Migration

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					    Migration

Going from there to here.
Migration is a type of mobility that involves the
  spatial movement of a residence particularly
  when that movement involves longer distances,
  time spent in the new location, and political
  boundaries crossed. Movement with the intent to
  stay is an important consideration in migration,
  but may not be the defining variable.
           General Rule


People migrate in
 response to
 some form of
 stress.
           Types of Stress
                  with common examples



   Economic –        “I can’t afford to live here
                               anymore.”
   Political –      “My neighbors are too
                             conservative.”
   Cultural –       “The neighborhood has
                             changed.”
   Environmental –            “It stinks out here.”
Push and Pull Factors

           Push and pull factors
             are factors that
             make you want to
             leave one location
             and go to another.
            Push Factors




Push factors are characteristics of your
  current location that make you want to
  leave it. They are negative factors.
              Pull Factors
Pull factors are characteristics of your
  destination that make you want to go
  there. They are positive factors.
          Types of Migration
   “Primitive”
   Forced or Involuntary
   Impelled or “Voluntary under duress”
   Free Migration
   Illegal Migration
   Return Migration
   Failed Migration
“Primitive” Migration
           Usually associated
            with pre-industrial
            peoples moving in
            response to
            ecological
            necessity. The
            decision to move is
            made at the group,
            rather than the
            individual, level.
Forced or Involuntary Migration
Occurs when people
 are forced to move
 out of an area. It is
 most often
 associated with
 extreme political
 circumstances
 including ethnic
 cleansing and
 slavery.
Impelled Migration
         Also called “Voluntary,
           but under duress,”
           this occurs when the
           individual makes the
           decision to move but
           is offered little or no
           tangible choice.
           Examples include
           fleeing oppressive
           political regimes, war
           zones, and natural
           disasters.
           Free Migration




This type of migration occurs when people
  (an individual or a group) make the
  decision to move based on utility.
           Illegal Migration
This type of migration occurs when people,
  either as an individual or a group, cross a
  political border without official approval.
          Return Migration


This occurs when
  people move back
  to their original
  location.
Failed Migration
        This type of
          migration occurs
          when people move
          back to their
          original location
          because they were
          not successful in
          the new location.
Other types of Migrants
       Refugees
       Evacuees
       Internally Displaced
        Persons
                   Refugees
Refugees are people seeking refuge. Refugees are
  impelled to move and frequently want to return
  to their original location after the reason they left
  is no longer present. Asylum seekers typically
  seek “political refugee” status.
                  Evacuees
These are people who
  move in response to
  some form of
  immediate disaster or
  threat. They intend to
  return to their original
  location as soon as
  the threat has passed.
  Evacuees may be
  “impelled” to move by
  a government or other
  organized authority.
  Internally Displaced Persons
These are people who leave their homes but remain
  within their own country. They may be forced
  from their homes due to a disaster or natural
  hazard. They may be refugees or evacuees, but
  they do not cross international borders. They
  intend to return to their homes.
Ravenstein’s “Laws of Migration”
             1885
The majority of migrants travel only a short
                 distance.
Migration proceeds through a series of steps.
Migrants moving longer distances go to
   centers of industry or commerce.
Each current of migration produces a smaller
              counter current.
People are less likely to move
  if they live in a large city.
  Females are more migratory within their country of
birth, whereas males are more likely to migrate beyond
 their native country. International migrants are more
                 typically young males.
    Most migrants are adults.
Families rarely migrate as a group
  outside their country of birth.
Large cities and towns grow more through
     migration than natural increase.
Migration increases in volume with
  improvement in infrastructure.
The primary direction of movement is
           rural to urban.
The major causes of migration are economic.

				
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