Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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					  Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder
 3 Varieties

Inattentive
 Impulsive
Hyperactive
                 Inattentive
• Doesn’t seem to listen
• Can’t concentrate
• Easily distracted
• Can appear demanding and self-centered
• Seems lazy or rude
• Loses interest in things quickly and searches for
  more interesting thing to do
• Difficulty organizing tasks/activities
• Avoids, dislikes or reluctant to engage in tasks
  that require sustained mental effort
              Inattentive
• Fails to give close attention to details or
  makes careless errors in schoolwork, or other
  activities
• Does not follow through on instructions and
  fails to finish school work, chores or duties
  (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to
  understand)
• Loses things necessary for tasks
• Forgetful in daily activities
                 Impulsive
• Blurts out answers
• Difficulty awaiting turn
• Always doing something
• Class clown
• Never sits still
• Doesn’t think about the consequence of their
  behavior
• Interrupts or intrudes on others
• Risk-takers
• Accident-prone
              Hyperactive
• Constantly moving
• Shifts or squirms in seat
• Fidgets/restless
• Leaves seat in classroom or other area in
  which sitting is expected
• Has trouble with transitional times,
  especially when moving from unstructured
  (recess, lunch) to structured (science class)
        Diagnosing ADHD
• http://www.webmd.com/video/diagnosing-
  adhd
           2-Step Approach
To qualify for special education services the
     following questions must be asked:

• 1) Is a disorder present?
• 2) If so, does it affect educational
  progress?
          2-Step Approach
• If a student’s learning is not adversely
  affected by their ADHD, then
  accommodations are not legally required.

• However, these students would more than
  likely benefit from adaptations being
  made.
To medicate
   or not
  medicate,
that is often
the question.
Positron Emission Tomography
• In students with ADHD, PET scans show
  significantly less electrical activity which results
  in less blood flow to the frontal lobe of the brain
  especially the areas responsible for response to
  inhibition, attention and sensitivity to reward.

• Stimulants are used to increase brain
  metabolism in the hope of increasing frontal lobe
  blood flow.
 Non-ADHD brain
top and bottom view
                       90
                       80
                       70
                       60
• ADHD brain at rest   50
                       40
                                              East
                                              West
                       30
                                              North
                       20
                       10
                        0
                            1st 2nd 3rd 4th
                            Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr
Without stimulant medication   With stimulant medication
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

Because children with ADHD do better
when their lives are ordered and
predictable, the most important things
teachers can do for those children is
establish a calm, structured classroom
environment with clear and consistent
rules and regular classroom routines.
  20 TIPS TO TEACH KIDS WHO
           HAVE ADHD
1. Display classroom rules. Classroom rules must
   be very clear and concise.
2. Provide clear and concise instructions for
   academic assignments.
3. Break complex instructions into small parts.
4. Show students how to use an assignment
   book to keep track of their homework and daily
   assignments.
5. Post a daily schedule and homework
   assignments in the same place each day.
   Tape a copy on the child's desk.
  20 TIPS TO TEACH KIDS WHO
           HAVE ADHD
6. Plan academic subjects for the morning hours.
7. Provide regular and frequent breaks.
8. Seat the child away from distractions and next
    to students who will be positive role models.
9. Form small group settings when possible.
    Children with ADHD can become easily
    distracted in large groups.
10. Find a quiet spot in the classroom (such as a
    place in the back of the room) where students
    can go to do their work away from distractions.
  20 TIPS TO TEACH KIDS WHO
           HAVE ADHD
11. Train the student with ADHD to recognize
    "begin work" cues.
12. Establish a secret signal with the child to use
    as a reminder when he or she is off task.
13. Help the child with transitions between other
    classes and activities by providing clear
    directions and cues, such as a five-minute
    warning before the transition.
14. Assign tutors to help children with ADHD stay
    on task.
15. Focus on a specific behavior you wish to
    improve and reinforce it.
  20 TIPS TO TEACH KIDS WHO
           HAVE ADHD
16.Offer more positive reinforcements than
   negative consequences.
17.Explain to the student what to do to avoid
   negative consequences.
18.Reward target behaviors immediately and
   continuously.
19.Use negative consequences only after a
   positive reinforcement program has enough
   time to become effective.
20.Deliver negative consequences in a firm,
   business-like way without emotion, lectures, or
   long-winded explanations.
  Remember…

STRUCTURE
STRUCTURE
STRUCTURE
         ADHD in Children


• http://www.webmd.com/video/adhd-in-
  children
Bill of Rights
For a Child
 with ADD
      “Help me to focus.”


Please teach me through my sense
of “touch.” I need hands-on tasks
and body movement.
“I need to know what comes next.”

  Please give me a structured
  environment where there is a
  dependable routine. Give me an
  advanced warning if there will be
  changes.
 “Wait for me, I’m still thinking.”


Please allow me to go at my own
pace. If I rush, I get confused and
upset.
 “I’m stuck. I can’t do it!”

Please offer me options for
problem-solving. I need to know
the detours when the road is
blocked.
           “Is it right?
     I need to know NOW!”

Please give me rich and immediate
feedback on how I’m doing.
“I didn’t forget it. I didn’t ‘hear’ it
         in the first place.”

Please give me directions one step
at a time and ask me to say back
what I think you said.
“I didn’t know I WASN’T in my
             seat!”

Please remind me to stop, think,
and act.
   “Am I almost done now?”


Please give me short work periods
with short-term goals.
             “What?”

Please don’t say, “I already told
you that.” Tell me again in different
words. Give me a signal. Draw me
a symbol.
 “I know, it ALL wrong, isn’t it?”


Please give me praise for partial
success. Reward me for self-
improvement, not just for perfection.
         “But why do I
     always get yelled at?”

Please catch me doing something
right and praise me for my specific
positive behavior. Remind me (and
yourself) about my good points,
when I’m having a bad day.
          Remember…
Being positive,
Being consistent, and
Being patient

Will help these students be their best! 

				
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