Computer Hardware notes by ZLFiPZN

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									TOPIC: COMPUTER HARDWARE                                                          the portfolio

                                                                                 LEARNING OUTCOME 3:
LEARNING AREA:                                                                   Define different types of computer.
Introduction to Computers
1.1 Evolution of the Computer                                                    ACTIVITIES:
                                                                                 • Gathering information on the types of computer
LEARNING OUTCOME 1:                                                              and presenting the information in groups
State the generations of computers together with the respective
processors used.                                                                 NOTES:
    ACTIVITIES:
      Explaining the evolution of the computer from the                                  In the early year of Tanah Melayu, when there was no television or
       vacuum tube to the fifth generation and showing                           radio. The ‘Beduk’ play an important role. The Headman of the village was
       the respective processors used                                            the one who announced any news, be it birth, death, time of prayers or even
      Matching the types of processors used with the                            when the village was in danger.
       respective generations of computers in a                                           Different rhythms signified different events. The rhythm of the
       worksheet to be kept in the portfolio                                     ‘Beduk’ to announce death was different from the rhythm used to announce
                                                                                 prayers.
LEARNING OUTCOME 2:
 Explain the generations of computers together with the                          Timeline for the development of technology
respective processors used.                                                         Year                                          Creation
                                                                                 3500 BC        Sumerians developed cuneiform writing
    ACTIVITIES:                                                                  1500 BC        The Phoenicians developed the alphabet
      Gathering information on the evolution of                                 105 BC         Tsai Lun of China invented paper
       computers and presenting the information in                               1454           The first printing began with the creation of printing machine.
       groups                                                                    1793           Telegraph line was invented
                                                                                 1876           The first telephone was introduced
LEARNING AREA:                                                                   1925           Television was made known to public
1.2 Types of Computers                                                           1941           Computer was created
                                                                                 1958           Photocopier machine was introduced
3. Identify the types of computers:                                              1963           Communication satellite was introduced
• Supercomputer                                                                  1969           The first internet known as ARPANET started.
• Mainframe
• Mini Computer
• Micro Computer
• Work Station

ACTIVITIES:
• Introducing various types of computers using a PowerPoint presentation.
• Labelling a flow chart of the types of computer in a worksheet to be kept in




                                                                                                                                                              1
Evolution of Computer                                                          First Generation (1940 – 1956)
         Before the era of computer begins, counting machine was invented
to help people with business industry. The usage of counting machine, begin    1. Presper Eckert and William Mauchly built the ENIAC (Electronic numerical
as early as 200 B.C. Evolution of computers can be traced at 7 stages:         Integrator and Computer) in 1946.
                                                                               2. ENIAC use vacuum tubes rather than mechanical switches in Mark 1.
    a)    The early years                                                      3. In 1951, Eckert and Machly build UNIVAC (Universal automatic computer)
    b)    First generation                                                     which can calculate at the rate of 10 thousand addition per second.
    c)    Second generation                                                    4. New technology were needed in the invention of technology. These
    d)    Third generation                                                     technology are
    e)    Fourth generation                                                         a) Vacuum tube – an electronic tube about the size of light bulbs. It
    f)    Fifth generation                                                              was used as the internal computer components. Thousands of
    g)    New era generation                                                            them were used.
                                                                                    b) Punched card – used to store data
The early years                                                                     c) Magnetic tape – introduced in 1957. It is used to store data. A
                                                                                        faster and more compact method of storing data.
                      Timelines of Counting Machine                            5. Problems:
Year           Invention                                                            a) The vacuum tubes generated great deal of heat causing many
200 BC         Chinese Abacus (First counting machine)                                  problems in temperature regulation and climate control.
500 BC         Egyptian Abacus                                                      b) The tubes burnt out frequently.
1620           John Napier invented Napier’s Bone (Multiplication table             c) People operating the computer did not know that the problem was
               carves on bones)                                                         in the programming machine.
1653           Blaise Pascal invented Pascaline
1673           Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz invented Leibniz’s Rechner        Second Generation (1956 – 1963)
               (which use first binary mathemathic calculating machine)        1. The second generation computer scientists invented something new due
1801           Joseph Marie Jacquard invented weaving loom (using punch        to lots of problem created by vacuum tubes.
               card technology)                                                2. The famous computer scientists during the second generation era were:
1823           Charles Babbage invented mechanical calculator machine.              a) John Bardeen
1941           Mark 1 was invented in Harvard University. The first computer        b) Walter Houser Brattain
               which is slow, expensive and unreliable. It uses mechanical          c) William Shockley
               switches                                                        3. The creation of transistor sparks the production of second generation
   Year                                   Invention                            computers. Transistor is a small devices use to transfer electronic signal
200 BC         Chinese Abacus (First counting machine)                         across a resistor.
500 BC         Egyptian Abacus                                                 4. The advantages of transistor:
1620           John Napier invented Napier’s Bone (Multiplication table             a) Smaller than vacuum tubes
               carves on bones)                                                     b) Need no warm up time
                                                                                    c) Consumed less energy
                                                                                    d) Generated much less heat
                                                                                    e) Faster
                                                                                    f) More reliable




                                                                                                                                                            2
Third Generation (1964 - 1971)                                                        b)  Microprocessor - a specialised chip developed for computer
1. IBM 370 series were introduced in 1964. It came in several models and                  memory and logic
sizes. It is used for business and scientific programs.                                                    - it is a large-scale integrated circuit which
2. Other computer models introduced were CDC 7600, BZ 500.                                                       contained thousands of transistors.
3. New hardware technology:                                                                                - the transistors on this one chip are capable of
     a) Silicone chip were manufactured in 1961 at the silicone valley.                                          performing all of the functions of a computer’s
     b) Integrated circuit technology, which had reduced the size and cost                                       central processing unit.
           of computers. It is a complete electronic circuit or a small chip of       c) Storage devices
           silicone which is also known as semiconductor.                         9. Advantages:
     c) The magnetic core memory was replaced by microchip.(The first                 a) 100 times smaller than ENIAC (the first computer)
            253 bit Ram, basis for the development of the 1K bit Ram).                b) Faster
4. Advantages:                                                                        c) Reliable
      a) Silicone chips were reliable, compact and cheaper.                           d) Greater storage capacity
      b) Sold hardware and software separately which created the software             e) Personal and software industry boomed
           industry.
      c) Customer service industry flourished (reservation and credit             Fifth generation (present and beyond)
           checks)                                                                1. New hardware technology:
5. Software technology:                                                               a) Silicone chips
      a) More sophisticated                                                           b) Processor
      b) Several programs run at the same time                                        c) Robotics
      c) Sharing computer resources                                                   d) Virtual reality
      d) Support interactive processing                                               e) Intelligent system
                                                                                      f) Programs which translate languages
Fourth Generation (1971 – Present)
1. It took 55 years for 4 generations to evolve.                                  New Era Computer
2. The growth of the computer industry developed technologies of computer         1. Super Computers
inventions.                                                                               fastest, most powerful, most expensives.
3. Many types of computer models such as
                                                                                          Used in applications such as sending astronauts into space, testing
      a) Apple Macintosh
                                                                                           safety and aerodynamic features on cars and aircraft, controlling
      b) IBM
                                                                                           missile guidance systems, and weather forecasting which required
      c) DELL
                                                                                           extreme accuracy and immense speed to perform the complex
      d) ACER
                                                                                           calculation.
4. In 1971, Intel created first microprocessor
5. In 1976, Steve Jobs built the first Apple computer
                                                                                  2. Mainframe computers
6. In 1981, IBM introduced its first personal computer
                                                                                          large, expensive, powerful computer that can
7. Among the famous inventors in fourth generations were:
                                                                                           handle hundreds or thousands of connected user stimultaneously.
      a) Bill Gates who invented Microsoft
      b) Michael Dell who invented Dell Computer                                          use in large organization to handle high volume processing of
                                                                                           business transactions and routine paperwork.
8. Hardware technology invented in fourth generation were
      a) Silicone chip




                                                                                                                                                               3
3. Mini computer                                                                 A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or
         medium size computer                                           engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer
         usually used as servers, with several PCs or other devices     designed for technical applications. Workstations are intended primarily to
          networked to access the midrange computer’s resources.         be used by one person at a time, although they can usually also be
                                                                         accessed remotely by other users when necessary.
4. Personal computers –
       small computer system, designed to be used by one person at a    Workstations usually offer higher performance than is normally seen on a
        time                                                             personal computer, especially with respect to graphics, processing power,
       widely used in small and large bisnuses Examples: tracking       memory capacity and multitasking ability.
        merchandise, biling customer, manage company accounts.
                                                                         Workstations are often optimized for displaying and manipulating complex
5. Mobile computers
                                                                         data such as 3D mechanical design, engineering simulation results, and
        personal computer that you can carry from place to place        mathematical plots. Consoles usually consist of a high resolution display, a
                                                                         keyboard and a mouse at a minimum, but often support multiple displays
6. Expert system                                                         and may often utilize a server level processor.
        teleconferencing, speech recognition system.


Types of computer are:
• Supercomputer
• Mainframe
• Mini Computer
• Micro Computer
• Work Station

                                                           [
         A microcomputer (sometimes shortened to micro ) is a computer
with a microprocessor as its central processing unit. Another general
characteristic of these computers is that they occupy physically small
amounts of space when compared to mainframe and minicomputers. Many
microcomputers (when equipped with a keyboard and screen for input and
output) are also personal computers (in the generic sense).




                  Micro Computer




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LEARNING AREA:
Computer Parts & Components                                             LEARNING OUTCOMES:
2.1 Overview of the Computer System                                     1. State the functions of the main components in the computer system.
                                                                        ACTIVITIES:
LEARNING OUTCOMES:                                                      • Carrying out brainstorming session on the functions of the main
Identify main components in the computer system:                           components of the computer system
• Monitor                                                               • Writing down the functions and keeping the sheet in the portfolio
• Keyboard
• Speaker
• Mouse                                                                 1.   INPUT DEVICES
• System unit
• Printer                                                                       When data is entered into the computer system, it is called an
                                                                                 input.
ACTIVITIES:                                                                     Input comes in various forms text, graphic, audio and video.
• Showing the main components of the computer system                            Input devices are needed to input data into the computer
• Labelling the main components of the computer system in a worksheet            system
to be kept in the portfolio                                                     Example of input devices :
                                                                                     1. Keyboard
NOTES:                                                                               2. Mouse
                                                                                     3. Scanner
1.   Computer system defined as combination of component designed to                 4. Barcode reader
     process data & store files.                                                     5. Digital camera
2.   Computer system requires hardware, software & a user to fully
     function.                                                          2. OUTPUT DEVICES
3.   Hardware refers to the equipment associated with the computer
     system, for examples monitor & keyboard.                                   Output is the result of raw input data that has been processed
4.   Computer system consists of four major hardware components:                 by the Central Processing Unit (CPU) into meaningful
              o Input devices                                                    information.
              o Processor                                                       Common forms of output are text, graphic, audio, video and
              o Output devices                                                   animation.
              o Storage devices                                                 Example of output devices :

                                                                                     1.   Monitor
                                                                                     2.   Speaker




                                                                                                                                                  5
            3.   Printer
                                                                          NOTES:
3. STORAGE DEVICES
                                                                          1. A computer system consists of input devices, processor, output
       The system’s primary storage, Random Access Memory (RAM)          devices and storage devices.
        can only hold data temporarily.
       Thus, secondary storage is needed to provide additional           2. Data processing cycle of a computer system:
        storage.
       The data stored in the secondary storage is considered
                                                                                   INPUT             PROCESSOR             OUTPUT
        permanent until it is deleted or removed.
       Secondary storage can be magnetic disks and optical disks.
       Examples of secondary storage are hard disks, rewriteable CDs
        and DVDs as well as removable disks such as pen drives.
                                                                                                      STORAGE
       Magnetic disks such as diskette consist of a 3 ½ inches
        magnetic disk enclosed in a plastic case
       Optical disks such as CD - ROMs, use a laser beam to read large
                                                                          3. User will input the data to be processed by the processor.
        volumes of data relatively inexpensively.
                                                                          4. The storage holds databases, files & programs. The output devices
                                                                            present the processed data as useful information products for the
4. PERIPHERAL DEVICES
                                                                            user.

       External hardware devices attached to the computer are called
                                                                          INPUT
        peripheral equipments.
                                                                                 Input is any data or instructions that we enter into the
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
                                                                                  computer system for processing.
Explain briefly the data processing cycle of a computer system:
                                                                                 There are some common ways of feeding input data into the
• Input
                                                                                  system, which are :
• Process
                                                                                      o Typing on a keyboard
• Output
                                                                                      o Pointing with a mouse
• Storage
                                                                          PROCESSOR
ACTIVITIES:
• Drawing and explain the data processing cycle of the computer system
on a paper and to be kept in the portfolio.
                                                                          In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program
                                                                          that is being executed. It contains the program code and its




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current activity. Depending on the operating system (OS), a                     Video consists of images that provide the appearance of full
process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that                     motion.
execute instructions concurrently.[1][2]
                                                                         LEARNING AREA: System Unit

A computer program is a passive collection of instructions, a
                                                                         LEARNING OUTCOMES:
process is the actual execution of those instructions.
                                                                         Identify the components of a system unit:
                                                                         • Input/Output port (I/O port)
                                                                         • Reset button
STORAGE
                                                                         • CDROM drive
                                                                         • Floppy drive
      Storage is a location which data, instruction & information a
                                                                         • Hard disk drive
       held for future use
      Every computer uses storage to hold system software &
                                                                         ACTIVITIES:
       application software
                                                                         Introducing the components of a system unit
      A storage medium also called secondary storage is the physical
                                                                         • Labeling the different components of a system unit in a worksheet to
       material in the computer that keeps data, instruction &
                                                                            be kept in the portfolio.
       information. Example floppy disk, hard disk & USB flash drive.
                                                                         • Showing a system unit to the class.
      A storage device is the computer hardware that record or
       retrieves items to & from storage media.



OUTPUT                                                                   LEARNING OUTCOMES:

      Output is data that has been processed into a useful form         State the functions of the main components of a system unit.
       called information.
      There are 4 types of output, which are text, graphic, audio &     ACTIVITIES:
       video.                                                            • Explaining the functions of the component of a system unit such as
      The text consists of characters that are used to create texts,       I/O, Reset button, CDROM drive, floppy drive, hard disk drive.
       sentences & paragraphs.                                           • Writing down the functions of the component off the system unit and
      Graphic are digital representation of non text information such      keeping it in the portfolio.
       as drawing, charts & photographs.
      Audio is music, speech or any other sound.




                                                                                                                                                  7
NOTES:                                                                        Input/output (I/O):

THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT                                                   In computing, input/output, or I/O, refers to the communication
                                                                              between an information processing system (such as a computer), and the
1. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer.            outside world – possibly a human, or another information processing
2. All processing activities are done in the CPU. It utilities the computer   system.
   memory to execute instruction from the application software &
   accomplish a task. For example, editing a letter, drawing a picture &      Inputs are the signals or data received by the system, and outputs are
   sorting numbers.                                                           the signals or data sent from it.
3. The processor must be connected to input devices, output devices &
   storage devices to carry out the above mentioned tasks.                    The term can also be used as part of an action; to "perform I/O" is to
                                                                              perform an input or output operation.
Reset button:
A button that restarts a computer and clears its memory, without
                                                                              I/O devices are used by a person (or other system) to communicate with
turning the power off and on again; sometimes a computer has to be
                                                                              a computer. For instance, keyboards and mousses are considered input
restarted when it is not responding to commands.
                                                                              devices of a computer, while monitors and printers are considered
                                                                              output devices of a computer.
Floppy disk:
A floppy disk is a data storage medium that is composed of a disk of
                                                                              Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and
thin, flexible ("floppy") magnetic storage medium encased in a square or
                                                                              network cards, typically serve for both input and output.
rectangular plastic shell. Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy
disk drive or FDD.

Hard disk drive:
A hard disk drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive, hard
disk or fixed disk drive, is a non-volatile storage device which stores
digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic
surfaces. Hard disk drives can store much more data than floppy disk
drives.




                                                                                                                                                       8
                                                                         Central processing unit (CPU):
LEARNING OUTCOMES:
                                                                         A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes just processor, is a

State the functions of CPU, RAM, ROM and expansion slots found on        description of a class of logic machines that can execute computer
the motherboard.
                                                                         programs.
ACTIVITIES:

• Showing a motherboard to pupils
• Identify, explain and discuss the functions of CPU, RAM, ROM and
   expansion slots found on the motherboard.
• Writing the functions of the components in the worksheets provided
   and keeping them in the portfolio.


                                                                         A CPU is similar to a calculator, only much more powerful. The main
Motherboard:                                                             function of the CPU is to perform arithmetic and logical operations on
A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a
                                                                         data taken from memory or on information entered through some
complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. It is also known
as a mainboard, baseboard, system board, planar board.                   device, such as a keyboard, scanner, or joystick. The CPU is controlled

                                                                         by a list of software instructions, called a computer program.




                                                                         Random access memory:



                                                                         Random access memory is a type of data storage used in computer. It

                                                                         takes the form of intergrated circuits that allow the stored data to be

                                                                         accessed in any order - that is, at random and without the physical

                                                                         movement of the storage medium or a physical reading head.




                                                                                                                                                   9
                                                                          LEARNING AREA:
                                                                          Peripherals
It is basically where all the information of all the processes that are
                                                                          LEARNING OUTCOME:
running are stored on your computer. For example if you have an image     1. State the definition of peripheral.

open on your computer it would be temporarily stored on the RAM until     2. Identify different types of peripherals:
                                                                          • Input devices
you close the image.                                                      • Output devices
                                                                          • Storage devices

                                                                          3. State examples of different types of peripherals:
Read-only memory(ROM):
                                                                          • Printers
Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of        • Scanners
                                                                          • LCD projectors
storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. Because     • Digital cameras
                                                                          • External CD drives
data stored in ROM, it cannot be modified.                                • External storages

                                                                          4. Explain the functions of each peripheral.
                                                                          LEARNING AREA:
                                                                          1.Input Devices
                                                                          LEARNING OUTCOME:
                                                                          1.Identify input devices.
                                                                          2.List input devices.
                                                                          3.State the respective functions input devices.

                                                                          LEARNING AREA:
                                                                          Output Devices
                                                                          LEARNING OUTCOME:
                                                                          Identify output devices.
                                                                          2.5.2 List output devices.
                                                                          2.5.3 State the respective functions of output devices.

                                                                          LEARNING AREA:
                                                                          Storage Devices
                                                                          LEARNING OUTCOME:
                                                                          Identify storage devices.
                                                                          2.6.2 List storage devices.
                                                                          State the functions of storage devices.




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NOTES:
Peripheral

Types of peripherals:
       Input devices
        output devices
       storage devices

Examples peripherals
. Printers
• Scanners
• LCD projectors
• Digital cameras
• External CD drives
• External storages




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