Part I: Research, Citations, and References
An essay in which you:
Research a topic
present your findings
Used in university and business
You will have to write many reports
But first, we’ll learn about research, citations, and
Research is how you find out the information you
need to write your report.
Many sources of info, including books, newspapers,
magazines, academic journals, and the internet
We will only use the internet this year
Citations and References are how you tell your
readers where your information came from.
original material such as letters, lab notes, diaries, etc.
magazine and newspaper articles, books, etc., that get
their info largely from primary sources.
wikis, encyclopedias, textbooks, etc., that collect and
distill information from primary and secondary sources.
- adapted from “Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sources”
1. Letters by Mao Zedong
2. Books about Mao Zedong’s writings
3. Wikipedia article on Mao Zedong
1. Notes taken by a clinical psychologist
2. Magazine article about a psychological condition
3. Textbook on clinical psychology
1. Secondary sources
2. Taken from the internet
3. Websites that get their information from primary
Newspapers TV websites:
China Daily CCTV
New York Times BBC
Financial Times NPR
Magazines Government websites
Time Reputable company
Beijing Review websites
Business Week Academic journals
All sources must be in English!
Wikis: Tertiary sources
tustclass2010. Search engines
Email lists etc.
Wikis have two problems:
They are community-based
They are tertiary sources
Wikis, blogs, forums, email lists, etc., are
That means anybody can write anything and
present it as fact.
It’s like our tustclass2010 wiki:
anybody can write anything!
Too far removed from the primary sources
They are not necessarily reliable
(yes, your textbooks can have errors!)
But you can use them to help your research
Can’t use them in your report
But, you can use wikis, textbooks, encyclopedias,
Find primary and secondary sources
Give an overview of the topic
Help organize your paper
Search engines, such as Google and Baidu, are not
sources. They just help you find sources.
have no information of their own
have no opinion on the info they’ve found for you
Primary, secondary or tertiary?
Reliable or unreliable?
You must determine the level and reliability
You must use them, but …
Be careful, they may have bad information
Is the source reliable?
Who is writing and why?
Stick with well-known, trusted web sites
There are several different systems for doing
citations and references
The program you are in at Southern Cross
University uses the Harvard system, so that’s
what we’ll learn.
Other courses or programs may use other
systems, so if in doubt, find out – before you
write your papers.
They are the words in parentheses after a
quotation or paraphrase telling what reference
you got your information from.
Children and adults rarely eat together now, and thus get
less opportunity to talk. (Knott 2008)
For internet sources, it’s just the surname of the
author and the year from you List of References
in parentheses: (Knott 2008)
If there is no date, you just put n.d. for the date:
If there is no author, you just put the sponsoring
(Northwestern University 2006)
Well, citations are not always that simple.
They get more complicated when there are
several authors, etc., but
For right now, we’ll just do this much
Required in academic writing
Gives your writing credibility; it means that the
reader can trust you
Lets readers evaluate your credibility
Not citing sources is plagiarism.
“Whenever you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or
otherwise refer to the work of another, you are
required to cite its source …”
Whenever you present something as fact:
“… 81.25% of the people in China …”
“… economic growth in China is projected to slow to about
6.5 percent this year.”
The Titanic sank on April 15, 1912.
These are the words at the end of your report
that give exact details about your sources:
Knott, C 2008 Turning Meal Time into Family Time, Obesity
Treatment, viewed 23 April 2011,
Citation (Knott 2008)
Links to …
Reference Knott, C 2008 Turning Meal Time into Family Time, Obesity
Treatment, viewed 23 April 2011,
Which links to … Sources on the internet
The reference list is at the end of your report.
In alphabetical order
Each source you cite must appear in your reference list.
Each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text at
List of References
Knott, C 2008, ‘Turning Meal Time into Family Time’, Obesity Treatment, viewed 23 April
Northwestern University 2006, ‘Obesity In Middle Age Raises Heart Disease, Diabetes Risk
In Older Age’, ScienceDaily, viewed April 23, 2011,
first date = year of publication 2008
n.d. = no publication date n.d.
viewed = the date you saw the article on the
internet viewed April 23, 2011
List as much of the following information as possible :
Author/editor or compiler Year of the most recent version, Title, version number (if
applicable), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor
of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the
main site details>
Knott, C 2008, ‘Turning Meal Time into Family Time’, Obesity Treatment,
viewed 23 April 2011, http://www.obesity-treatment.com/feature/turning-meal-
Use the organization as author
If there is no date write n.d.
Note: If there is no author, no organization and no date be
very careful about using this information!
Northwestern University 2006, ‘Obesity In Middle Age Raises Heart
Disease, Diabetes Risk In Older Age’, ScienceDaily, viewed April 23, 2011,
Authors' names are inverted (family name first);
give the family name and initials for all authors of
a particular work.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by
the last name of the first author.
Write one paragraph with two quotes or
paraphrases from different sources.
(You can take a paragraph from your Cause and
Effect essay and add citations and references.)
Make a citation for each quote, paraphrase or
and a List of References at the end.
Deadly Sins (-10 pts. each)
Spelling, capitalization, etc. ___
TUST standards errors ___
Late: -10 for each day ___
Email accepted paragraph ___
Content (20 pts.):
Statements logical and relevant ___
Citations (10 pts. each)
Citation 1 ___
Citation 2 ___
References (25 pts. each)
Reference 1 ___
Reference 2 ___
Mechanics (10 pts.):
Grammar, usage, punctuation: ___
Your first lesson of next week, after the holiday:
Tuesday: classes 41 and 43
Wednesday: classes 42 and 44
I will check your paragraph before you turn it in
If I see errors I will not accept it.
You must fix them and submit the next day along with
the version(s) that were rejected.
It will be counted late
(Better 1-2 days late than lose many points for errors)
If I don’t see any errors, I will accept your
paragraph. Then, and only then, should you
email it to me.
Email accepted paragraph as a Microsoft Word
document attached to an email.
The subject line of your email must be:
Para [Class] [English Name]
Example: Para 43 Joe