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england.stu by Wittgenstein

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									Today’s Lecture:

The Relevance of England

Number:

6

Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements

• Course Web Page • The Dark Ages
• Absolute Monarchy

• The Birth of Rights • Rise of Parliament
• English Revolution

Class Announcements

Questions?

Getting Perspective

Rome

England
The Greeks Hebrews

American Government

Part I: The Medieval Political Order

England and the Dark Ages
time period -- first half of the lecture: from the time of the fall of Rome (about 400 A.D.) through about 1500. medieval political order
-- part II of the lecture is around the 1600s. the beginning of the new age

England and the Dark Ages
Divine Right -- Divine Right suggested that the King was God’s chosen agent on earth to be the Landlord of that particular country. Great Chain of Being
-- Everything has its place in nature

-- God has ordained a celestial and natural order to the universe and to the entire human agency -- The closer you are to God, the higher you are in the rank.

England and the Dark Ages
Chains of Being -- Basic idea: God had put everything in its place

1. God

2. Angels
3. Man

4. Animals 5. Plants 6. Stones

1. God England and 2. Angels Ages the Dark
seraphim cherubim

Chains of Being

3. Man
peasant

-- Basic idea: God had put everythingkingits place in

-- That within this preordained hierarchy, there were sub 4. Animals hierarchies.
Lion Cockroach (snake?)

5. Plants
Mighty Oak clover? Moss?

6. Stones
Regal diamond ?? Gravel ??

England and the Dark Ages
Chains of Being -- Basic idea: God had put everything in its place

-- That within this preordained hierarchy, there were sub
hierarchies.

-- The complete human chain is as follows …

illustration

Human Chain
Monarchy Aristocracy Gentry Peasants, Serfs City-dwelling drunks

Royal Blood -King, 3rd Peers 2nd and Queens, Princes, The Greatsons Princesses, etc. Primogeniture High Titles; Closest to God Immense Lands on Earth Lower inheritance; God’s Chosen Landlord Less land Barons of the Dukes and of the Country countryside Laborers, craftsmen, Justice of the Peace “smiths,” peasant Command a regiment farmers Court Jobs at
No jobs, no place to live. “London scum”

9/21/2009

Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

11

England and the Dark Ages
Chains of Being -- Each group within the human chain is further subject to rank
Monarchy:
• King • Queen • Prince • Princess

Nobility:
• Duke • Marquis • Earls • Count • Viscount

Gentry:
• Knights • Esquires • Gentlemen

Peasants/ Serfs: Lawyers • Yeoman farmers sometimes use • Husbandmen “esquire” by their name • Cottagers

Gentlemen do not do not work their lands. This is a mark Big farmers, but they work of • Barons Small farmer no Rented that social status with starts with their land. (mention Pride and farm attached gentlemen and goes all the Notice also – by order of title! Prejudice) way up

England and the Dark Ages
Primogeniture -- The mythology that suggested the first born were preordained to be naturally better.

illustration

The Domination of Landed Elites
Time • Shires • Manor Estate • Duties of the Landlord Hypothetical Territory • Duties of the Tenant • Feudalism (hard and soft) Lord’s • Affinities! Hampshire A Pembroke B “Muster the Rohirrim!” Manor Estate

Y Y
c
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h

C C
c

D
Servant High Ground Husbandmen Cottagers Quarters, a Mill The Church Yeomen or Oven. Farmers
14

c

c

c

h

Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

Absolute Monarchy

Conceptualizing -- To understand the theory of absolute monarchy, one must understand a few things:
Government as a personification -- The government is a person

-- you fight for your king against enemies like you would for your family -- there is no basic difference between king and country. (we see a difference today, but in medieval times there is not much of a difference. These things are a unity)

Absolute Monarchy
Conceptualizing -- To understand the theory of absolute monarchy, one must understand a few things: Subjects, not citizens
-- There are no citizens; there are only subjects

-- There is a parent-child relationship between country (king) and citizen (subject). -- liberty as we know it is not really invented yet

Absolute Monarchy
Conceptualizing -- To understand the theory of absolute monarchy, one must understand a few things:
No branches of government -- The king, in theory, performs the executive, judicial and legislative functions.

-- if others help, it is under an agency theory

Absolute Monarchy
Conceptualizing No branches of government
Power over statutes

-- Since the days of Rome (and before), the law of Kings and monarchs have been formally articulated (written down).

Question: Given what I have just said, how is it that statutes are passed? Who handles that?

Absolute Monarchy
Conceptualizing No branches of government
Power over statutes

-- over time, however, kings found that for political reasons they needed a special kind of decree or commandment.
-- this was known as the statute. -- here is how it worked:

Absolute Monarchy
Conceptualizing No branches of government
Power over statutes

• King would write down and place his signature to important laws.
• Sometimes, for political purposes, he would have both himself and the nobility sign extremely important pronouncements so that they appeared more powerful (e.g., taxes, war)

• (Parliaments had to be convened for this purpose)

Time

Absolute Monarchy

Caveat -- Although medieval Kings were in theory (in ideology) absolute, in truth they were never really “absolute.”
Strategic environment

-- Operated within limited environments. The nobility and aristocrats had power, too. If you turned too many of them against you, you could be in trouble. -- had to be strategic to preserve power (Machiavellian) -- All that the King really was, was the strongest aristocrat (strongest peer). Analogy: crowned checker

Part II: The Dawn of the Enlightenment

The Birth of Rights

Introduction -- The world is going to awaken from its medieval political order
… How does it start?

illustration

The Birth of Rights
Supported the concept. Reforms Monarchy; but had a really interesting idea. The universe is operated by physical The King is subject to Society was formed through laws the contract should rule The skillful a social contract! We don’t need a Pope It is not can be The Kingthe leaders well to select governed by Implication: not the A removed by the parties legal relationship! superstition birthed! to the contract if he Kicker: some is not to be The world misbehavesthings cannot be feared; it is to be sold! understood What is misbehavior? Inalienable Rights! If the universe has Violating the inalienable King is above not politics rules, rights! why the contract and presides over it as well?
9/21/2009

Sir Isaac Newton Niccolo Machiavelli Martin Luther and John Calvin Thomas Hobbes
John Locke

Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007

24

Time

The Birth of Rights

The protestant reformation -- English-Speaking Bibles --“Presbyters” -- local church committees taking control -- Emergence of radical religious sects -- Democratizing religion versus democratizing society


								
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