may arise between Members, Confederations, clubs, Officials and
Players Football. FIFA has provided humanitarian aid to help build football
infrastructure in wake of devastating Floods which caused huge loses of life and
property in Pakistan.

“FIFA Approved three Goal projects while other three will be from Asian Football
Confederation.


                 1.   Islamabad Football Association (IFA)

       The Islamabad Football Association, commonly known as the IFA, is the
regional governing body of association and futsal in Islamabad, Pakistan. Its
headquarters are located in Jinnah Sports Stadium and its president is Dr. Fazal ul
Rehman. IFA is responsible for the organization and governance of football's major
regional tournaments like IFA 'A', 'B', 'C' Division Leagues.
IFA has 36 football clubs as member associations, of which 27 clubs have voting rights.
IFA Ranking Table 1:


Position 'A' Division          Position 'B' Division      Position 'C' Division



1         Mehran FC            13       Kiran FC          25        Islamabad FC



2         Ravi FC              14       Falcon FC         26        Friends FC



3         Quaid-e-Azam FC 15            Al-Faisal FC      27        Gilgit Baltistan FC



4         CDA FC               16       Poona FC          28        Jinnah FC



5         Huma FC              17       Al-Qaim FC        29        PTCL Youth FC




                                                                                      9
6         Gangal FC           18       Ramna FC           30       Young Brother FC



7         Ghouri FC           19       Federal FC         31       Millat FC



8         Rover FC            20       Zeeshan FC         32       Tramri FC



9         Paksporting FC      21       Youngster FC       33       Baltistan FC



10        Evergreen FC        22       Youth Power FC 34           Head Start FC



11        Akbar FC            23       Education FC       35       Model Town FC



12        ISB Academy FC 24            United FC          36       Haidri FC




2.7.3 Islamabad Football Association (IFA)
      Islamabad Football Clubs are playing vital role to promote football in
Islamabad Region. There are 36 clubs registered. These Clubs are part of
the Sports culture, reflecting century-old traditions. Club names may reflect
geographical, cultural, religious or political affiliations or simply be the brand
name of a club's primary sponsor. There are total 36 clubs in Islamabad and I
have selected two hundred players for data collection.


 Clubs Names:
Mehran FC, Ravi FC, Quaid-e-Azam FC, CDA FC, Huma FC, Gangal FC, Ghouri
FC ,Rover FC, Paksporting , FC Evergreen FC, Akbar FC , ISB Academy FC ,
Kiran FC, Falcon FC, Al-Faisal FC. Poona FC , Al-Qaim FC, Ramna FC .
Federal FC, Zeeshan FC. Islamabad FC, Friends FC, Gilgit Baltistan FC,
Jinnah FC , PTCL Youth FC , Young Brother FC , Millat FC, Tramri FC , Tramri
FC, Baltistan FC, Head Start FC , Model Town FC, Haidri FC.
2.8   Fitness


                                                                                     10
         Fitness is how well a person is adapted to and capable of living a certain
lifestyle. The fitness of an athlete is generally greater then of the non-athlete. The
athlete needs to be fit for the demands of his chosen athletic in addition to being
fit for the demands of day living. (Peter, 2000, p,.3)
2.9      Physical Fitness
         Physical fitness is the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively. It
consists of health-related physical fitness and skill-related physical fitness, which
have at least eleven different components, each of which contributes to total
quality of life. Physical fitness is associated with a person’s ability to work
effectively, to enjoy leisure time, to be healthy, to resist hypo kinetic diseases,
and to meet emergency situations. It is related to but different from health,
wellness, and the psychological, sociological, emotional, and spiritual
components of fitness .Although the development of physical fitness is the result
of many things, optimal physical fitness is not possible without regular exercise.
(Charles, 1989.p.5)

1. Body Composition: The relative percentage of muscle, fat bone, and other
tissues of which the body is composed. A fit person has a relatively low but not
too low, percentage of body fat.

2. Cardiovascular Fitness: The ability of the heart , blood vessels , blood , and
respiratory system to supply fuel , especially oxygen , to the muscles and the
ability of the muscles to utilize fuel to allow sustained exercise . A fit person can
persist in physical activity for relatively long periods without undue stress.

3. Flexibility: The range of motion available in joint. it is affected by muscle
length , joint structure , and other factors. A fit person can move the body joints
through a full range of motion in work and in play.

4. Muscular Endurance: The ability of the muscles to repeatedly exert
themselves. A fit person can repeat movements for a long period without under
fatigue
5. Strength: The ability to exert an external force to life a heavy weight. A fit
person can do work or play that involves exerting force, such as lifting or
controlling one’s own body weight.

2.10        Components of Physical Fitness.
       1.              Resistance to disease: Heredity and environment both help to
       determine the
       Ability of the individual to resist disease. Among the important
       environmental factors are
       Diet, exercise and recreation, rest habits, and proper personal hygiene.



                                                                                        11
2.          Muscular strength and muscular endurance: A person who has
 sufficient strength and endurance can sustain vigorous activity and
     perform strenuous work over an extended period. For and individual to be
 physically fit, he must have strong and efficient          muscles. He must have
 balanced proportion of good muscle fivers, the ability to bring the needed
 number of muscle fibers into play when there is work to be dined by the
 muscles, efficient body levers, a working rhythm, and food coordination.


3.       Cardiovascular- respiratory endurance: When a person contracts a
 series of muscles groups over a period of time long enough to put a strain
 on his circulatory and respiratory systems, but without causing a stoppage of
 the work, that individual has cardiovascular-respiratory endurance. These
 two systems are important to fitness because they work together to supply
 the muscles with fuel and oxygen, both of which are needed for muscular
 contractions, the more efficient the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
 of he individual, the longer he will be able to sustain work, since his muscles
 will be well supplied with their fuel and oxygen. The individual who has a
 high degree of this kind of endurance has improved his physical fitness,
 since his muscles receive larger supplies of fuel and oxygen, he has a slower
 pulse rate and lower blood pressure, his lungs have larger surface area,
 allowing for the absorption of more oxygen by his blood, he has a larger
 supply of red corpuscles, which also aid in increasing the oxygen supply;
 and he is less prone to fatigue.


4.       Muscular power: Muscular power is explosive power such as that
 needed for putting the shot, high jumping, and sprinting. A person who has
 muscular power also has two of the components of muscular power; strength
 and speed. The powerful individual is able to use his speed and strength in
 an efficient, coordinated, and skilful manner.

5.       Flexibility: Total body flexibility depends on the flexibility of the
 individual body joints and their supporting structure. Flexibility infers that the
                                                                                 12
 body is capable of making a wide range of movements, such as those needed
 for swimming, diving, and tumbling. The more flexible a person is, the less
 energy he spends in accomplishing a skill.

6.    Speed: A person who possesses speed is able to make a series of
 similar movements in a short span of time. Speed is swimming relates to the
 number of arm and leg strokes a swimmer takes in a given period of time,
 Muscular strength and the aspect of speed are highly related.
7.     Agility: The agile individual can change the position of his body in
 space efficiently and easily. Agility, strength, and endurance are important
 factors in agility, Agility are particularly important to the hurdler in track,
 lacrosse player, and drive.


8.    Coordination: The coordinated individual is able to put together a series
 of movements into a flowing and rhythmical pattern. Different kinds of
 coordination. Agility, balance, and speed ate important components of
 coordination.

9.    Balance: Balance is the maintenance of equilibrium, through
 neuromuscular control. Many of the skills of physical education, such as
 tumbling, tramp lining, and skiing, require good balance. Coordination is a
 factor in balance and, for some skills, agility also plays a part.

10.   Accuracy: The accurate individual can control the movement of one
 object toward another, such as pitching in baseball, throwing for a goal in
 lacrosse, or casting a fishing fly, Although there is some relationship
 between accuracy and balance , they are not related closely enough to have
 a strong dependency on each other. (Charles, 2005pp.35-). Exercise has the
 effect of defusing anger and rage, fear and anxiety like music, its sooths the
 savage in us that lies so close to the surface. It is the ultimate tranquilizer.
 (George and Shaheen, 1983, p-71)



                                                                                    13
   11.    Power: The ability to transfer energy into force at a fast rate. Throwing
    the discus and putting the short are activities that require Considerable
    power.



2.11 Muscles


Muscle strength and muscle endurance are two aspects that have to be trained
systematically for the footballer to perform at optimal level besides preventing
injuries. Therefore appropriate training will lead to an improvement in
performance through adaptations within the muscle, such as an increase in the
size of the fibers, in the number of capillaries and in the level of certain
endurance enzymes.


Besides muscle strength and muscle endurance the player needs good coordination
and balance for an efficient performance in kicking action.


Preparations for an Activity


For a footballer to work at optimal level his muscles have to be prepared and warning
up and stretching is vital before and strenuous activity. Warming up and stretching not
only gives a good magnitude for gestural ease and less muscular tension but also
prevents injury.


For instance, if warming up and stretching has not been enough the force executed by
quadriceps, could give rise to injury to the hamstring, reason being the quad are very
strong and exert tremendous force, The hamstring has to be strengthened as well but
many neglect his muscle.


Cooling Down


Like wise cooling after strenuous activity is vital because lactic acid collected will make
the muscles sore and painful and movement will affected. A good recovery run and

                                                                                          14
stretching after the activity will get rid of the waste products and regeneration activity
and massage will further help. We should also realize that after an injury it is important
to regain muscle strength lost during the inactive period. If the rebuilding process is not
adequate and the risk of these players becoming injured again is high.


Training for Youth


The best age to reach technical training to the players is at the age of 8 to 13 when they
have fine balance between coordination and body rhythm when what they learn
repeatedly becomes almost automatic. If a movement is repeated many times the
movement patterns are stored in the brain and can be retrieved when needed.e.g.
Dribbling skills, passing, running with ball etc. At the beginning the player needs to
concentrate but with increasing confidence he develops the skill and the movement
becomes automatic.


For players under the age of 12 years emphasis should be on quality of footwork,
coordination when running and acquisition of skills with the application of correct
technique, Boys of this age group are agile and flexible and related activities should be
carried out.


From 12 to 16 year we should continue with the above so that the players maintain their
body rhythm with the ball and their fine sense of balance. They should continue with
speed and coordination but strength training should be using own weight.


From the age of 16 we can gradually work on improving their strength with resistance
training. Weight training can be introduced at this stage. It is also an opportune time to
start on speed endurance training at this age group. However it should be emphasized
that the coach should develop the above by progressive loading and avoid
overtraining.


2.12 Fatigue




                                                                                             15
The sustained uses of energy over a period of time bring on a state of fatigue and the
more unfit a person is the quicker fatigue sets in. When this occurs movement becomes
difficult and the body fails to make its normal responses to the dictates of the brain.
Even the brain itself becomes sluggish in its decision-making capacity. Fortunately, this
condition soon disappears completely with the introduction of oxygen from the lungs into
the blood stream. Oxygen is the fuel that recharges the body with energy and the fitter
the person is the quicker recovery takes place.


The heart is the pump responsible for circulating blood from the lungs and throughout
the body. This action revitalizes the muscles and induces recovery from the fatigued
state.


The purpose of fitness training is to develop big powerful heart muscle, the more
powerful the heart the quicker the recirculation of oxygenized blood and the quicker the
recovery period from fatigue.


It is fairly obvious that during a period of fatigue, when the body is failing to respond
spontaneously to the brain’s command, the skill factor which is dependent upon timing
and touch is a serious contender as the first casualty.


However, if you prepare sufficiently well in your conditioning work you should be able to
withstand the ninety minutes of strenuous exercise endured during a game of football.


You should also be able to offset the effects of serious fatigue by achieving quicker
recovery rates and thereby maintaining the standards that are required to perform skills
well throughout the course of game.


As a guide to young players who do not have experience of training of the body to cope
with the requirements to which it is exposed, we include a section on physical training.
The one-week training schedule is an example of the type of pre-season programme
undertaken by most Football League clubs prior to the start of the season. (Association
Football Manual, 1989, P.99).


                                                                                            16
           Table 2: One Week training Schedule for football players


    Week-     One weak training schedule for football players
    1:


    DAY-      8 kilometers (5-miles) steady cross-country running.
    1


    DAY-      28 Kilometer (5-miles) varied pace cross country running.
    2


    DAY-      12-minute run using 400-metre track, marked out at 20
    3
               Meter intervals, to be run at maximum pace for the full time. Distance to be
              recorded.


    DAY-            21-minute run, starting at jogging pace. Incorporating 15-
    4
                          Seconds sprint in every minute, jogging after every sprint


    DAY-            8-minute single file ‘snake run’ 4 distances at 200-metre
    5
                                  Intervals. Running at three quarter pace to each
                                  station.   Perform varied activity at each station, e.g.
                                  double jumps, hopping on alternate legs, squat thrusts,
                                  ‘leap-frog hopping on alternate legs over squad members
                                  lying in prone position face-down and so on.


    DAY-            Up and down scale running working to times. Using 400-
    6
                               Meter track. Spilt squad into two groups.


.


                                                                                             17
Training and conditioning are one of the known ways which best prepare the players for

efficient performance and healthful living. Efficient performance is possible only through

a carefully planned program of progressive practice which will perfect the coordination

eliminate unnecessary movements and accomplish result at the expense of minimum

energy as well as conditioning the muscle structure and the circulation to withstand

without having the intensive demands made upon them (Reema, 2003, pp.2-3)


Although few people become rich and famous through football everyone can become

and stay physically and mentally fit and do so with fun and passion. Football can’t only

make the world a better place it can also make it a morehealthy one. So stay on the

ball.(Katharina,2007,p.47).


By integrating mind, body, motion and technique and gaining mastery over the elements

of coordination you can build a repertoire of moves and plays (Pesmen, 1985, p.70).

Previous Researches


According to Peter John L Thompson Research, Introduction to Coaching theory,
Fitness of an athlete is generally greater then of the non-athlete.


According Dr.Charles Research, Concepts of Physical Fitness, Physical Fitness
is not possible without Regular exercise.

According to Mr. Bucher Study, Foundation of Physical Education, rest and
relaxation are essential to good health and physical fitness.


According to George and Shaheen Study, Dr.Shaheen on fitness, Exercise has
the effect of defusing anger and rang, fear anxiety.




                                                                                        18
According to Mr. Pesmen Study, Esquire Ultimate Fitness, The elements of
coordination build a repertoire of moves and plays.


According to Katharina Study, Football for health, Football cannot only make the
world a better place it can also make it a more healthy one

                                   .


                               CHAPTER-3


                              METHODOLOGY


      This chapter deals with the methods and procedure of the study to achieve the
objectives of the research.


3.1       Nature of Research


      The study was descriptive in nature, Descriptive research involves collecting data
in order to test hypothesis or answer questions concerning the correct status of subject
of study (Gay, 1962).


3.2       Research Method


Survey method was conducted for the collection of data of this research.


3.3       Population.


The population of the study was football players of Islamabad clubs.


Table 3: population sample of the study


 Population of clubs     Clubs samples      Population of players      Players samples



                                                                                      19
 36                       10                 1440                      200




  1.   SAMPLE

       In this above table shows that their were 10 football clubs of Islamabad were

selected 200 football players taken as a sample. The selection of the sample was

carried out by random sampling without and discrimination.


   3.5      INSTRUMENET OF RESEARCH


         In this research selection of instrument depends on a nature of problem to be

studied, An instrument is necessary to test research hypothesis or answer the research

questions/objectives. The researcher decided to develop questionnaire as an instrument

for research. The questionnaire consisting of 22 questions.


  3.6 Collection of Data


         The questionnaire was distributed and collected from players personally by the

research.


  3.7 Analysis of Data

                                                                                         20
      The collected data were tabulated and analyzed. Analysis was carried out in

percentage. The explanation of calculation of data was shown in the table, on the basis

of calculated findings were enlisted, conclusions and recommendations were made.




CHAPTER 4

ANALYSIS OF DATA

      This chapter deals with the analysis of data collected from the study. Data

has arranged in the form of tables as following:-

Table 4: Age of Players

 Players                            F           Percentage

 16 years                           20          10%

 17 years                           40          20%

 18 years                           80          40%

 19 years                           60          30%



      Table 4 shows that 10% players are 16 years, 20% are 17 years, 40% are `18

and 60% are 19 years.

Table 5: Qualification of players

 Qualification                                          F                  %


                                                                                     21
B.A                                                    120                       60

F.A                                                    40                        20

Matric                                                 30                        15

Middle                                                 10                        5

      Table 5 indicated that 5% player is middle, 15% are metric, 20% are F.A and

60% are B.A



Table 6:      Knowledge about physical fitness

Do you have knowledge about physical              Yes           No            Not at

fitness for football?                                                         all

                                                  ƒ         %   f        %    ƒ           %

                                                  120       60 51        25.5 29          14.5



      Table 6 shows that 60% players were agreed that physical fitness is needed

in football, 255 % disagreed 14.5 % were of the opinion about not at all.

Table 7:      Improvement of Fitness

Do you have knowledge to improve fitness?        Yes                No       Not at all

                                                 ƒ      %           f    %   ƒ             %

                                                 155    77.5 40          20 5              2.5



      Table 7 shows that 77.5% players have knowledge to improve fitness and

20% have not knowledge to improve fitness and 2.5% were of option not at all.




                                                                                          22
Table 8:    Kinds of Exercise for Fitness

Do you have knowledge about the Exercises       Yes             No           Not at

used for Fitness?                                                            all

                                                ƒ       %       f        %   ƒ            %

                                                155     77.5 40          20 5             2.5



      Table 8 Shows that 77.5% players have knowledge about the Exercises

used for Fitness and 20 % have NOT and 2.5% were of option NOT AT ALL.




Table 9: Times spend for the Exercise

Do you spend time, daily on exercise for the        Yes             No       Not at

Physical fitness?                                                            all

                                                    ƒ       %       ƒ    % ƒ              %

                                                    160     80 16        8   24           12



      Table 9 shows that 80 % players do daily exercise and 8 % players NOT

and 12% were of option NOT AT ALL.

Table 10:   Methods of Training

Do you have knowledge about the Methods        Yes              No               Not at

adopted for Physical fitness?                                                    all

                                               ƒ        %       ƒ        %       ƒ        %

                                               115      57.5 45          22.5 40          20


                                                                                          23
       Table 10 shows that 57.5% players have knowledge of methods adopted for

physical fitness, 22.5 % have NOT knowledge and 20 % were of option NOT AT

ALL.

Table 11: Diet Plans

Do you have knowledge about the Diet plans           Yes              No               Not at

for Physical fitness?                                                                  all

                                                     ƒ       %        ƒ       %        ƒ        %

                                                     147     73.5 23          11.5 30           15

       Table 11 shows that 73.5 % players have knowledge about the Diet plans

and 11.5 % players have NOT and 15 % were of option NOT AT ALL.

Table 11: Football

Do you have knowledge about football?          Yes               No               Not at all

                                               ƒ         %       ƒ        %       ƒ             %

                                               147       73.5    23       11.5    30            15



       Table 12 shows that 73.5 % players have knowledge about football and 11.5

% have NOT and 15 % were of option NOT AT ALL.

Table 13: Physical fitness and performance

 Do you think Physically fit players perform         Yes              No               Not at

better in football?                                                                    all

                                                     ƒ       %        ƒ       %        ƒ        %

                                                     147     73.5 23          11.5 30           15




                                                                                                24
      Table 13 shows that 73.5 % players agreed that physically fit players

perform better in football and 11.5 % disagreed and 15 % were of option not at all.

Table 14: Time Spend with coach

Do you regularly spend time with coach?       Yes               No                Not at all

                                              ƒ         %       ƒ        %        ƒ                 %

                                              147       73.5    23       11.5     30                15

      Table 14 shows that 73.5 % players agreed that they spend time regularly

with coach and 11.5 % were NOT agreed and 15 % were of option NOT AT ALL.

Table 15:   Physical fitness components

Do you have basic knowledge about the five                  Yes           No               Not

physical fitness components which are strength,                                            at all

endurance, flexibility, speed and coordination?

                                                            ƒ        %    ƒ       %        ƒ        %

                                                            110      55 50        25 40             20



      Table 15 shows that 55% players agree that they have knowledge about the

basic five physical fitness components and 25 % have NOT and 20% were of

option NOT AT ALL.

Table 16:   To join a fitness club

Is it necessary to join a club or gym to develop    Yes              No                Not at

fitness in football?                                                                   all

                                                    ƒ       %        ƒ        %        ƒ             %

                                                    165     82.5 25           12.5 10                5


                                                                                                    25
       Table 16 shows that 82.5% players agreed that joining of a fitness club is

necessary to develop fitness, 12.5 % disagreed and 5 % were of option NOT AT

ALL.



Table 17: Physical fitness for dynamic and creative activity

Is the Physical fitness root for dynamic and            Yes            No            Not at

creative activity in football?                                                       all

                                                        ƒ      %       ƒ     %       ƒ        %

                                                        100    50 60         30 40            20



       Table 17 shows that 50 % players agreed that Physical fitness is the root

for dynamic and creative activity in football and 30 % disagreed and 10 % were of

option NOT AT ALL.

Table 18:    Regular physical activity is fun

Do you agree that Regular physical activity is      Yes            No            Not at

fun?                                                                             all

                                                    ƒ         %    ƒ        %    ƒ            %

                                                    110       55 32         16 58             29

       Table 18 shows that 55% players agreed that regular physical activity is fun

and 16 % disagreed and 29% were of option NOT AT ALL.

Table 19:    Good cardiovascular fitness

Are Football players require fitness for           Yes             No             Not at


                                                                                              26
cardiovascular system?                                                                      all

                                                     ƒ         %            ƒ       %       ƒ         %

                                                     123       61.5 60              30 17             8.5

      Table 19 shows that 61.5% players agreed that football players require

fitness for cardiovascular system and 30 % disagreed and 8.5 % were of option

NOT AT ALL.

Table 20: Football is a competitive sport

Do you think football is competitive sports?     Yes                No                   Not at all

                                                 ƒ         %        f           %        ƒ             %

                                                 165       82.5 25              12.5 10                5

      Table 20 shows that 82.5 % players agreed that football is competitive sport

and 12.5 % disagreed and 5 % were of option NOT AT ALL.



Table 21:   Football is a team work

Do you agree that Football is a team work?           Yes                No              Not at all

                                                     ƒ         %        ƒ       %       ƒ             %

                                                     180       90       12      6       8             4



      Table 21 shows that 90% players agreed that Football is a team work and 6

% disagreed and 4 % were of option not at all.

Table 22:   Regular exercise and fitness

Do you agree that Regular exercise for fitness       Yes                No                   Not at

make us healthy?                                                                             all


                                                                                                      27
                                                  Ƒ        %    ƒ        %          ƒ         %

                                                  127      63.5 33       16.5 40              20

       Table 22 shows that 63.5% players agreed that regular exercise and fitness

makes healthy and 16.5 % disagreed and 20 % were of option not at all.

Table 23: Balance diet

 Are balance diet plays a vital role for physical Yes           No            Not at

 fitness?                                                                     all

                                                 ƒ         %    ƒ        %    ƒ              %

                                                 135       67.5 40       20 25               12.5



       Table 23 shows that 67.5 % players agreed that Balance diet plays a vital

role for physical fitness and 20 % were disagreed and 12.5 % were of option not at

all.




Table 24: Qualified fitness trainer

 Do you agree Professionally Qualified fitness       Yes            No              Not at

 trainers are more effective?                                                       all

                                                     ƒ      %       ƒ     %         ƒ         %

                                                     149    74.5 31       16.5 20             10




                                                                                             28
      Table 24 how that 74.5% players agreed that qualified fitness trainers are

more effective and 16.5 % were disagreed and 10 % were of option not at all.

Table 25: Physical fitness control obesity

Do you agree that a proper Physical fitness         Yes               No                Not at

plan can help to control obesity?                                                       all

                                                    ƒ         %       f       %         ƒ         %

                                                    109       54.5 51         25.5 40             20



      Table 25 shows that 54.4 % players agreed that Physical fitness helps to

control obesity and 25.5 % were disagreed and 20 % were of option not at all.

Table 26: Planning to maintain fitness

Do you make any plan to maintain your           Yes               No              Not at

fitness?                                                                          all

                                                ƒ         %       ƒ       %       ƒ              %

                                                123       61.5 46         23 31                  15.5



      Table 26 shows that 61.5% players have made plan to maintain their fitness

and 23 % have NOT and 15.5% were of option NOT AT ALL.



Table 27: Sport apparatus

Do you satisfy the availability of Sports       Yes               No              Not at

apparatus?                                                                        all

                                                ƒ         %       ƒ        %      ƒ              %


                                                                                                 29
                                                123   61.5 46    23 31           15.5



     Table 27 shows that 61.5% players are satisfied with the availability of

Sports apparatus and 23 % were NOT and 15% were of option NOT AT ALL.



Chapter 5

            SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCULSION AND RECOMENDITIONS

  1.5 SUMMARY

     The topic of the study was evaluations of the role of physical fitness in

  performance of players in football in Islamabad. The important objectives of

  the study were to judge the behavior of the players towards physical fitness.

  To achieve the objectives of the study survey conducted to collect the data. A

  questionnaire consisting of 24 items was developed under guidelines of

  supervisors. Ten clubs of Islamabad district were included in the populations,

  200 players of the club were in the sample. The researcher personally

  delivered and collected the questionnaire. All the information was recorded on

  the master sheet then it was tabulated and data was analyzed in the form of

  percentage. On the basis of analysis of the data the important findings were

  the some lack of grounds, lack of professionally qualified trainer & lack of

  coaching experts. On the basis of findings and conclusions it was

  recommended that expert physical fitness which should be professionally

  qualified be provided to each club, the gym with instructor facilities should be

  made available, the district management should organize the physical fitness

  training programs by following the international standard.
                                                                                  30
5.2    FINDINGS

1. 10% players were 16 years, 20% were 17 years 40% were 18years and 60%

were 19years.

2. 5%Players were Middle, 15%were Metric, 20% were F.Aand60% were B.A.

3. 57.5 Players responded that Physical Fitness is needed for football Players.

4. 75.5% players responded that Physical Fitness knowledge is important to

improve fitness.

5. 77.5% players responded that have knowledge about use for Physical

Fitness Exercises.

6. 80% players responded that daily exercise is useful for physical fitness.

7. 57.5% players responded that they have knowledge of methods of training

for physical fitness.

8.    73.5% players responded that they have knowledge of diet plans for

physical fitness.

9. 73.5 % players responded that they knowledge of football game.

10. 73.5% players responded that they think that physically fit players perform

better in football.

11. 73.5% players responded that they regularly spend time with coach.

12. 55% players responded that they have knowledge of basic five physical

components.

13. 82.5% players responded that it is necessary to join fitness club for the

physical fitness.

14. 50% players responded that physical fitness is the root for the dynamic

and creative activity in football.
                                                                                31
     15. 55% players responded that regular physical activity is fun.

     16. 61.5% players responded that football players require fitness for

     cardiovascular system.

     17. 82.5% players responded that football is competitive sport.

     18. 90% players responded that football is a team work.

     19. 63.5% players responded that regular exercises make us healthy.

     20. 67.5% players responded that balance diet plays vital role in physical

     fitness.

     21. 74.5% players responded that qualified fitness trainers are more effective.

     22. 54.5% players responded that physical fitness helps to control obesity.

     23. 61.5% players responded that planning is important for fitness.

     24. 61.5% players responded that they satisfy with the availability of sports

     apparatus.




     5.3 Conclusions

     Majority of the respondents were of the opinion that physical fitness is needed

     for football players.

1.   Most of the player’s age was between 18 to19 years.

2.   Majority of the player’s qualification was BA.

3.   Most of the players knew about physical fitness and football.

4.   Majority of the players were of the opinion that physical fitness is vital in football and

     it enhances the performance of the player.

                                                                                            32
5.    Most of the players said that fitness club is effective to develop the fitness.

6.    Majority of the players agreed that football is a competitive sport.

7.    Most of the players said football is a team game.

8.    Majority of the players said that regular exercise and good fitness make us healthy.

9.    Most of the players said that balance diet plan is very important for physical fitness.

10.   Majority of the players agreed that physical fitness develop strength in football.

11.   Most of the players agreed that professionally qualified fitness trainer are

      compulsory.

12.   Majority of the players agreed that physical fitness helps to control obesity.

13.   Most of the players agreed that availability of sports apparatus is necessary to

      enhance the performance of players.



5.4      Recommendations

On the basis of conclusion were following recommendation were made:

1. Physical fitness is directly related with game of football therefore more

emphasis should be given on physical fitness during training.

2. Weight training ensured to the players of every club under proper trainer.

3. Professionally Qualified physical fitness trainer should be provided to each

club.

4. Physical fitness trainer should be present during exercise.

5. Under- 19 players should be encouraged to participate in football.

6. Educational qualification should be given to the players at the club level.

7. Balance diet by following the diet plans should be provided to the players

during training.
                                                                                           33
8. District football association (DFA) should arrange physical fitness training

courses, seminars and competitions among clubs.

9. Proper ground should be allocated for the football.

10. Apparatus should be available by following the international level.



BIBLOGRAPHY



Bucher,A.(2005) Foundation of physical Education, Islamabad National Book

Foundation.

Charles,B.& Ruth, L.(1997)Concept of Physical fitness,USA, Mcgraw Hill

Companies.

Darid,J.(2003) Fitness, Islamabad: national book Foundation.

Donald,R.c.(1997) Sports activities for Men, Mcgraw hill Companies.

George,A.&Shaheen,M.D.(1983) Dr.shaheen On fitness,New

York:Simon&Schuster building.

Katharina,G.(March,2007) Footb all for Health, Zurich:FIFA Magazine.

Mughal,A.W.(2000) Science Of sports training ,Rawalpindi M.C.publications.

Pesmen,G.(1984) Esquire ultimate fitness ,USA:Edison.Wisely Publishing

company.

Peter,J.L.(2000) introduction to coaching theory, Islamabad Intergraphics

printers.

Reema,K.(2003)Physical Fitness For Health ,Delhi:Chawala offset printers.

Tony.(1989) The skill of The Game,,London The crowood press Ltd.



                                                                                  34
Appendix-A: Questionnaire

Questionnaire for players

    Name:

    Age:                                            Qualification:



    Name of Club:

 Pleased cross(X) the most relevant answer given against each statement

                                                                          Not
                                                                          at
S.No                                               Statement Yes     No   all
        Do you have knowledge about physical
1       fitness for football?
        Do you have knowledge to improve
2       fitness?
        Do you have knowledge about the
3       Exercise use for Fitness?
        Do you have knowledge about the
4       Exercise use for Fitness?
        Do you spend time, daily on exercise
5       for the Physical fitness
        Do you have knowledge about the
6       Methods adopted for Physical fitness
        Do you have knowledge about the Diet
7       plans for Physical fitness?
8       Do you have knowledge about
        football?
9        Do you think Physically fit player
        performs better in football?
10      Do you regularly spend time with
        coach?
11      Do you have basic knowledge about he
        five physical fitness components
        which are strength, endurance,
        flexibility, speed and coordination
12      Is it necessary to join a club or gym to
        develop fitness in football?
13      Is the Physical fitness root for dynamic
                                                                            35
     and creative activity in football?
14   Do you agree that Regular physical
     activity is fun?
15   Are Football players requiring fitness
     for cardiovascular system?
16   Are Football players requiring fitness
     for cardiovascular system?
17   Do you think football is competitive
     sports?
18   Do you agree that Football is a team
     work?
19   Do you agree that Regular exercise for
     fitness make us healthy?
20   Are balance diet plays a vital role for
     physical fitness?
21   Do you agree Professionally Qualified
     fitness trainers are more effective?
22   Do you agree that a proper Physical
     fitness plan can help to control obesity
23   Do you make any plan to maintain your
     fitness?
24   Do you satisfy the availability of Sport
     apparatus?




                                                36

								
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