Chapter 05 Problem-Based Ideation Finding and Solving

					                                                                     Chapter 05
                                  Problem-Based Ideation: Finding and Solving ...

 1 The leading cause of new product failure is the absence of a perceived need by the
intended end-user. One way to address this problem is to begin the problem analysis
process by
a. Identifying heavy product users
b. Creating a problem-solution matrix
c. Preparing concept statements
d. Identifying unsolved consumer problems

2. Identify the statement that would not be true with regard to heavy product users or
activity participants.
a. They tend to better understand the problems associated with a specified category
b. They are likely to be willing participants in the search for problem solutions
c. They represent the bulk of sales potential
d. They provide the best solutions to problems being faced by non users

3 The phenomenon of _____ describes a tendency for respondent to mention minor, but
frequently encountered problems first.
a. Reverse brainstorming
b. Omniscient proximity
c. Observational projection
d. Projected externality

4 Problem analysis, as source for needs and problems of stakeholders, uses which of the
following methodologies to gather the list of consumer problems?
a. Stakeholder contacts
b. Internal records
c. Direct inputs from marketing departments
d. Direct inputs from technical departments

5. The use of stakeholder contacts as a methodology for gathering information useful for
problem analysis involves the use of
a. Prayer groups
b. Focus groups
c. Published sources
d. Internal records

 6 Identify the incorrect statement about the observation method of problem analysis.
a. It is rooted in sociological studies
b. It often involves recording on video to enhance analytical opportunities
c. It requires the interpretation of actions and/or body language
d. It is a scenario analysis technique

7. Which of the following does not pertain to scenario analyses and the different forms it
can take?
a. Simple extensions of current trends
b. Static "leaps"
c. Dynamic "leaps"
d. Role playing

8. Which of the following is BEST used for developing contingency plans to deal with
high-impact, low-probability events?
a. Wild card studies
b. Static scenarios
c. Reverse brainstorming
d. Dynamic scenarios

9. A good scenario analysis
a. Requires a clear understanding of the dynamics of the current situation
b. Is limited to current year projections
c. Does a minimum of 30- to 40-year projection
d. Solves known problems for end-users

10 Which of the following techniques encourages the use of "art" to encourage
seeking/communicating connections between ideas?
a. Brainsketching
b. Brainstorming
c. Projecting
d. The Picasso Method

11 In an attempt to ensure that creativity groups work on problems instead of merely
discussing them, Coinstar inc. creates its groups from pools of functional specialists
representing relevant fields. Identify the methodology used by the firm to gather the list of
consumer problems.
a. Disciplines panel
b. Observation
c. Leap studies
d. Scenario role-playing

12 Which of the following involve(s) gathering of unrelated thoughts and attempting to
relate them to specific problems at hand?
a. Warranty filing
b. Concept statements
c. Lateral thinking
d. Disciplines panel

 13 The MOST common approach developed by concept creators, to aid them in new
product development is based on the paradigm of
a. Create need, solve need
b. Create product, sell product
c. Find problem, solve problem
d. Create problem, create product

                                                                                 Chapter 13

1 Identify the incorrect statement with regard to "product design".
a. It should be considered after the product is about ready to be manufactured
b. Product design can be used to achieve key new product objectives
c. Product design as a term has many uses
d. Its role in the new products process is sometimes underestimated

2 Swatch watches have about a third of the moving parts of a traditional Swiss watch, a
plastic casing without a removable back, a plastic strap incorporated into the casing and
many other similar design features. This BEST exemplifies that Swatch watches are
a. For differentiation
b. For ease of manufacture
c. To offset low performance
d. For competition

 3. All of the following are "Principles of Universal Design EXCEPT":
a. Perceptible information
b. Flexibility in use
c. Universal colocation
d. Low physical effort

4 Ergonomics can be BEST defined as
a. Studying human characteristics in order to develop appropriate designs
b. The deep understanding of customer needs in order to translate a high-potential
technology into a product
c. A design that minimizes adverse consequences of inappropriate use
d. The creation of a recognizable look or feel that can be used consistently

5. The _____ shows the components and functional elements of the product and how they
are interconnected.
a. Schematic cluster
b. Product schematic
c. Geometric layout
d. Chunk map

6. The product is arranged in a variety of configurations through simulations, CAD or
other techniques in order to find the "best" solutions during the process of
a. Analyzing interactions between chunks
b. Creating product schematics
c. Creating geometric layouts
d. Clustering schematic elements

7. The push to develop a continual stream of new products in less time and for less cost
has focused attention upon
a. Developing product platforms
b. Emphasizing minor differences in appearance
c. Breakthrough technologies
d. Me-too products

8. Caron Inc. has successfully developed a line of products based on three basic platforms
with incremental differences in technology and/or customer need fulfillment. The firm is
a. Breakthrough products
b. Derivative products
c. Imitative products
d. Expanded products

9 Automobile companies often create full-size clay models in order to extract consumer
reactions to proposed styling alternatives. Such models would be BEST described as
a. Across-the-board prototypes
b. All-inclusive prototypes
c. Comprehensive prototypes
d. Focused prototypes

10 Factors such as pre- and post-sale service, warranty and image are part of
a. Protocol design
b. Envelope design
c. Process design
d. Concept design

11 The most important DFM process is _____, which is concerned with checking ease of
assembly and manufacturing and encouraging product simplification.
a. Computer-aided design
b. Design for assembly
c. Design for manufacturability
d. Computer-aided manufacturing

12 The creation of a solid object directly from a three-dimensional computer model is
a. Visualization
b. Rapid prototyping
c. Technological ideation
d. Assembly design

                                                                       Chapter 06
                                  Analytical Attribute Approaches: Introduction ...

1 All of the following are product benefits EXCEPT:
a. Uses
b. Savings
c. Functions
d. Economic gains

2 Analytical attribute techniques
a. Are felt to be more useful in eastern, than western cultures
b. Cannot be used for concept generation
c. Are only focused on product features
d. Can enable new product concepts by adding attributes to products

3 Marketing managers in the America-First Corporation routinely create "gap maps"
representing the position of their product vis-à-vis competitive offerings. These maps,
based on managerial expertise and judgment, are examples of
a. An AR perceptual GAP map
b. A determinant GAP map
c. An OS perceptual GAP map
d. An experiential GAP map

4 Gap maps are made in all of the following ways, EXCEPT:
a. By using managerial expertise and judgment to plot products on a map
b. By using customer attribute ratings to get data from users
c. By using overall similarities to get data from customers
d. By using conceptual leaps to get data for new products

5 The first step in creating AR perceptual GAP maps typically is to
a. Measure consumers attribute perceptions using a Likert-type scale
b. Create a data cube
c. Conduct a factor analysis
d. Conduct a cluster analysis

6 The America-First Corporation has conducted a Likert-Scale study of consumer product
attribute perceptions. The firm will seek to reduce the resulting mass of data to a more
manageable group of underlying dimensions through the use of
a. Cluster analysis
b. Attribute analysis
c. Factor analysis
d. Determinant maps

7 In AR perceptual gap mapping, individual respondents can be grouped together into
benefit segments based on their preferences through the use of
a. Attribute analysis
b. Cluster analysis
c. Factor analysis
d. Function analysis

8 In AR perceptual gap mapping "Raw" Likert-Scale attribute scores are often
INITIALLY plotted on a
a. Factor plot
b. Cluster plot
c. Attribute plot
d. Snake plot

9. Which of the following gap maps was developed to deal with the fact that users may
make purchase decisions based on "phantom" attributes that they cannot identify or
a. AR perceptual GAP maps
b. OS perceptual GAP maps
c. Snake plot maps
d. Determinant maps

10. Which of the following techniques is used in OS perceptual gap mapping to convert
the customer similarity data into a perceptual map?
a. Multidimensional Scaling
b. Factor Analysis
c. Cluster Analysis
d. Scree Test

11.Unlike AR perceptual gap mapping method, OS perceptual gap mapping method
a. Relies on factor analysis
b. Is based on overall similarity ratings
c. Is based on discriminant analysis
d. Requires prespecified attributes

12. The biggest problem with gap analysis is that it
a. Discovers gaps, not demand
b. Is useful only as a forecasting tool
c. Requires consumers to possess "perfect knowledge"
d. It cannot be used for concept generation

 13. Gap maps
a. Are useful in identifying potential product concepts
b. Deal with "conceptual leaps" critical to developing new-to-the-world products
c. Identify or evaluate interrelationships and synergies
d. Accurately measure nuances and shadings of consumer responses

                                                                        Chapter 07
                                      Analytical Attribute Approaches: Trade-off ...

 1 The determinant attributes analyzed in conjoint analysis may be produced by all of the
following, EXCEPT:
a. AR gap mapping
b. Focus groups
c. Determinant gap maps
d. Trade-off analysis

2 _____ analysis is BEST analytical tool used to assess tradeoffs
a. Dimensional
b. AR gap
c. Conjoint
d. Focus group

3 Identify the incorrect statement with regard to conjoint analysis.
a. Conjoint analysis is an analytical tool used to develop perceptual maps
b. Conjoint analysis can use the output of AR gap analysis to select product attributes
c. Conjoint analysis assumes that a product can be represented as a set or bundle of
d. Conjoint analysis is a quantitative technique used to incorporate customer inputs into
concept generation

4 Trade-off analysis
a. Does not allow managers to identify the overall importance of attributes
b. Is typically conducted just prior to an AR gap analysis
c. May blur the existence of important segments WITHIN a market
d. Identifies benefit segments based on the utilities

5. Identify the correct statement with regard to conjoint analysis.
a. It should precede the identification of determinant attributes
b. It has nothing to do with determinant attributes
c. It should be carried out at the same time as determinant attribute analysis
d. It cannot be carried out until determinant attributes have been identified

6 Conjoint analysis is likely to be LEAST useful for
a. Line extensions
b. New-to-the-world products
c. Product improvements
d. Brand improvements

7 A virtual reality method such as _____ allows a product concept to be "experienced"
within a complete buying environment that is much more realistic than that provided by
previous methods.
a. Information replication
b. Information acceleration
c. Information generation
d. Information visualisation

 8 Which of the following idea-generating techniques evolved from early forms of
dimensional analysis?
a. Checklist
b. AR gap mapping
c. Perceptual mapping
d. Brainstorming

9 Identify the creativity template, presented by Goldenberg and Mazursky, which removes
an intrinsic component and its function so as to functionally change the product.
a. Attribute dependency
b. Displacement
c. Replacement
d. Component control

10 Which of the following creativity templates presented by Goldenberg and Mazursky
seeks to produce a new product by removing one of the components of the product and
replacing it with one from another environment?
a. Attribute dependency
b. Displacement
c. Replacement
d. Component control

11 As opposed to perceptual maps which compare attributes to larger issues, _____ is an
analytical attribute technique that goes right to the point—forcing things together for
a. Relationships analysis
b. Dimensional analysis
c. Group creativity
d. Gap analysis

12. Which of the following characteristics is unique to a morphological matrix?
a. It simultaneously combines more than two dimensions
b. It leads directly to new product ideas
c. It is the simplest format for studying relationships
d. It may result in new product ideas that do not emerge in any other way


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