Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 3 Varieties Inattentive Impulsive Hyperactive Inattentive • Doesn’t seem to listen • Can’t concentrate • Easily distracted • Can appear demanding and self-centered • Seems lazy or rude • Loses interest in things quickly and searches for more interesting thing to do • Difficulty organizing tasks/activities • Avoids, dislikes or reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort Inattentive • Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless errors in schoolwork, or other activities • Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish school work, chores or duties (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand) • Loses things necessary for tasks • Forgetful in daily activities Impulsive • Blurts out answers • Difficulty awaiting turn • Always doing something • Class clown • Never sits still • Doesn’t think about the consequence of their behavior • Interrupts or intrudes on others • Risk-takers • Accident-prone Hyperactive • Constantly moving • Shifts or squirms in seat • Fidgets/restless • Leaves seat in classroom or other area in which sitting is expected • Has trouble with transitional times, especially when moving from unstructured (recess, lunch) to structured (science class) Diagnosing ADHD • http://www.webmd.com/video/diagnosing- adhd 2-Step Approach To qualify for special education services the following questions must be asked: • 1) Is a disorder present? • 2) If so, does it affect educational progress? 2-Step Approach • If a student’s learning is not adversely affected by their ADHD, then accommodations are not legally required. • However, these students would more than likely benefit from adaptations being made. To medicate or not medicate, that is often the question. Positron Emission Tomography • In students with ADHD, PET scans show significantly less electrical activity which results in less blood flow to the frontal lobe of the brain especially the areas responsible for response to inhibition, attention and sensitivity to reward. • Stimulants are used to increase brain metabolism in the hope of increasing frontal lobe blood flow. Non-ADHD brain top and bottom view 90 80 70 60 • ADHD brain at rest 50 40 East West 30 North 20 10 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr Without stimulant medication With stimulant medication EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS Because children with ADHD do better when their lives are ordered and predictable, the most important things teachers can do for those children is establish a calm, structured classroom environment with clear and consistent rules and regular classroom routines. 20 TIPS TO TEACH KIDS WHO HAVE ADHD 1. Display classroom rules. Classroom rules must be very clear and concise. 2. Provide clear and concise instructions for academic assignments. 3. Break complex instructions into small parts. 4. Show students how to use an assignment book to keep track of their homework and daily assignments. 5. Post a daily schedule and homework assignments in the same place each day. Tape a copy on the child's desk. 20 TIPS TO TEACH KIDS WHO HAVE ADHD 6. Plan academic subjects for the morning hours. 7. Provide regular and frequent breaks. 8. Seat the child away from distractions and next to students who will be positive role models. 9. Form small group settings when possible. Children with ADHD can become easily distracted in large groups. 10. Find a quiet spot in the classroom (such as a place in the back of the room) where students can go to do their work away from distractions. 20 TIPS TO TEACH KIDS WHO HAVE ADHD 11. Train the student with ADHD to recognize "begin work" cues. 12. Establish a secret signal with the child to use as a reminder when he or she is off task. 13. Help the child with transitions between other classes and activities by providing clear directions and cues, such as a five-minute warning before the transition. 14. Assign tutors to help children with ADHD stay on task. 15. Focus on a specific behavior you wish to improve and reinforce it. 20 TIPS TO TEACH KIDS WHO HAVE ADHD 16.Offer more positive reinforcements than negative consequences. 17.Explain to the student what to do to avoid negative consequences. 18.Reward target behaviors immediately and continuously. 19.Use negative consequences only after a positive reinforcement program has enough time to become effective. 20.Deliver negative consequences in a firm, business-like way without emotion, lectures, or long-winded explanations. Remember… STRUCTURE STRUCTURE STRUCTURE ADHD in Children • http://www.webmd.com/video/adhd-in- children Bill of Rights For a Child with ADD “Help me to focus.” Please teach me through my sense of “touch.” I need hands-on tasks and body movement. “I need to know what comes next.” Please give me a structured environment where there is a dependable routine. Give me an advanced warning if there will be changes. “Wait for me, I’m still thinking.” Please allow me to go at my own pace. If I rush, I get confused and upset. “I’m stuck. I can’t do it!” Please offer me options for problem-solving. I need to know the detours when the road is blocked. “Is it right? I need to know NOW!” Please give me rich and immediate feedback on how I’m doing. “I didn’t forget it. I didn’t ‘hear’ it in the first place.” Please give me directions one step at a time and ask me to say back what I think you said. “I didn’t know I WASN’T in my seat!” Please remind me to stop, think, and act. “Am I almost done now?” Please give me short work periods with short-term goals. “What?” Please don’t say, “I already told you that.” Tell me again in different words. Give me a signal. Draw me a symbol. “I know, it ALL wrong, isn’t it?” Please give me praise for partial success. Reward me for self- improvement, not just for perfection. “But why do I always get yelled at?” Please catch me doing something right and praise me for my specific positive behavior. Remind me (and yourself) about my good points, when I’m having a bad day. Remember… Being positive, Being consistent, and Being patient Will help these students be their best!
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