Docstoc

WARNING

Document Sample
WARNING Powered By Docstoc
					The Fundamentals of Summarizing
        and Paraphrasing
            Marc Markell

                   Authors
          Jean B. Schumaker, Ph.D.
              Jim Knight, Ph.D.
          Donald D. Deshler, Ph.D.

         Edge Enterprises, Inc. 2007
                                                                                  R




            MCA II Reading Test: MN Academic Standards

 Sub-strand C. Comprehension
• Standard: The student will understand the meaning of informational,
   expository or persuasive texts, using a variety of strategies and will
   demonstrate literal, interpretive, inferential and evaluative comprehension.
    – The student will summarize and paraphrase expository or
      informational text by identifying main ideas, themes, details
      or procedures of the text.
    – The student will make reasonable inference and conclusions
      about the text, supporting them with accurate and implied
      information from texts.
                                                            R
     International Reading Association:
     Statement on Adolescent Literacy
Adolescents entering the adult world in the 21st
century will read and write more than at any other time
in human history. They will need advanced levels of
literacy to perform their jobs, run their households, act
as citizens, and conduct their personal lives. They will
need literacy to cope with the flood of information they
will find everywhere they turn. They will need literacy
to feed their imaginations so they can create the world
of the future.
        Challenges Faced by Struggling
             Adolescent Learners
• Must make connections between new and old
  information and draw inferences
• Have difficulty distinguishing important from
  unimportant information
• Have difficulty organizing information meaningfully
• Tend not to use or invent strategies for coping with
  specific academic demands
• Have a big gap between the skills they have and
  the demands of the curriculum they are expected
  to meet
                        Rationales behind
           Fundamentals of Paraphrasing and Summarizing



 Students often do not have:
    strategies to find the main ideas and details
     of a reading passage.
    strategies to put information from reading
     passages into their own words.

 Students need the above skills to:
    write answers to questions or write reports
     in school.
    comprehension tests and state assessments
         Stages of Instruction
Pretest
Introduce and Describe (Lessons 1-14)
   Model       Learn by Watching      I Do It
   Practice    Learn by Sharing    We Do It
               Learn by Practicing You Do It
   Check for Understanding
   Provide Effective Feedback
Post Test

Generalization
        Stages of Instruction
Pretest
Marc Introduce and Describe (Lessons 1-4)
Participants (Lessons 5-14)
Marc Post Test
Marc Generalization
                 Teaching Process
          I do        Learn by watching



We do   Learn by sharing




                  You do    Learn by practicing
M
                                     M

Pretest     Goal:
          • Find out if students can
            find and paraphrase the
            main idea and details of a
            reading passage
              –The Pretest Passage
               from the manual
                         OR
              – A reading passage
               containing about 400
               words written at the
               student’s grade level
                        +
               Paraphrasing Sheet
R
                                         R
    Lesson 1 Paraphrasing Words
• Define paraphrasing

• Explain what makes a good paraphrase

• Define synonym

• Master paraphrasing single words

               (pages 12-17)
                                              R
                   Paraphrasing Cue Card #1
                   page 88, text page 12-13

Paraphrasing means putting information
          into your own words.
  You can paraphrase:
  – A single word
  – A phrase or group of words
  – A whole sentence
  – A whole paragraph
  – A whole page
                                               R
Characteristics of a Good Paraphrase Cue Cue
     Card #2 page 89, text page 13-14
• Must be CORRECT.

• Must include ONE’S OWN WORDS.

• Must MAKE SENSE.

  .com!!
                                             R
Synonym Cue Card #3 page 90, text page 14


                        A synonym is a
                        word that has the
                        same meaning or a
                        very close meaning
                        to the original
                        word.
                                                                   R
Lesson 1      Paraphrasing Words text page 14-17

  Conduct the Learn-by-Watching Activity
     Model finding synonyms.
       Put each word in a sentence.
       Replace the word with a synonym in the same
            sentence.
       Check whether the sentence means the same thing.
  Conduct the Learn-by-Sharing Activity
     Students work with the teacher on the next five words.
 Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
     Students practice finding synonyms for five words on their
    own.

 Mastery Criteria
       80% of class earns 80% (4/5) correct
                                     M
Lesson 2 Paraphrasing Phrases
            • Define phrases

            • Explain what makes a
              good paraphrase

            • Master paraphrasing
              phrases
                                            M
Phrase Cue Card #4 page 91, text page 19

       A phrase is a small group of words
              that has meaning.

•   under the couch
•   wooden house
•   along the avenue
•   before the game began
 Characteristics of a Good Paraphrase

• Must be CORRECT.

• Must include ONE’S OWN WORDS.

• Must MAKE SENSE.
                  M
Student Example
 Lesson 3 Paraphrasing Sentences

• Define a sentence



• Explain what makes a good paraphrase

• Master paraphrasing a sentence
                                                M
  Sentence Cue Card #5 page 92, text24 and 25
   A sentence is a group of words that:

 has a subject and a verb

 begins with a capital letter

 has a period or end punctuation

 makes sense
           Complete Sentences
      (page 94 instructor’s manual, cue card #1)
1.Start with a capital letter
2.Have end punctuation (. ? !)
3.Have a subject (S)
4.Have a verb (V)
5.Make sense
                    S           V      .?!
                                                                  M
                          Sentence




The small child was surprised by the cool temperature of the water.
                                                      M
                   Sentence




The people were high in the air changing the light.
                                                         M
                     Sentence




Working under a truck like this can be very dangerous.
                                                               M
                         Sentence




Bob had a great idea of how to fix the car for little money.
Questions on
Lessons 1-3
R
                                                R
Lesson 4 IDENTIFYING TOPICS, MAIN
        IDEAS, AND DETAILS
  • Define topic of a paragraph

  • Define the main idea of a paragraph

  • Define the details of a paragraph

  • Master the identification of topics, main
    ideas, and details in a list
                                         R

Paragraph Cue Card #6 page 93, text 29
           A paragraph :

  Be indented at the beginning

  Contain a topic, a main idea, and
   some details

  Contain sentences that are all
   related to each other
 
                                                      R
   Topic Cue Cards #7 page 94, text 29

• One or two words that tell what a paragraph is
  about
• Frequently located in the first (or second) sentence
  of a paragraph
• Sometimes repeated throughout a paragraph
• Sometimes found in the title above a paragraph

               To find a topic, say:
    “This paragraph is about ___,” and then fill in
        the blank with the one or two words.
                                                                R
  Example Paragraph Cue Cards #8 page 95,
                  text 29
     Emily had done many things to get ready for her big
performance in the play “Alice in Wonderland.” First, in a
used clothing store, she had found the perfect costume to
wear. Her dress looked just like the one in the book everyone
had been reading. Second, she had practiced and memorized
all her lines. She had worked at reading and rereading her
lines every night. Finally, she attended every rehearsal and
practiced with all the other actors. She knew exactly what
would happen at any moment during the play. As you can
see, by finding a great costume, memorizing her lines, and
rehearsing, Emily had ensured that she would do a great job
in her play.
                                                R
Main Idea Cue Cards #9 page 96, text 29

                  A main idea is:
• The big idea that the paragraph is about
• A general statement that summarizes all the
  information in the paragraph


            To find a main idea, ask:
        “What does this paragraph tell me
           about the (the topic) ?”
                                                      R
   Detail Cue Cards #10 page 97, text 30

                    A detail is:
• A piece of information that’s related to the main
  idea
• A statement that provides specific information
  about the main idea and topic

               To find a detail, ask:
     “What’s one piece of specific information
              about the main idea?”
                                                                R
        Example Paragraph Cue Cards #8 page 95,
                        text 29
    Emily had done many things to get ready for her big
performance in the play “Alice in Wonderland.” First, in a
used clothing store, she had found the perfect costume to
wear. Her dress looked just like the one in the book everyone
had been reading. Second, she had practiced and memorized
all her lines. She had worked at reading and rereading her
lines every night. Finally, she attended every rehearsal and
practiced with all the other actors. She knew exactly what
would happen at any moment during the play. As you can
see, by finding a great costume, memorizing her lines, and
rehearsing, Emily had ensured that she would do a great job
in her play.
                                                 R
Ice Cream Sundae Example
     Topic
               Ice Cream Sundae

     Main Idea
            Ingredience in an ice cream sundae

     Details
               Ice cream
               Hot Fudge
               Whipped Cream
               Cherry
                                                 R
Ice Cream Sundae Example
     Topic
               Ice Cream Sundae

     Main Idea
            Ingredience in an ice cream sundae

     Details
               Ice cream
               Hot Fudge
               Whipped Cream
               Cherry
                                                 R
Ice Cream Sundae Example
     Topic
               Ice Cream Sundae

     Main Idea
            Ingredience in an ice cream sundae

     Details
               Ice cream
               Hot Fudge
               Whipped Cream
               Cherry
                                                 R
Ice Cream Sundae Example
     Topic
               Ice Cream Sundae

     Main Idea
            Ingredients in an ice cream sundae

     Details
               Ice cream
               Hot Fudge
               Whipped Cream
               Cherry
                                                 R
Ice Cream Sundae Example
     Topic
               Ice Cream Sundae

     Main Idea
            Ingredience in an ice cream sundae

     Details
               Ice cream
               Hot Fudge
               Whipped Cream
               Cherry
                                                 R
Ice Cream Sundae Example
     Topic
               Ice Cream Sundae

     Main Idea
            Ingredience in an ice cream sundae

     Details
               Ice cream
               Hot Fudge
               Whipped Cream
               Cherry
                                                 R
Ice Cream Sundae Example
     Topic
               Ice Cream Sundae

     Main Idea
            Ingredience in an ice cream sundae

     Details
               Ice cream
               Hot Fudge
               Whipped Cream
               Cherry
                                                 R
Ice Cream Sundae Example
     Topic
               Ice Cream Sundae

     Main Idea
            Ingredience in an ice cream sundae

     Details
               Ice cream
               Hot Fudge
               Whipped Cream
               Cherry
                                                 R
Ice Cream Sundae Example
     Topic
               Ice Cream Sundae

     Main Idea
            Ingredients in an ice cream sundae

     Details
               Ice cream
               Hot Fudge
               Whipped Cream
               Cherry
                                                   R
              Paragraph Example

Ice cream has many delicious ingredients. The
  main ingredient is several scoops of delicious
  ice cream. The ice cream could be vanilla,
  chocolate, rocky road, or chocolate cookie
  dough. Over the ice cream is hot fudge sauce.
  The hot fudge is warm and melts into the ice
  cream. On top is whipped cream and finally a
  cherry. The ice cream sundae is scrumptious
  and fun to eat.
                                                                           R
Lesson 4 IDENTIFYING TOPICS, MAIN IDEAS, AND
                    DETAILS
 Conduct the Learn-by-Watching Activity
  Model finding topics, main ideas, and details in a list.
  Talk out loud about why you chose each answer, and
   how you concluded it was the right answer.
  Model how to check work.

Conduct the Learn-by-Sharing Activity
  Students work with the teacher on the next list.

Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
  Students practice finding topics, main ideas, and          details on
their own.
Mastery
80% of students earn 7/8 points
Learning Sheet 4   R
  Lesson 5 PRACTICE IDENTIFYING DETAILS
       WHEN GIVEN THE MAIN IDEA
Provide rationale for paraphrasing paragraph as a
  good reader
  • Break a long chapter into smaller chunks, then
    work on understanding each chunk.
  • Find topic, main idea and details in the paragraph,
    translate them into their own words and then
    move on to the next paragraph
  • To be a good reader you need to be aware of how
    the parts of the paragraph work together.
                                (Cue Card 11)


Diagram for Parts of a Paragraphs
Lesson 5 PRACTICE IDENTIFYING DETAILS WHEN
              GIVEN THE MAIN IDEA
Conduct the Learn-by-Watching Activity
    Introduce the diagram to identify details.
    Model how to think of details.
    Model how details must relate to main idea in the
   same way.
Conduct the Learn-by-Sharing Activity
    Students work with the teacher on the next activity.
Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
    Students practice with the next two activities on
   their own.
Mastery:
    80% of students earn 5/6 points.
Student Example
  Lesson 6 PRACTICE IDENTIFYING DETAILS IN
               PARAGRAPHS


• Given the topic and main idea, students will
  learn to identify the details related to the
  main idea.
• Question to ask:
  – What information in this paragraph tells me more
    about the main idea?
Lesson 6 PRACTICE IDENTIFYING DETAILS IN PARAGRAPHS

Conduct the Learn-by-Watching Activity
    Model how to identify details in a paragraph.
    Model how to identify details related in the        same
  way to the main idea.
 Conduct the Learn-by-Sharing Activity
    Students work with the teacher finding details in the
   next paragraph.
Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
   Students practice finding details in a paragraph on their
     own.
Mastery
  80% of students earn 3/4 points.
Learning Sheet 6
Student Example
  Lesson 7 PRACTICE IDENTIFYING TOPICS, MAIN
       IDEAS, AND DETAILS IN PARAGRAPHS
• Review how to identify details within a
  paragraph
• Introduce T-M-to D Process
• Identify topics, main ideas and details using 3
  questions:
         Topic: What is this paragraph about?
        Main Idea: What does this paragraph tell me
         about (the topic)?
        Details: What information in this paragraph tells
         me more about the main idea?
             The TM to D Process
1. Find the TOPIC (T)
  Q: What is this paragraph about?
  A: This paragraph is about _________.(in 1 or 2 words)
2. Find the MAIN IDEA (M)
  Q: What does this paragraph tell me about the topic?
  A: It tells me ____________.

3. Find the DETAILS (D)
  Q: What information in this paragraph tells me more
  about the main idea?
                            or
  Q: What’s one piece of information that’s related to the
  main idea?
  A: One detail is _________________.
  A: Another detail is ________________.
                        (Cue Card 12)
   Lesson 7 PRACTICE IDENTIFYING TOPICS, MAIN IDEAS,
              AND DETAILS IN PARAGRAPHS
Conduct the Learn-by-Watching Activity
   Model how to identify the topic, main idea, and details in a
  paragraph using the TM-to-D process.

Conduct the Learn-by-Sharing Activity
   Students work with the teacher finding the topic, main idea,
  and details in the next paragraph using the TM to-D process.
Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
   Students practice finding the topic, main idea, and    details
  in a paragraph on their own using the TM to D process.
Mastery
     80% of students earn 5/6 points.
Learning Sheet 7
Student Example
BREAK TIME
   Lesson 8 PRACTICE PARAPHRASING THE
          MAIN IDEA AND DETAILS
• Identify the topic, main idea and details of a paragraph and
  record on diagram.
• Use the 3 questions to guide the identification of topic, main
  idea and details
           Topic: What is this paragraph about?
           Main Idea: What does this paragraph tell me
             about (the topic)?
           Details: What information in this paragraph tells
             me more about the main idea?
• Paraphrase the main idea and details of a paragraph in their
  own words.
  Lesson 8 PRACTICE PARAPHRASING THE MAIN IDEA
                   AND DETAILS
Conduct the Learn-by-Watching Activity
    Model how to identify the topic, main idea, and details in a paragraph
  using the TM-to-D process on the diagram and how to paraphrase the main
  idea and details.
  Conduct the Learn-by-Sharing Activity
   Students work with the teacher identifying the topic, main         idea,
  and details in a paragraph using the TM-to-D process on the diagram and
  paraphrasing the main idea and details.
Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
    Students identify the topic, main idea, and details in a    paragraph
  using the TM-to-D process on the diagram and paraphrase the main idea and
  details.
Mastery:
    80% of students earn 8/9 points.
Learning Sheet 8
Student Example
Lesson 9 PRACTICE PARAPHRASING MULTIPLE
               PARAGRAPHS
• Identify and paraphrase the topic, main idea,
  and details in a series of paragraphs using the
  TM-to-D process

• Learn by sharing and learn by practicing only
  in this lesson. No Learn by Watching.

                                (pages 55-58)
Lesson 9 PRACTICE PARAPHRASING MULTIPLE PARAGRAPHS


    Conduct the Learn-by-Sharing Activity
       Students work with the teacher identifying and
      paraphrasing the main idea and details for one paragraph.


   Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
       Students identify and paraphrase the main ideas and       details
     for two more paragraphs.
       Students need to complete 9B independently by identifying
       and paraphrasing all 3 paragraphs.
   Mastery
         80% of students need to earn 8/9 points.
Student Example
Learning Sheet 9B
Student Example
   Lesson 10 PRACTICE CREATING TOPICS AND MAIN IDEAS FROM
                            DETAILS


• Main Idea is implied, not stated.
• The question to ask for the main idea is “What
  phrase or statement can I use to summarize or
  group all these details?”
• Once the main idea is found, the question to
  ask is “What word can I use to tell what the
  whole paragraph is about?”
Lesson 10 PRACTICE CREATING TOPICS AND
        MAIN IDEAS FROM DETAILS
  Conduct the Learn-by-Watching Activity
     Model how to identify a main idea and topic using         details
   provided when the main idea is not explicitly stated.
 Conduct the Learn-by-Sharing Activity
     Students work with the teacher identifying a main idea              and
   topic using details provided.
 Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
     With two sets of details, students practice identifying
   main ideas and topics for each set on their own.

 Mastery:
     80% of students earn 4 points.
Learning Sheet 10A -
     Watching
Learning Sheet 10A -
     Practicing
  Lesson 11 PRACTICE IDENTIFYING AND
PARAPHRASING DETAILS, MAIN IDEAS, AND
                TOPICS
• Identify and paraphrase the details, main
  idea, and topic of a paragraph when
  main idea unclear.




                            (pages 63-68)
                      The D-to-MT Process
1. Find the DETAILS (D)
  Q: What are several pieces of related information?
  A: The details are: _______ _______ _______.

2. Think of the MAIN IDEA (M)
   Q: What phrase or statement can I use to summarize or group
   these details?
   A: The paragraph tells me that ________.

3. Think of the TOPIC (T)
  Q:    What is this paragraph about?
  A:    This paragraph is about _________.
   (in one or two words)
Lesson 11 PRACTICE IDENTIFYING AND PARAPHRASING
          DETAILS, MAIN IDEAS, AND TOPICS

 Conduct the Learn-by-Watching Activity
      Model how to identify the details, main idea, and topic in a
   paragraph using the D-to-MT process.

Conduct the Learn-by-Sharing Activity
     Students work with the teacher finding the details, main idea, and
   topic in the next paragraph using the D-to-MT process.

 Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
      Students practice finding the details, main idea, and topic in a
   paragraph on their own using the D-to-MT process.
Learning Sheet 11
              Lesson 12
PRACTICE PARAPHRASING PASSAGES WHEN
      MAIN IDEAS ARE NOT CLEAR

• Identify and paraphrase the topic, main idea,
  and details in a series of paragraphs using the
  D-to-MT process

                               (pages 69-71)
                   Lesson 12
PRACTICE PARAPHRASING PASSAGES WHEN MAIN IDEAS
                ARE NOT CLEAR

    Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
        Students identify the details and main idea
      on their own and then write paraphrases for
      the three paragraphs.
Learning Sheet 12
  Lesson 13 PRACTICE PARAPHRASING

• Identify and paraphrase the topic, main idea,
  and details in a series of paragraphs using the
  TM-to-D AND the D-to-MT processes flexibly

                               (pages 72-74)
      Lesson 13 PRACTICE PARAPHRASING

Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
   Using the TM-to-D and the D-to-MT
  processes when needed, students write
 paraphrases for three paragraphs.
Learning Sheet 13
                Lesson 14

• Use the TM-to-D and D-to-MT processes
  flexibly when taking standardized reading
  comprehension tests

                              (pages 75-78)
 Lesson 14 Generalizing to Standardized Tests
Conduct the Learn-by-Watching Activity
    Model how to mark questions as either main-idea or detail questions and
 model how to read the first paragraph using the TM-to-D or the D-to-MT
 processes or other strategies that students might know.

 Conduct the Learn-by-Sharing Activity
     Using the TM-to-D and the D-to-MT processes, students read the next
 two paragraphs and answer questions with the teacher.
  Conduct the Learn-by-Practicing Activity
    Using the TM-to-D and the D-to-MT processes, students read a reading
 passage, mark questions as main-idea or detail questions, and answer questions.
Learning Sheet 14
                                                                           M
                                Posttest
Have students find and paraphrase the main idea and details of a reading
passage using:
      The Posttest Passage from the manual
      (p. 114 in the Student Materials Volume)
                                  OR

      A reading passage containing about 400 words written at the
       student’s grade level
                                  PLUS

     • The Paraphrasing Sheet (p. 105)
               M

Questions???
                                       M




So now what do I do in my own classroom?

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:2
posted:3/21/2012
language:
pages:95