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Diamonds Are they forever

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					BLOOD Diamonds:
  Are they forever?

  SS10 – Globalization
      Mr. R. Thompson
“Illicit diamonds make fabulous profits for
  terrorists and corporarations alike. The
trade illustrates with the hard clarity of the
   gem itself that no matter where human
  rights violations occur, the world ignores
               them at its peril.”
  Are You Involved?
• What is the historical background to the
  diamond industry?
• What are Diamonds?
• Why do people want them so badly?
• Who is producing the worlds diamonds?
• What are the working and living conditions of
  those producing the worlds diamonds?
• Should we be looking more closely at where our
  diamonds are coming from?
• Should we more carefully look at how all our
  consumer goods are being created?
Slave/Gun Cycle & Diamond/Gun Cycle –
       Is History Repeating Itself?
   Slavery was a part of
    African History long
    before the Europeans
    arrived
   The Transatlantic
    Slave trade changed
    the way slavery
    operated in Africa.
   From the 1400’s to
    1870 10 million
    slaves were sent from
    Africa to America
    alone in brutal middle
    passages.
                      The Slave/Gun Cycle
   European Traders brought men,
    women and children from West
    African Coasts and transported
    them chained together and packed
    below decks where they had little
    room to move.
   Some captains took so many
    slaves that there was little room
    for fresh water.
   When the decks were sealed the
    heat caused many captives to die
    of suffocation. Many more died of
    disease.
   Those who survived (usually about
    50%) were sold to plantation
    owners who farmed in Sugar in the
    West Indies, or Tobacco & Cotton
    in North America.
• The first leg of the cycle might begin          The
  in a country like New England
  (America) The ship would be loaded           Triangular
  with rum, guns and ammunition
  headed for a West African port.             Slave Trade
• Once these ships arrived in West
  Africa, these guns & ammo would be
  traded for slaves who would be
  loaded on the ships.
• This trade gave West African tribes
  an advantage in the wars they were
  fighting with tribes from the interior of
  Africa and they could therefore
  capture more prisoners of war to be
  later traded with the Americans and
  Europeans for more guns & ammo.
• Slaves were now transported
                                      To The Americas
  below deck, tightly packed like
  any other cargo in order to
  maximize profits.
• Those who survived the voyage
  would be sold in Slave Markets
  in the West Indies and traded for
  other products like tobacco or
  sugar. The slaves would often
  end up in the Southern United
  States to be used as labour on
  their plantations.
• These products would now be
  shipped back to New England
  (America) for use by consumers
  there or for sale to other
  European countries.
• Many of today's
  diamonds are produced
  in 3rd World countries in
  Africa an South America.    Todays Cycle
• The conditions under
  which these diamonds
  are mined are terrible
  with miners working
  under slave like
  conditions.
• In addition in 1998 about
  20% of the world’s
  diamonds were being
  used to finance wars of
  insurgency in countries
  like Angola, Sierra
  Leone and the
  Democratic Republic of
  Congo (DRC)
The Gun Cycle Continues
             Like the Historical Slave/Gun
              Cycle. Guns are the product
              these rebel African groups
              most want. They often
              enslave men, women and
              children to work in the
              diamond mines or may pay
              them pennies a day to work.
             Once again the diamonds
              end up in developed Western
              Nations, while the rebel
              groups trade the money they
              make for the diamonds for
              more weapons and the cycle
              continues.
             “Blood Diamonds”
   Africans who
    oppose the rebel
    groups are often
    slaughtered.
   Those who most
    need protection
    are often those
    who are most
    often abused
    under this
    immoral trade.
            • The Ancient Greeks
 What are     thought that diamonds
              were splinters of stars
Diamonds?     fallen to earth.
            • In reality diamonds are
              crystals of pure carbon
              (coal) that has been
              crystallized at high
              temperatures over millions
              of years.
            • The value of a diamond is
              usually measure by what is
              known as the “four c’s”.
              Color, Clarity, Carat weight,
              and cut. Today the world
              would benefit from an
              additional C. Conflict-free.
Why Diamonds    Before 1938
                 diamonds did not hold
                 the power over us
                 that they do today.
                 At that time the value
                 of an average
                 diamond in North
                 America was only
                 $80.
                De Beers diamond
                 corporation decided
                 to use advertising and
                 the media to convince
                 young men and
                 women that diamonds
                 are actually symbols
                 of love.
Hollywood Steps In
           The Movie industry was
            the fastest growing
            industry of the time and
            De Beers decided to take
            advantage of it.
           Movie Idols would be
            given diamonds to use as
            a symbol of their love.
           In addition magazines
            and newspaper adds
            would reinforce the link
            between diamonds and
            love.
            Royalty and Diamonds
   Since Great Britain had an
    interest in the success of the
    diamond industry the British
    Monarchy was convinced
    they should use diamonds
    rather than other jewels when
    in public events.
   The Queen went on a well-
    publicized trip to several
    South African diamond
    mines and accepted a
    diamond from De Beers
    corporation.
              De Beers decided they needed
               a slogan for their campaign
“Diamonds      and that slogan became, “A
are Forever”   Diamond is Forever”
              By 1950 90% of young men
               proposing marriage were
               doing so with a diamond
               engagement ring, the
               campaign had been a success.
              The diamond movement
               received a boost when
               Marilyn Monroe starred in the
               blockbuster film, “Gentlemen
               prefer Blondes” and sang the
               song “Diamonds are a girls
               best friend”
                 Diamonds are a Girls Best Friend
   The French were bred to die for love  There may come a time when a hard boiled
    They delight in fighting duels           employer
    But I prefer a man who lives             Thinks your awful nice
    And gives expensive jewels               But get that ice or else no dice
    A kiss on the hand may be quite          He's your guy when stocks are high
    continental                              But beware when the start to descend
    But diamonds are a girl's best friend    It's then that those louses go back to their spou
    A kiss may be grand but it won't pay the Diamonds are a girl's best friend
    rental                                   I've heard of affairs that are strictly platonic
    On your humble flat, or help you at the But diamonds are a girl's best friend
    automat                                  And I think affairs that you must keep liaisonic
    Men grow cold as girls grow old          Are better bets if little pets get big baggettes
    And we all lose our charms in the end Time rolls on and youth is gone
    But square cut or pear shaped            And you can't straighten up when you bend
    These rocks don't lose their shape       But stiff back or stiff knees
    Diamonds are a girl's best friend        You stand straight at Tiffany's
    Tiffany's, Cartier                        Diamonds
    Talk to me, Harry, Winston, tell me all   Diamonds
    about it                                  I don't mean rhinestones
    There may come a time when a lass         But Diamonds
    needs a lawyer                            Are A Girl's Best Friend
    But diamonds are a girl's best friend
       Where are today’s Diamonds coming from?

   Most of today’s diamonds are
    produced in nations in Africa
    and South America.
    However Canada is growing
    as a diamond producing
    nation. Today we are the 6th
    largest diamond producing
    nation and we are expected
    to become the 2nd largest
    producer by the year 2010.
   In 2006 Canada produced 2
    Billion dollars in Diamonds.
Where are the World’s      Many of the world’s diamonds
 Blood Diamonds?            are mined in 3rd World nations.
                           The Term “Blood Diamond”
                            is used to describe a diamond
                            mined in a war zone, and
                            usually used to finance that
                            war.
                           Other terms for Blood
                            Diamonds are Dirty
                            Diamonds, Conflict Diamonds,
                            or War Diamonds.
    In May of 2000 the United Nations

    met in Kimberly South Africa to           The
    discuss ways to stop the trade of
    Blood Diamonds. The results of the
                                            Kimberly
    agreement signed there have led to a
    reduction in the number of blood
                                            Process
    diamonds being exported. The trade
    in this industry has dropped now to
    less than 4%, however that still
    means that $1 Billion worth of
    diamonds are funding wars.
   In addition most diamonds are still
    mined in African nations under
    terrible working conditions. Mines
    are dangerous places which often
    collapse, killing the miners inside.
    Because children are small and cheap
    to pay, many of the workers are small
    children.
What does the following suggest about the mining
                    industry?







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  Is Canada       


                  
                      First Nations leader slams Canadian diamonds (CBC
                      NEWS ARTICLE)
                      A First Nations group in Ontario is trying to
“Conflict-Free”       dissuade Americans from buying Canadian diamonds
                      this holiday season, saying the jewels are mined at the
                      expense of its people.
                     Alvin Fiddler, deputy grand chief of the Nishnawbe
                      Aski Nation, said De Beers Canada in particular is
                      causing environmental devastation and disrupting his
                      community of 45,000 Cree and Ojibwa in northern
                      Ontario.
                     "They're not clean diamonds; they're not conflict-free
                      diamonds," Fiddler told CBC News. "People are
                      paying a price for these diamonds and it's our people
                      in the Nishnawbe Aski Nation. Our people, our
                      children, are languishing in poverty while these
                      resources are being extracted from their territory."
                     Fiddler this week had an editorial published in the
                      diamond industry trade publication Rapaport News,
                      in which he outlined his concerns about Canadian
                      diamond exploration and mining. He says several
                      communities have called for a moratorium on
                      mineral exploration on land where the legal title is
                      under dispute.
                     "Tell De Beers, other diamond miners and Canada
                      that unless things change, Canadian diamonds are no
                      better than conflict diamonds from Africa."
               What should YOU do?
   What should be done about the
    Blood Diamond Industry?
   Should we attempt to change the
    working conditions of those
    involved in the Diamond
    Industry?
   Should we be concerned with
    environmental conditions, land
    claim concerns, and working
    conditions in Canadian Mines?
   Should Canadians consumers
    consider the sources of other
    products being purchased here
    and what treatment their workers
    are living under?

   WHAT WILL YOU DO?
The End?

				
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posted:3/22/2012
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