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					Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY
                (6th Ed--redone 7th)



       Chapter 13
        Emotion
    James A. McCubbin, PhD
      Clemson University

       Worth Publishers
            Emotion
Emotion
 *a response of the whole organism
    --physiological arousal
    --expressive behaviors
    --conscious experience

   Does your heart pound because you are
    afraid... or are you afraid because
    you feel your heart pounding? (level 4)
Neuroscience of
  Emotions
Neuroscience of Emotion

Biological Mechanisms at work behind our emotions:
1) Role of Limbic System
2) Role of Reticular Formation
3) Role of Cerebral Cortex
4) Role of Autonomic Nervous System
5) Role of Hormones
Neuroscience of Emotion
1) Role of Limbic System   The Amygdala
                             is a neural
                             key to fear
                             learning
                           Like a guard
                             dog, it is
                             continuously
                             alert for
                             threats.
Neuroscience of Emotion          Located in the
                                 brain stem,
                                 works with the
2) Role of Reticular Formation   thalamus &
                                 amygdala to
                                 monitor
                                 incoming info.
                                     If threat is detected, the
                                         RF sets off automatic
                                                    responses:
                                                *arouse brain
                                            *heart accelerate
                                        *respiration increase
                                                  *mouth dry
                                             *muscles tense.
                                       Location:・The cerebral cortex is
  Neuroscience of Emotion              the outer portion (1.5mm to 5mm)
                                       of the cerebrum. It is divided into
                                       4 lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal
  3) Role of Cerebral Cortex           and occipital.
Function:
・・Determines
Intelligence
・・Determines
Personality
・・Interpretation of
Sensory Impulses
・・Motor Function
                                                              In general:
・・Planning and
Organization            **right hemisphere specializes in negative
・・Touch/Sensation                                        emotions
                 **left hemisphere specializes in positive emotions
Neuroscience of Emotion
4) Role of Autonomic Nervous System
               Autonomic nervous system controls
                     physiological arousal
            Sympathetic                    Parasympathetic
         division (arousing)               division (calming)
            Pupils dilate        EYES       Pupils contract
             Decreases      SALIVATION         Increases
             Perspires           SKIN            Dries
             Increases      RESPIRATION       Decreases
            Accelerates         HEART           Slows
              Inhibits         DIGESTION       Activates
           Secrete stress      ADRENAL         Decreases
             hormones          GLANDS         secretion of
                                                 stress
                                               hormones
Neuroscience of Emotion
5) Role of Hormones

Important Hormones in Emotion:
**Serotonin       Depression
**Epinephrine     Fear
**Norepinephrine Anger
**Steroids       Act on nerve cells causing rage or
(cortisol)       depression (also mood changes
           associated with pregnancy and
      PMS may be related to steroids.)
Theories of
 Emotions
  James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Experience of emotion is awareness of
  physiological responses to emotion-arousing
  stimuli
      Sight of        Pounding           Fear
     oncoming           heart          (emotion)
        car           (arousal)
   (perception of
     stimulus)
   Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
                 Pounding
                   heart
                             Emotion-arousing
                 (arousal)    stimuli
   Sight of
  oncoming                    simultaneously
     car
(perception of
                              trigger:
  stimulus)                    --physiological
                                 responses
                   Fear        --subjective
                 (emotion)
                                 experience of
                                 emotion
         Schachter’s Two Factor
           Theory of Emotion
                 Pounding
                   heart
                                          To experience
   Sight of
                 (arousal)
                                  Fear
                                           emotion one
  oncoming                      (emotion)  must:
     car
(perception of                           --be physically
  stimulus)
                                           aroused
                                         --cognitively
                 Cognitive
                   label                   label the
                                           arousal
                 “I’m afraid”
   The Two-Factor Theory would predict that a
decaffeinated-coffee drinker who accidentally drank
  coffee with caffeine could mistake the resulting
           physical arousal for emotion.
“Fight or Flight” Response is our
body's primitive, automatic, inborn
response that prepares the body to
"fight" or "flee" from perceived attack,
harm or threat to our survival.

Discovered by the great Harvard physiologist Walter Cannon,
this response is hard-wired into our brains and represents a
genetic wisdom designed to protect us from bodily harm. This
response actually corresponds to an area of our brain called the
hypothalamus, which—when stimulated—initiates a sequence
of nerve cell firing and chemical release that prepares our body
for running or fighting.
                  Mirror Neurons and Football

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/video/3204/q01-036.html
Eight Basic Emotions

             Plutchik believes that
                emotions have four
                dimensions:
             a) Positive or negative
             b) Primary or mixed
             c) Polar opposites
             d) Varying intensity
Eight Basic Emotions
             Plutchik believes
                emotions are like
                colors. Every color
                of the spectrum can
                be produced by
                mixing the primary
                colors. The eight
                primary emotions
                are:

               fear, surprise,
               sadness,
               disgust, anger,
               joy, anticipation,
               and acceptance.
Eight Basic Emotions
             By contrast,
                secondary
                emotions are
                produced by
                combinations of
                primary emotions
                that are adjacent
                on the emotional
                wheel.
             Plutchik believes that
                emotions that are
                opposites cannot
                be experienced at
                the same time.
     Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion


Strong                       Strong




Neutral                      Neutral




Strong                       Strong
          First experience             After repeated experiences
                (a)                               (b)
  Two Routes to Emotion

                Lazarus/
                Schachte    Physiological
Appraisal                    activation
                r



            Emotional        Expressive
            response          behavior




  Event                      Subjective
                  Zajonc/
                             experience
                  LeDoux
Two Dimensions of Emotion

                  Positive
                  valence



            pleasant
                             joy
           relaxation
   Low                              High
 arousal                           arousal
                          fear
           sadness
                         anger



                  Negative
                  valence
      Arousal and Performance

Performance                                            Performance
    level      Difficult tasks     Easy tasks            peaks at lower
                                                         levels of arousal
                                                         for difficult
                                                         tasks, and at
                                                         higher levels for
                                                         easy or well-
                                                         learned tasks

              Low                Arousal        High
Lie Detectors and
    Emotions
 Emotion-Lie Detectors
Polygraph
  *machine commonly used in
    attempts to detect lies
  *measures several of the
    physiological responses
    accompanying emotion
     --perspiration
     --heart rate
     --blood pressure
     --breathing changes
Emotion- Lie Detectors
Control Question
  *Up to age 18, did you ever physically
   harm anyone?
Relevant Question
  *Did the deceased threaten to harm
   you in any way?
Relevant > Control --> Lie
  QUESTIONING USED WITH LIE DETECTORS

CONTROL QUESTION (CQT) compares the physiological
response to relevant questions about the crime with the
response to questions relating to possible prior misdeeds.
DIRECTED LIE TEST (DLT) tries to detect lying by
comparing physiological responses when the subject is
told to deliberately lie to responses when they tell the
truth.
GUILTY KNOWLEDGE TEST (GKT) compares
physiological responses to multiple-choice type
questions about the crime, one choice of which
contains information only the crime investigators and
the criminal would know about
          Emotion-Lie Detectors

Respiration




Perspiration




 Heart rate




 Control Relevant          Control    Relevant
 question question   (a)   question   question   (b)
             Emotion-Lie Detectors

Percentage
        80                                   50 Innocents
        70
                                             50 Thieves
        60

        50                                     --1/3 of innocent
        40                                       declared guilty
        30                                     --1/4 of guilty
        20
                                                 declared innocent
        10
                                                 (from Kleinmuntz &
         0
              Innocent       Guilty              Szucko, 1984)
               people        people
              Judged innocent by polygraph
              Judged guilty by polygraph
   Emotion-Lie Detectors
Is 70% accuracy good?
  *Assume 5% of 1000 employees actually guilty
    --test all employees
    --285 will be wrongly accused
What about 95% accuracy?
  *Assume 1 in 1000 employees actually guilty
    --test all employees (including 999 innocents)
    --50 wrongly declared guilty
    --1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (2%)
 Emotion-Lie Detectors
*Do you agree with the idea that law
  enforcement agencies place so much validity
  with lie-detector machines? (level 5)

*Under what conditions might lie-detectors be
  accurate? (level 5)

*What is your opinion as to lie-detectors being
 admissible in a court of law? (level 5)
Expressing
 Emotions
        Expressed Emotion
People more speedily detect an angry face
  than a happy one (Ohman, 2001a)
Expressing Emotion
Gender and expressiveness
                16
      Number    14
           of              Men           Women
  expressions   12

                10

                8

                6

                4

                2

                0
                     Sad         Happy   Scary
                            Film Type
  Expressed Emotion
 Culturally universal expressions
Experienced Emotion
                   The
                    ingredients
                    of emotion
   Experienced Emotion
 Infants’ naturally occurring emotions
Experienced Emotion

                 The Amygdala-
                  -a neural key
                  to fear learning
  Experiencing Emotion
Catharsis Hypothesis
   *emotional release
   *catharsis hypothesis
      --“releasing” aggressive energy (through action or
        fantasy) relieves aggressive urges

      --can actually create MORE hostility and MORE
        aggressiveness (stewing = revenge)
      --can become “conditioned” as a way to
        handle anger
Better to calmly confront the situation—by telling the
person how you feel or finding a way to release energy
(exercise, music, or confiding in another person)
Experiencing Emotion
Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
  *people’s tendency to be helpful when already
    in a good mood
 Experiencing Emotion
Subjective Well-Being
 *self-perceived happiness or
  satisfaction with life
 *used along with measures of
  objective well-being
   --physical and economic indicators to
     evaluate people’s quality of life
  Experienced Emotion
Moods across the day
        Experienced Emotion
   Does money buy happiness? (level 5)
                    $20,000
         Average
                    $19,000
      per-person
                    $18,000
after-tax income
                    $17,000                                                 100% Percentage
  in 1995 dollars
                    $16,000                                                  90% describing
                    $15,000
                                                                            80% themselves as
                    $14,000
                    $13,000                                                 70% very happy
                    $12,000    Personal income                              60%
                    $11,000
                    $10,000                                                 50%
                     $9,000                         Percentage very happy   40%
                     $8,000                                                 30%
                     $7,000                                                 20%
                     $6,000
                                                                            10%
                     $5,000
                     $4,000                                                  0%

                          1930 1940 1950 1960 1970      1980 1990 2000
                                                 Year
     Experienced Emotion
        Values and life satisfaction
             0.6


Importance   0.4
    scores                  Money
                                                         Love
             0.2


             0.0


             -0.2


             -0.4

                    1.00   2.00   3.00    4.00    5.00      6.00   7.00
                                    Life satisfaction
     Experiencing Emotion
Are today’s collegians materialistic? (level 5)


               90
Percentage                                               Being very well-off financially
rating goal    80
     as very   70
  important    60
          or
               50
   essential
               40
               30
                                      Developing a meaningful life philosophy
               20
               10
               0
               1966 ‘68   ‘70   ‘72    ‘74   ‘76   ‘78    ‘80   ‘82   ‘84   ‘86   ‘88   ‘90   ‘92   ‘94 ‘96
                                                            Year
“I cried because I
had no shoes . . . .
   until I met a man
who had no feet.”
  Experiencing Emotion
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon
  *tendency to form judgements relative to a “neutral”
    level
     --brightness of lights
     --volume of sound
     --level of income
  *defined by our prior experience


Relative Deprivation
  *perception that one is worse off relative to those with
    whom one compares oneself
“I cried because I had no shoes . . . .
       until I met a man who had no feet.”


Evaluate the quote above, using the adaptation-level
phenomenon.

Evaluate the quote above, using the relative-deprivation
principle.
               Happiness is...
Researchers Have Found That              However, Happiness Seems Not Much
Happy People Tend to                     Related to Other Factors, Such as

Have high self-esteem                    Age
(in individualistic countries)

Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable   Gender (women are more often
                                         depressed, but also more often joyful)

Have close friendships or a satisfying   Education levels
marriage

Have work and leisure that engage        Parenthood (having children or not)
their skills

Have a meaningful religious faith        Physical attractiveness

Sleep well and exercise
What about Emotional Intelligence?
 EI is a type of social intelligence that
                                                        EI has its roots
 involves the ability to:
                                                      in the concept of
  *monitor one's own and others' emotions,                       "social
  *discriminate among them, and to                   intelligence," first
                                                      identified by E.L.
  *use the information to guide one's                      Thorndike in
  thinking and actions. (Mayer & Salovey, 1993: 433)              1920.
Dr. Goleman’s 1995 book, Emotional
Intelligence, argues that human
competencies like self-awareness, self-
discipline, persistence and empathy are of
greater consequence than IQ in much of life,
that we ignore the decline in these
competencies at our peril, and that children
can and should be taught these abilities.
Emotional Intelligence has 5 domains:
Self-awareness:Observing yourself and recognizing a
feeling as it happens.
Managing emotions:Handling feelings so that they are
appropriate; realizing what is behind a feeling; finding
ways to handle fears and anxieties, anger, and sadness.
Motivating oneself:Channeling emotions in the service of
a goal; emotional self control; delaying gratification and
stifling impulses.
Empathy:Sensitivity to others' feelings and concerns and
taking their perspective; appreciating the differences in
how people feel about things.
Handling relationships:Managing emotions in others;
social competence and social skills.
*How would you prioritize the importance
of EQ versus IQ? (level 5)

*What data are you using to make this
conclusion? (level 5)
QUESTIONS
FOR REVIEW
1) Which of the following is NOT one of the
   emotions which Paul Ekman believed are
   universally recognized?
a) Sadness
b) Fear
c) Contempt
d) Jealousy
e) Disgust
2) Robert Plutchik’s “emotion wheel” proposes
   that
a) four pairs of opposite emotions are the basis for all
   other emotions.
b) Ten emotions are the basis of all other emotions.
c) Humans have an infinite number of emotions which
   cannot be separated from each other.
d) Infants can feel only three different kinds of emotions
e) Humans cannot experience two or more emotions
   simultaneously
3) The fact that widely different cultures use the
   same facial expressions to express an
   emotion would lead researchers to believe
   that expressions are
a) situational
b) cognitive
c) unreliable
d) innate
e) physical
4) The role of the limbic system in emotion is to
a) Trigger the internal and external behaviors involved in
   emotions
b) Arouse the whole brain simultaneously when we are
   aroused
c) Makes a person’s heart race when aroused.
d) Dampen emotional arousal.
e) Integrates the hormonal and neural emotional
   aspects.
5) The right hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is
   most likely to be involved when a person is
a) Scared by the appearance of a spider above their
   head
b) Elated at their wedding reception
c) Surprised after winning $10,000 lottery
d) Under pressure to complete a term paper by
   tomorrow.
e) Depressed after the loss of the favorite pet.
6) The left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is
   likely to
a) Brood after failing an important exam.
b) Focus on someone smiling at you.
c) Be angry at someone cutting you off while you ride
   your bike.
d) Activate the sympathetic nervous system.
e) None of the above.
7) ______ proposed that emotions are the result
   of a physical state.
a) James and Lange
b) Lazarus and Schachter
c) Masters and Johnson
d) Plutchik and Rotter
e) Maslow and Kinsey
8) Which of the following hormones is often
   associated with depression.
a) steroids
b) serotonin
c) acetylcholine
d) norepinephrine
e) Epinephrine
9) This theory is based on the idea that emotions
   have pairs that play off on one another, when
   one is triggered, the other is suppressed.
a) James-Lange Theory
b) Trichromatic Theory
c) Opponent-Process
d) Cannon-Bard Theory
e) Two-Factor Theory
10) The ability to understand and control
   emotional responses is known as:
a) Anger management
b) Emotional intelligence
c) empathy
d) Savant syndrome
e) Motivation
11) According to Daniel Goleman, the ability of a
   four-year-old child to delay _____ predicts
   their level of success in life:
a) intelligence
b) cognition
c) gratification
d) toilet training
e) embarrassment
12) RECALL
During emotional arousal, the ____ nervous
  system sends messages to the internal
  organs.
a) somatic
b) sensory
c) autonomic
d) cerebellar
e) afferent
13) UNDERSTANDING THE CORE CONCEPT
Emotions result from an interaction of biological
 arousal, subjective feelings, cognitive
 interpretation, and behavioral expression.
 Which two of these are emphasized in the
 two-factor theory of emotion?
a) Subjective feelings and behavioral expression
b) Cognitive interpretation and behavioral expression
c) Biological arousal and cognitive interpretation
d) Biological arousal and subjective feelings
e) Subjective feelings and cognitive interpretation
14) RECALL
People with emotional intelligence
a) Feel no emotions
b) Are extremely emotionally responsive
c) Know how to control their emotional responses.
d) Can always deceive a polygrapher
e) Sense of others’ feelings
15) APPLICATION
Psychological research suggests that it might be
  best to handle your feelings of anger toward a
  friend by
a) Hitting a punching bag.
b) Venting your anger by yelling at your friend.
c) Calmly telling your friend that you feel angry.
d) Doing nothing except “stewing” in your angry feelings
e) Engaging in other, unrelated activities
16) RECALL
While emotion emphasizes _____, motivation
 emphasizes _____.
a) Behavior/cognition.
b) Arousal/action.
c) Neural activity/hormones.
d) Needs/drives
e) Drives/needs
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DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY

#12 Motivation and Emotion

				
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