Types of Stem Cells: An Outline
Stem Cell is a young, primordial and undifferentiated entity with an
outstanding potential to replenish, differentiate and develop into any desired
tissue or organ of the body.
Types of Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cells: Near the beginning stages of embryonic
development, the cells stay somewhat undifferentiated (immature)
and materialize to possess the ability to become, or make a
distinction, into almost any tissue inside the body. Cells in the early
embryonic phase are totipotent and can differentiate to become almost
any type of body cell. After about one week, the zygote becomes a
blastocyst, which comprises of a mass of cells that in due course of
time becomes the fetus, plus a trophoblastic tissue that finally
becomes the placenta. If cells are removed from the blastocyst at this
juncture, they are known as pluripotent, implying that they have the
capability to differentiate into several different types of human cell.
Fetal Stem Cells: The embryo is referred to as a fetus after the
eighth week of maturity. The fetus contains stem cells that are
pluripotent and ultimately grow into the different body tissues in the
Adult Stem Cells: An adult stem cell is considered to be an
undifferentiated cell, created among differentiated cells in a tissue or
organ that can refurbish itself and can separate to give way to some or
all of the major specialized cell types. The most important role of adult
stem cells in a living organism is to preserve and repair the tissue in
which they have been originated.
Peripheral blood stem cells: The majority of blood stem cells are
inside the bone marrow, but a few are there in the bloodstream. This
means that these peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) can be extracted
from a drawn blood sample. The blood stem cell gives rise to a very
large number of very different cells like red blood cells, platelets,
granulocytes, and lymphocytes.
Umbilical cord stem cells: Blood from the umbilical cord includes
some stem cells that are genetically indistinguishable to the newborn.
Similar to adult stem cells, these are multipotent stem cells that are
competent enough to differentiate into certain, but not all, cell types.
For the same reason, umbilical cord blood is stored, for possible future
use in case an individual requires stem cell therapy.
Why are stem cells essential?
Stem cells symbolize an enlivening area in medicine for the reason that they
have a potential to redevelop and mend damaged tissue. Some
contemporary therapies, such as bone marrow transplantation as it is make
use of stem cells and their potential for restoration of damaged tissues.
Additional therapies are under examination that involves transplanting stem
cells into a damaged body part and directing them to develop and
differentiate into a healthy tissue.
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