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Migration Going from there to here. Migration is a type of mobility that involves the spatial movement of a residence particularly when that movement involves longer distances, time spent in the new location, and political boundaries crossed. Movement with the intent to stay is an important consideration in migration, but may not be the defining variable. General Rule People migrate in response to some form of stress. Types of Stress with common examples Economic – “I can’t afford to live here anymore.” Political – “My neighbors are too conservative.” Cultural – “The neighborhood has changed.” Environmental – “It stinks out here.” Push and Pull Factors Push and pull factors are factors that make you want to leave one location and go to another. Push Factors Push factors are characteristics of your current location that make you want to leave it. They are negative factors. Pull Factors Pull factors are characteristics of your destination that make you want to go there. They are positive factors. Types of Migration “Primitive” Forced or Involuntary Impelled or “Voluntary under duress” Free Migration Illegal Migration Return Migration Failed Migration “Primitive” Migration Usually associated with pre-industrial peoples moving in response to ecological necessity. The decision to move is made at the group, rather than the individual, level. Forced or Involuntary Migration Occurs when people are forced to move out of an area. It is most often associated with extreme political circumstances including ethnic cleansing and slavery. Impelled Migration Also called “Voluntary, but under duress,” this occurs when the individual makes the decision to move but is offered little or no tangible choice. Examples include fleeing oppressive political regimes, war zones, and natural disasters. Free Migration This type of migration occurs when people (an individual or a group) make the decision to move based on utility. Illegal Migration This type of migration occurs when people, either as an individual or a group, cross a political border without official approval. Return Migration This occurs when people move back to their original location. Failed Migration This type of migration occurs when people move back to their original location because they were not successful in the new location. Other types of Migrants Refugees Evacuees Internally Displaced Persons Refugees Refugees are people seeking refuge. Refugees are impelled to move and frequently want to return to their original location after the reason they left is no longer present. Asylum seekers typically seek “political refugee” status. Evacuees These are people who move in response to some form of immediate disaster or threat. They intend to return to their original location as soon as the threat has passed. Evacuees may be “impelled” to move by a government or other organized authority. Internally Displaced Persons These are people who leave their homes but remain within their own country. They may be forced from their homes due to a disaster or natural hazard. They may be refugees or evacuees, but they do not cross international borders. They intend to return to their homes. Ravenstein’s “Laws of Migration” 1885 The majority of migrants travel only a short distance. Migration proceeds through a series of steps. Migrants moving longer distances go to centers of industry or commerce. Each current of migration produces a smaller counter current. People are less likely to move if they live in a large city. Females are more migratory within their country of birth, whereas males are more likely to migrate beyond their native country. International migrants are more typically young males. Most migrants are adults. Families rarely migrate as a group outside their country of birth. Large cities and towns grow more through migration than natural increase. Migration increases in volume with improvement in infrastructure. The primary direction of movement is rural to urban. The major causes of migration are economic.
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