Specify 5 by linxiaoqin

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									Specify 5.2 Help
                                                      Table Of Contents
Specify 5.2 Help ................................................................................................................. 1
   Introduction to Specify ............................................................................................................................ 1
      Welcome to Specify!............................................................................................................................. 1
      What is Specify? ................................................................................................................................... 2
      What's New in Specify 5.2 .................................................................................................................... 3
      Becoming a Registered User ................................................................................................................. 5
      Contacting the Specify Software Project .............................................................................................. 6
   Starting Specify ........................................................................................................................................ 7
   Setting Up Your Specify Database ........................................................................................................11
      Setup Overview ....................................................................................................................................11
      Localization Overview .........................................................................................................................11
      Collection Definitions ..........................................................................................................................11
      Catalog Series ......................................................................................................................................11
      Biological Object Types ......................................................................................................................12
      Catalog Numbers .................................................................................................................................12
      Setting Specify Preferences .................................................................................................................13
      Preferences ...........................................................................................................................................14
   Security ....................................................................................................................................................22
      Overview..............................................................................................................................................22
      Strong Password Checklist...................................................................................................................24
      Summary of Security Levels ................................................................................................................25
      Setting Up User Accounts ....................................................................................................................27
      Security Procedures .............................................................................................................................28
   Maintenance and Utilities ......................................................................................................................43
      Database Utilities .................................................................................................................................43
      Attaching a Database ...........................................................................................................................45
      Attaching a Blank or Fishdemo Database ............................................................................................47
      Backing Up a Database ........................................................................................................................51
      Backup Schedules ................................................................................................................................53
      Detaching a Database ...........................................................................................................................55
      Restoring a Database............................................................................................................................58
      Removing Duplicate Records ..............................................................................................................59
      Unused Record Removal .....................................................................................................................60
      Using the Web Search Log ..................................................................................................................63
   Navigation in Specify ..............................................................................................................................65
      Viewing Collection Data ......................................................................................................................65
      Creating and Saving a Search ..............................................................................................................70
      Entering Data .......................................................................................................................................72
      Navigation Panel ..................................................................................................................................75
      Windows and Views ............................................................................................................................85
      Menus ..................................................................................................................................................95
   Data Entry .............................................................................................................................................104
      Overview............................................................................................................................................104
      How Editing Affects Related Records ...............................................................................................106
      Entering Background Data .................................................................................................................107
      Data Entry Outline .............................................................................................................................108
      General Data Entry Procedures ..........................................................................................................109
      Collection Objects ..............................................................................................................................119
      Agents ................................................................................................................................................126
      Localities ............................................................................................................................................133
      Batch Editing and Series Processing ..................................................................................................138
   Transactions ..........................................................................................................................................148
      Overview............................................................................................................................................148


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        Entering a Loan ..................................................................................................................................149
        Returning a Loan................................................................................................................................155
        Entering a Gift ...................................................................................................................................159
        Entering a Borrowed Object ..............................................................................................................161
        Enter an Accession Record ................................................................................................................163
        Entering a Deaccession ......................................................................................................................165
        Entering a Permit ...............................................................................................................................167
        Entering a Shipment ...........................................................................................................................168
      Taxon Data Management .....................................................................................................................169
        About Taxon Authority Files .............................................................................................................169
        Managing Specify Taxa .....................................................................................................................170
        The TaxonName Form .......................................................................................................................172
        The Taxon Tree ..................................................................................................................................176
      Searching Data ......................................................................................................................................202
        Conventional Field Searches ..............................................................................................................202
        Displaying Unique Results Only........................................................................................................203
        Default Searches ................................................................................................................................204
        The Search Tree .................................................................................................................................205
        Search Tree Icons ...............................................................................................................................207
        Conventional Field Search Procedures ..............................................................................................208
        Operators............................................................................................................................................221
        Conventional Field Search Examples ................................................................................................225
        Express Searches ................................................................................................................................235
      Reports...................................................................................................................................................256
        Overview............................................................................................................................................256
        Two Kinds of Reports ........................................................................................................................258
        Creating a Report Using the Rave Wizard .........................................................................................260
        Renaming Your Report ......................................................................................................................269
        Creating a Simplified Search Report..................................................................................................271
        Printing a Report from the Navigation Panel .....................................................................................275
        Printing a Report from the Results Window ......................................................................................279
      Forms .....................................................................................................................................................281
        Customizing Your Specify Forms ......................................................................................................281
        Opening the Form Customizer ...........................................................................................................284
        Forms Manager Window ...................................................................................................................286
        Creating Form Sets ............................................................................................................................288
        Form Operations ................................................................................................................................292
        Customizing Fields ............................................................................................................................301
        Embedded fields and subforms ..........................................................................................................321
        Formatting ..........................................................................................................................................333
        Customizing the Related Records Submenu ......................................................................................362
      Appendix................................................................................................................................................365
        Keyboard Shortcuts ............................................................................................................................365
        Specify Logical Data Model ..............................................................................................................367
        Data Model — People ........................................................................................................................369
        Data Model — Places ........................................................................................................................370
        Data Model — Things .......................................................................................................................371
        Form Elements ...................................................................................................................................372
        Troubleshooting .................................................................................................................................379
        Copyright and End User License Agreement .....................................................................................381
        Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................................385
Glossary ......................................................................................................................... 387




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Specify 5.2 Help
Introduction to Specify
Welcome to Specify!
We are so glad you are taking a peek at our newly revised Specify 5.2 help document. Whether
you are new to Specify, or are a tempered Specify veteran looking for specific answers, here are
some helpful tips.
     We offer free and friendly support to help you get started and unlimited assistance as a
      registered collection. We invite you to call or email anytime about using Specify with your
      collections data, Specify Staff is eager to provide assistance.
     You have already discovered this help document, which you can search or browse as part of
      the online Windows help. You may find it useful, particularly if evaluating Specify for the first
      time, to print out this help document and inspect the examples and properties of Specify that
      way. We have put an appropriately formatted version of this help document on the Specify
      Project web site. On paper, the manual is about 400 pages long, print a double-sided copy if
      you can!
     With the release of Specify 5.2, we have expanded the coverage of user help and the
      number of the animated tutorials that introduce Specify features and commonly used Specify
      functions. Links to the tutorial movies can be found on the Specify Project website.
     The Specify 5.2 installation package includes a demonstration database “Fishdemo” and a
      blank database for starting a new specimen database. If you install Fishdemo, you can
      experiment with it to test menu items and functions. The help document also uses Fishdemo
      to illustrate Specify concepts.
     A final tip, if you find that using a mouse is not as efficient as keeping your fingers on the
      keys, check out our Keyboard Shortcuts page for key stroking your way around Specify.
      Refer to Keyboard Shortcuts.


Specify Software Project
Biodiversity Research Center
University of Kansas
1345 Jayhawk Blvd.
Lawrence, KS 66045-7561, USA
Phone: +1 (785) 864-4400, 8 AM–5 PM
U.S. Central Time (UTC/GMT-6), Monday–Friday, or
Leave a message any time and we will return your call.
Fax: +1 (785) 864-5335
Email: specify@ku.edu
Web: www.specifysoftware.org




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Specify 5.2 Help



 What is Specify?
 Software
 Specify is a database software application designed to support the efficient computerization and
 management of biological collections and the mobilization of specimen information onto the Internet
 for research and education. Specify is distributed and licensed with no charge for non-profit
 collections by the Specify Software Project, based in the Biodiversity Research Center at the
 University of Kansas, Lawrence. The Specify Software Project and its predecessor, the MUSE
 Project, have been supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation since 1987. The Specify
 Software Project web site is located at http://www.specifysoftware.org.
 Specify lets you easily store, organize, and retrieve information about the holdings of a collection,
 and it runs on inexpensive personal computers under Microsoft Windows. Specify was designed to
 the specifications of the collection community data model; installations can be configured with
 multiple taxonomic collections as separate databases, or data can be managed together as a
 single, multi-disciplinary database. Specify’s design and functions support botany, entomology,
 herpetology, ichthyology, invertebrate zoology, mammalogy, ornithology, paleobotany, and
 vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology.
 Services and Support
 The Specify Software Project provides valuable help desk and data management services for
 collections. Specify has a highly customizable, forms-based, interface and a powerful custom report
 designer for labels and other types of printed output. Specify Project staff is available to assist with
 initial setup of the Specify forms interface and with the customization of reports. The Project also
 maintains a staffed help desk, accessible by phone and by email. We track and respond to every
 support issue.
 Technology
 Major new releases are usually issued once a year; incremental updates are released as needed.
 Our software development process is strongly driven by user requirements and we invest
 significantly in user interviews, requirements gathering, and software testing. In addition to meeting
 the management needs of collections staff and curators, we also innovate, to keep up with evolving
 network protocols and services, to bring Specify institutions into more powerful modes of research
 data communication and computation. Specify 5.2 is written in Delphi, an object-oriented version of
 Pascal. The next major release, Specify 6, scheduled for late 2007, will be coded in Java and
 wholly re-designed with a new user interface and a modular, pluggable component architecture for
 Windows, Mac OS, and Linux.
 Mission
 The mission of the Specify Software Project is to advance biological collections computing,
 communication, and collaboration through software and services for museums and herbaria. The
 cyberinfrastructure for scientific computing will continue to evolve and become more powerful and
 more inclusive as research methods increasingly rely on data integration and network-based
 interaction. The Specify Software Project will co-create that cyberinfrastructure for biological
 collections to help researchers leverage more than 300 years of inventory and documentation of
 the diversity life on earth.
 The value of an institution’s investment in its collections extends far beyond the original objectives
 of vouchering, identification, and classification. The immense added value of high-quality,
 authoritative, vouchered, museum data will be fully realized when specimen information can be
 integrated and analyzed with other types of environmental information. By supporting the daily
 management needs of curators and collection managers, Specify provides a stable, supported
 software foundation for engaging species identity and occurrence data in research applications that
 address the needs of the science and society.




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What's New in Specify 5.2
This page introduces you to new features in Specify as well as enhancements to existing features.
For Specify 5.2 we focused our development efforts on usability enhancements to make Specify
easier to use and more efficient.


For Specify 5.2 Update Release


New Features

  1. The Alexandria Digital Library Link - The Alexandria Digital Library Link is no longer
     available. This link had been available previously in the Localities records.
  2. Field Behavior Customization on Data Entry Forms - Many users have encountered
     situations where additional data fields were needed with a small or limited set of possible
     values, for use as ‘pick lists’. Drop-down pick list fields help maintain data quality, by
     constraining the allowable content of data fields to preferred values, spellings and formatting.
     Although we provide several drop-down pick list fields by default, we have responded to
     requests for more by making any text field customizable into a pick list. Specify Administrator
     users can make this change to fields and they can also add new list values by simple editing.
  3. Removing Unused Records For various reasons - Specify databases can accumulate data
     records which go unused and are not needed. Isolated records with no links to them from any
     other records in the database can cause unnecessary performance and management
     overhead. A new Specify function, “Remove Unused Records” finds all of the unused,
     orphaned records in a selected data table and expunges them.
  4. Loans and Batch Identification - A search button has been added to the Loan Add Items
     and Batch Identification dialogues for finding and adding catalog numbers to loan transactions
     and to batch identification tasks. This feature takes advantage of the search function and
     eliminates the need to add record numbers, one at a time, to loans and batch processes.
  5. DiGIR Support - Support for multiple DiGIR schemas including various Darwin Core versions
     is now accommodated through the Specify DiGIR interface. DC extensions for Paleontology,
     DiGIR 1.2, 1.21 and OBIS can be added. Also, Specify's DiGIR interface is now supported on
     IIS or Apache. We offer a turnkey installation package that installs Apache and PHP.
  6. Re-engineered Web Server Interface - Specify's re-engineered web interface uses Java
     Server Pages, Java Bean and Cascading Style Sheet technologies to enable numerous new
     web access features. Performance is a key enhancement; the Specify 5.2 web interface takes
     advantage of Specify's indexed Express Search capabilities to produces result sets quickly.
     Specify 5.2's new web interface incorporates several, often-requested features, including
     support for image files. If you have a web or file URL value in your Specify database for an
     image link, the image will be displayed as a thumbnail or icon (your preference) on the web
     query results page. Web users can Click on the thumbnail or icon and bring up the full-sized
     image. Specify web sites can also display URL links to external web sources with information
     related to the record (e.g. to FishBase or Genbank), or any other multimedia file (e.g. video,
     sounds) stored on your database computer. All "http://" references in your data records
     display in the web query result pages as active URL links. Under the control of CSS
     (Cascading Style Sheets) the style of your Specify web pages can be customized for a large
     number of attributes, and they can be designed to match your institutional web site's look and
     feel. Also, the Google-like Specify Express Search query box may be placed on any web
     page on your collection's web site, not just on the default Specify query page. Web users of
     your database also benefit from our customizable web architecture. They can change display
     parameters for viewing the results of searches, including such things as font size and the
     number of data records displayed on a single web page. Sorting web data tables resulting
     from queries by column takes just a mouse click on the column name header. Also, multiple
     columns for taxonomic and geographic data values smartly sort with sort orders cascading
     from the most inclusive to the least inclusive column. For example, if a web user sorts a query



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         result table on family names, generic names automatically sort alphabetically within families
         and likewise species epithets within genera. Finally, site administrators also benefit from
         Specify 5.2's re-engineered web interface. To track internet usage of your collection's data,
         the new Specify web interface implements a web page to summarize and analyze your web
         activity logs. Web usage statistics can be obtained for the entire duration of your logging
         period or through custom searches of specific time periods of the logs. Summary usage tables
         highlight frequent search terms and frequent web users. This new capability will be useful for
         administrators and collections managers for analyzing activity and trends of collection data
         queries, views and downloads.

 Enhancements

     1. DiGIR Darwin Core (DwC) Mapping - Sites can now place Microsoft Access files containing
        query and text file Darwin Core mappings in the directory containing Specify.exe. Specify
        looks for these files in its directory, and if it finds them, skips the previously required download
        step and imports the local files.
     2. URL Fields Easily Filled – If a URL field is empty, users can now choose a file from a
        Windows file browser window by first clicking the corresponding ellipsis in a Specify URL data
        field.
     3. Verification of Batch Identification - Taxonomic ‘Batch Identification’ of collection objects
        has been enhanced by the addition of a Completion Notification and by resetting the batch
        form to confirm that the operation was successful.
     4. Search Button Views - By request, users now have the option to go directly to the “Custom”
        instead of “Browse” view after a search by utilizing search button dropdown options.
        Otherwise clicking the Search button displays results in the last data view selected. Finding
        and Viewing Saved Searches - In conventional field-based search, when using an existing
        search specification, a user now has the option to set the saved searches displayed to only
        those she owns, as opposed to seeing all saved searches by other users.
     5. Loan Collection Objects Sorted - Specimens or lots are now automatically sorted in a loan
        by catalog number. Form Set Preference Saved for Each User - The form set being used by a
        particular user is stored with the user’s preferences in the Specify database. This means that
        when a user logs in he/she sees their customized forms automatically.
     6. Viewing and Hiding the Search Tree - Turning the Search Tree off and on for creating a
        conventional search is now easier, thanks to a new menu option. Also a user can click and
        drag down the upper border of the search criteria window to reveal the Search Tree.
     7. Captions Clarified – We’ve made numerous incremental improvements to captions to reduce
        ambiguity and improve interaction design. For example, the title bar changes from "Searches"
        to "Choose a Search to Delete" when invoking the Delete Search option, and “Enter Return
        Quantity” appears instead of “Return Quantity” to make the next step clearer.
     8. Messages Enhanced – For example when there is a missing display field required for the
        Batch Editing process to work, a message indicates which field needs to be added.

 Summing Up
 We are enthusiastic about the improvements in Specify 5.2 and we’re eager for you to take Specify
 through its paces. Let us know what you like and what you don’t. We appreciate having your
 feedback to inform requirements for future releases. We look forward to supporting museums and
 herbaria even more effectively in the future, to position them as stakeholders and co-creators of the
 evolving cyberinfrastructure for environmental biology.




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Becoming a Registered User
Anyone may download, install, and operate Specify without a fee after agreeing to the End User
License Agreement presented during the installation process. The Specify Software Project
provides software support and data management services for nonprofit, research institutions that
choose Specify for their primary production system. Specify was designed for institutional collection
databases and is supported for that use only.
The Specify Software Project recognizes two classes of users: evaluation users and registered
users.
Evaluation users may
      Install unlimited copies of Specify.
      Use the technical documents and support features of the Specify Project web site:
       www.specifysoftware.org
      Obtain limited assistance from the Specify Software Project in customizing data entry forms
       and report formats, for the purposes of evaluating Specify for use as their primary
       departmental or institutional collection database system.
      Obtain limited data migration services, technical support, and training for evaluation
       purposes.
Registered users are entitled to:
      Data migration assistance. The Specify Project team will migrate your existing collection
       data to Specify at no charge.
      Help Desk support. We respond to every request for assistance or information.
      Interface customization. We will customize Specify's data entry forms for a registered
       institution's exact needs.
      Report and label customization. We will create custom report templates for labels, loan
       invoices, and other collection data output formats at no charge.
      Training. The Specify Software Project team will customize training to meet your needs.
      Taxonomic authority file creation. We will convert your existing taxon data records so that
       you can use them as a controlled source of names for cataloging.
      Assist with configuring the Specify web server interface and DiGIR Provider server
       configuration.
To obtain assistance with customization or data migration as an evaluation user, call (785) 864-
4400, 9 AM to 5 PM, U.S. central time.
Why Register?
To ensure effective use of project resources, we ask institutions that use Specify as their primary
collections database management system to register with us. Registration is free, and it qualifies
your department or institution for a level of technical support services not available to evaluation
users. Registering Specify also allows us to document Specify usage, which helps to secure grant
support. On the registration form we ask for basic information about your collection and the data
you plan to manage in Specify.
How to Register
Once you have installed Specify, registration forms can be found in the Specify program installation
directory. There you will find two versions of registration form: registration.doc and registration.txt.
After you fill one out, mail or fax the registration form back to us, and then we can help you with
form customization, search templates, report customization, and general problem solving.




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 Contacting the Specify Software Project
 The Specify Software Project
 Biodiversity Research Center
 The University of Kansas
 1345 Jayhawk Blvd.
 Lawrence, KS 66045-7561
 USA


 Phone: (785) 864-4400, 8 – 5 p.m. (UTC/GMT-6), Monday–Friday, or leave a message at any time.
 Fax: (785) 864-5335
 Email: specify@ku.edu
 Website: www.specifysoftware.org




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Starting Specify
This section and the Setting Up Your Specify Database section of this guide will give you an
overview of the considerations and the steps required when installing and setting up Specify. For
complete instructions on installing and setting up Specify, please refer to the Specify 5.2 Installation
and Setup Guide.
After Installation, there are three scenarios for beginning to use Specify:
1. Attach the demonstration database (see Attach a Blank Database and replace Blank Database
   with fishdemo in the instructions) and begin testing.
2. Attach the Blank database (see Attach a Blank Database), set up and customize Specify as
   described in the Installation Manual, and begin entering your specimen and transaction data
   from your legacy system one field at a time. We ask that you register your collection with the
   Specify Software Project. To see how to register, please refer to Becoming a Registered User.
3. Attach a database containing your existing data which has been migrated into the Specify
   format. Once you have evaluated Specify and have committed to using it to manage your
   collections, we ask that you register your collection with the Specify Software Project - see
   Becoming a Registered User. If your registration is accepted, our staff will convert any existing
   computerized data into Specify and return it to you. No automated import function is included in
   Specify 5.2.

To start the Specify application:
1. Choose Start > All Programs>Specify>Specify.




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     The Specify login screen appears. The Server and Database fields are already filled in.




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2. Make sure the server name is correct, then, if necessary, select a different database from the
   drop-down menu.

    If the server name is not correct, enter the desired server name, database name, user name
    and password for an existing database. If you suspect that no database has been attached yet,
    refer to Attaching a Database.
3. Enter a user name and password for the database you chose in step 2.
4. Click OK. If you are logging into a database that you have just attached, Specify will take a few
   seconds, or a few minutes depending on the size of the database, to update. Click OK in each
   of the following dialog boxes.




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5. Click the OK button to continue.




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Setting Up Your Specify Database

Setup Overview
Because Specify is a versatile application, the range of options may at first seem bewildering. The
topics in this section provide a no-frills, process-oriented discussion of how to set up Specify.
This guide will give you an overview of the considerations and the steps required when installing
and setting up Specify. For instructions on installing and setting up Specify, please refer to the
Specify 5.2 Installation and Setup Guide.
After you have installed Specify and started it for the first time, you'll need to set up Specify for your
own collection. The process for setting up Specify includes the following tasks:
   Creating a collection definition
   Importing a taxon database
   Customizing Specify forms
   Creating user accounts
   Setting Specify preferences
   Setting up Specify report definitions
See also: Starting Specify


Localization Overview
Localization of a software application, also known as internationalization, means translating its text
elements from the original language of the application to a target language and incorporating the
translated text into the application's source code files. In the case of Specify, localization involves
translating some or all of the user interface elements that contain English text into any target
language that uses the Roman alphabet. (Specify cannot currently be localized for a non-Roman
alphabet). The Specify Software Project team offers some assistance in the localization of Specify.


Collection Definitions
Before you can enter data into a new Specify database file, you must create a collection definition.
Each database file can have only one collection definition.
A collection definition describes the types of biological objects contained in the database and the
scheme used to catalog the objects. The taxonomies used in the database are also defined, as well
as associations between biological object types and taxonomies. In addition, fields are provided for
information identifying the collection, such as the collection name and a prefix that can be included
with catalog numbers in reports. The prefix is usually an abbreviation for a collection or institution.
Finally, detailed address and contact information for your institution can be specified. For more
information, refer to Creating a Collection Definition.


Catalog Series
Each collection definition can contain one or more series of catalog numbers. A catalog series is a
subgrouping of specimens in the collection. You can use a catalog series to group specimens
according to taxonomy type, physical location, or any other criterion.
Each specimen you enter into your Specify collection is associated with a catalog series. The
default catalog series is MAIN. Many collections simply place all collection objects into MAIN and




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 ignore the option of using multiple catalog series. To learn how to create an additional catalog
 series, refer to Adding an Additional Catalog Series.


 Biological Object Types
 Each catalog series is associated with one or more biological object types. A biological object type
 is a taxonomic type (fish, reptile, mammal, plant, etc.) associated with a catalog series.
 Specify supports natural history collections from several disciplines, and each discipline has
 different requirements for storing information. Specify, therefore, includes a different set of data
 forms for each biological object type. When you create a collection, you tell Specify which set of
 data forms to use for collection data.
 When you create a collection definition, Specify performs the following tasks:
 Creates a collection definition with the name and abbreviation you assign.
 Creates the MAIN catalog series.
 Associates any biological object types you choose in the list (fish, reptile, plant, etc.) with the
   MAIN catalog series.
 For step-by-step instructions on creating a collection definition, see Creating a Collection Definition.
 After you create a collection definition, you can modify that definition (see Modifying a Collection's
 Properties). You can change the collection name or collection abbreviation, add a catalog series, or
 associate additional biological types with a catalog series. You cannot delete a collection definition
 if you have collection records entered into your database. However, if you have not yet entered any
 collection records, you can delete the collection definition and start over.


 Catalog Numbers
 Specify serves several collection disciplines, each with its own practices and traditions. Some of
 the concepts that underlie Specify will be familiar to some collections and unfamiliar to others. The
 customizable Specify interface lets you tailor the data forms to closely match the practices of your
 institution. However, a few basic concepts deserve mention.
 Specify requires a unique catalog number for each specimen. It does not matter what catalog
 number you use for a specimen as long as the number is unique for the catalog series. For more
 information, see Choosing a Collection Configuration.
 Many museums routinely assign catalog numbers to incoming specimens. Those institutions can
 simply enter catalog numbers determined through the museum's accepted cataloging practices.
 Some institutions do not use catalog numbers. Many herbaria, for example, have never maintained
 a printed catalog. Those institutions may question the need to assign each specimen a catalog
 number in Specify. But nothing in the Specify environment requires changes to your existing
 methods for organizing and storing specimens. For example, you can still store sheets by genus
 and species in phylogenetic or alphabetical order if that is your established procedure.
 If you do not use catalog numbers and do not want to assign a number just for Specify, you can
 configure Specify to automatically assign a catalog number to each new specimen and then ignore
 the numbers for all practical purposes.
 You may also wish to use bar codes. If you cannot arrange for your catalog number and bar codes
 to directly correlate, an option in Specify called Number Catalog Lookup is available to link them.
 To use Number Catalog Lookup to scan your bar codes for easy data entry on loans, please
 contact the Specify staff.




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Setting Specify Preferences
Specify includes preference options that apply to each Specify user rather than to the program
itself. Preferences are stored with the account information (user name and password) that you
enter when you log in to a Specify database.
To view user preferences, choose Tools > User Preferences from the Specify menu bar:




Each secondary menu command is described in the table below.


Choose Focus Color           Lets you modify the color used to highlight subforms
                             when editing records.
Choose Language              Lets you choose the language that Specify will use in
                             its menus, window title bars, dialog boxes, and so forth.
Choose Form Sets             Lets you choose a group of standard data entry forms
                             that have been simplified for speed and ease of use.
Setup Statistics             Lets you designate whether and how long statistics are
                             displayed as you exit Specify. For more information,
                             refer to Setting the Database Statistics Page.
Set Field                    Lets you choose how dates, latitudes, longitudes, and
Masks/Series                 numeric series are displayed.




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 Preferences
 Setting the Date Format
 The default date mask is automatically applied to default formats, and for the date query controls,
 and for time stamp fields and on statistics displays and anyplace else a date needs to be displayed.
 However, the mask does not overwrite user-customized date masks on forms unless you click Yes
 in step 5 below.

 To set the date format for your forms:
1. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > User Preferences > Set Field Masks/Series.
2. The Preferences/Field Masks dialog box appears.




3. From the Dates Default Mask list select the arrangement you want to use.
4. Click Save. Users with Manager or Administrator security level are prompted to apply (or not
   apply) the selected formats to all their forms.




5. Click Yes to overwrite current date masks in forms with the default date mask, or click No to
   leave them unchanged.




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                                                                                     Specify 5.2 Help


Setting the Latitude and Longitude Format

To set the latitude and longitude format for your forms:
1. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > User Preferences > Set Field Masks/Series.
2. The Preferences/Field Masks dialog box appears.




3. From the Lat/Long Default Mask list select the arrangement you want to use.
4. Click Save. Users with Manager or Administrator security level are prompted to apply (or not
   apply) the selected formats to all their forms.




5. Click Yes.
Setting the Numeric Series Format

To set the numeric series format for your forms:
1. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > User Preferences > Set Field Masks/Series.




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Specify 5.2 Help


2. The Preferences/Field Masks dialog box appears.




3. From the Numeric Series list select the arrangement you want to use.
4. Click Save.
 Setting the Focus Color Preference
 The focus color is used to highlight various sections of a form when you are in data entry or edit
 mode. The default focus color is black.




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                                                                                    Specify 5.2 Help


To select a focus color for your data forms:
1. Choose Tools > User Preferences > Choose Focus Color.




2. The Preferences/Focus Color dialog box is displayed.




3. Click the color you want to use as the focus color for data forms.
4. Click Save.
Setting the Internet Preference
This page shows you how to change the link that Specify uses for its ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic
Information System) Internet connection. See Linking to ITIS for Taxonomic Data.




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 To set the internet preference:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > External Link Settings.




2. The Internet Preference dialog box appears.




3. Change the ITIS server link if necessary. If you need to restore the original link, click the Default
   Servers button.




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                                                                                      Specify 5.2 Help


4. If you want to use Specify's simple built-in browser instead of your computer's default browser,
   click the Use Specify Browser option.
5. Click Save to store your changes and dismiss the dialog box.
Setting Automatic Assignment of Catalog Numbers
You'll use the auto-assign option to create catalog numbers when your collection does not have its
own set of catalog numbers for specimens. Although Specify requires these numbers, after you
switch on the option, you can disregard the catalog numbers.
Your security level determines whether the Automatically Assign Catalog Numbers feature is
available. Only Administrator, Manager, and Full Access users can use this feature. In addition,
Automatically Assign Catalog Numbers cannot be activated if series processing is selected.

To switch on automatic assignment of catalog numbers:
1. From the Specify menu bar, choose View > Auto-Assign Catalog Numbers.




2. The Auto-Assign Catalog Numbers menu item should now have a check mark next to it.


Setting the Database Statistics Page
Specify can display your collection's statistics in abbreviated or expanded forms:
   A summary that appears under the Statistics heading in the navigation panel.
   A comprehensive list that can be displayed as you exit Specify or when you click the word
    Statistics in the navigation panel:




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Specify 5.2 Help




 You can customize whether and how long the Database Statistics dialog box appears as you exit
 Specify.
 Note: Some statistics can appear to be incorrect if there have been some modifications from the
 standard way that information is stored.

 For example, the Type Status field is used to calculate the Type specimens. It counts all
 specimens that do not have the value of <No data>. The statistical calculation will not be valid for
 your database if you use another phrase for <No data> or if you are using another field to track
 your type specimen. If you have any questions about a statistical calculation, please contact the
 Specify helpdesk.




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                                                                                       Specify 5.2 Help


To customize the display of statistics for your collection:
1. Choose Tools > User Preferences >Setup Statistics.




2. The Preferences dialog box appears.




3. To cause the Database Statistics dialog box to be displayed at the end of a Specify session,
    check the Show box, then do one of the following:
    To display the Database Statistics dialog box for a certain time when Specify exits and then
       have the Statistics box close itself automatically, type a positive integer in the "for __
       seconds" box.
    To keep the Statistics box open and ask the user close the Database Statistics dialog box
       when he or she is ready, type a negative number in the "for __ seconds" box.
    To prevent the Database Statistics dialog box from being displayed when Specify exits, type
       0 in the "for __ seconds" box. This has the same effect as clearing the Show box.
3. Click Save.
 Additional Features
 To refresh the Statistics subheadings in the navigation panel, click the Update Statistics button.
 To display the Database Statistics dialog box, click the View Expanded Statistics button.



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Specify 5.2 Help




 Security

 Overview
 This page is an overview of Specify's security features, which are designed to augment, not
 replace, your organization's overall security system. Consult your local IT staff to learn more about
 how to integrate Specify security into your organization's security infrastructure.
 Specify provides role-based access control. In Specify roles are called security levels. An
 administrator has five security levels (or roles) to choose from when determining the access control
 granted to a user account.
 Security Levels
 Each Specify user is assigned to one of the following security levels:
 Guest—Guest users have the ability to view any unrestricted information because Specify 5.2
    includes a field called Group Permitted to View.
 Limited Access User—Limited Access users have all the privileges of Guest users plus the right
    to import taxonomic data; view, add, delete, or modify queries; and view, add, delete, or modify
    reports.
 Full Access User—Full Access users have all privileges of Limited Access users plus the right
    to synonymize and desynonymize taxa.
 Manager—Managers have all the privileges of Full Access users plus the right to modify forms.
 Administrator—Administrators have all the privileges of Managers plus the rights to add, delete,
    and modify users.
 For a more complete description of Specify security levels, see "Summary of Security Levels.”
 Authentication Methods
 Specify supports two authentication methods, one for each method of creating a Specify user
 account:
 Specify Authentication—the user account is created and managed through Specify and SQL
    Server. The user accesses Specify by entering a username and password for the Specify
    account at the Specify logon screen. See “Add a New User Account” for more on creating a
    user account through Specify.
 Windows Authentication—the user is authenticated through the Windows security system. This
    option is only available to Specify installations that use SQL Server. The SQL Server database
    is pre-configured to allow a Windows user to access the Specify data without providing
    additional user information to Specify. See "Configuring Windows Authentication” for more on
    the Windows Authentication option in Specify.
 Pros and Cons
 The Specify Authentication option provides a second level of password security. If an unauthorized
 user gains access to a Windows account, he or she still will not be able to access Specify unless
 the user provides the second Specify user name and password. On the other hand, the Windows
 Authentication option simplifies the logon process and provides better integration with the Windows
 security framework.
 Specify Authentication is the default method. If you wish to use Windows Authentication, you must
 pre-configure SQL Server to accept authentication from the user. Once the user account is pre-
 configured for Windows Authentication to Specify, the user can log on by checking the box in the
 Specify logon screen labeled “Use Windows Authentication” and clicking OK. It is not necessary to
 provide a Specify user name and password with Windows Authentication. See “Configuring
 Windows Authentication” for more on the Windows Authentication option.
 Managing Specify Accounts



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                                                                                         Specify 5.2 Help


Users with Administrator-level access in Specify can add, modify, and delete Specify user accounts.
For more on managing Specify accounts, see:
Add a New User Account
Remove a User Account
Change a Password or Security Level
After you've finished setting up your Specify database, it is a good idea to create original names
and passwords for any Specify administrators and delete the default account,
admin_databasename, which ships with Specify.
Individual accounts should be set up for each individual user. If anyone runs more than one session
of Specify at a time, it is generally safer to have a unique user account for each session. Don't log
on to two concurrent Specify sessions using the same user account. This rule is especially
important if you are deleting records.
Limiting Access to Specify Features
You can use Specify's security levels to limit access to data fields, data records, or imported data
once the user is logged in. For more on limiting access to these Specify features, refer to:
Setting Security for Data fields
Setting Security for Data records
You cannot limit access to express search results.
Important: Express searching cannot filter out users who have been disallowed from viewing the
results of certain kinds of conventional searches (via the Group Permitted to View field). That is, if a
guest user runs an express search, whatever data was included in the search index table will be
visible in the express search results.
General Security Precautions
If you will be using Internet Information Services (IIS) to host searches of your Specify data, refer to
IIS Security or Apache Security to review the recommended security procedures for your web
server.
 Consult your local IT staff concerning security practices for your organization. Your overall security
 framework should address concerns such as:
 Physical access—Many experts believe the most critical level of security is regulating who has
    physical access to the computer you wish to protect. Anyone who has direct access to the
    computer with SQL Server has direct access to your data. As a precaution, the computer where
    SQL Server is actually installed should only be accessed by administrators or trusted users.
 Network access—Intruders have many techniques for extending their reach and expanding their
    access permissions once they gain a foothold on the network. Specify security will be of little
    use if the user attains Administrator-level access to the underlying Windows system. Ask your
    professional IT staff to help you design a system that will be safe from Internet intrusion. One
    precaution is to make sure that you have no Specify .mdf files or backup files that are
    accessible to the local network.
 Password policies—Good passwords are much harder to guess. Make sure your users are
    using good passwords. For more on password policies, see "Strong Password Checklist." The
    password is controlled through SQL Server. It is important to allow only trusted users to access
    your data due to the ability to reset passwords through the process of Attaching databases.
The need for strong security is one of the reasons Windows XP and Windows 2000 are the
recommended platforms for institutional uses of Specify.
Because Specify users must track and access databases, all Specify users should be members of
the Windows Power User group or higher.




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Specify 5.2 Help



 Strong Password Checklist
 A strong (or secure) password is one that cannot be easily guessed by persons seeking
 unauthorized access to your computer's information.
 A common practice for creating a secure password is to choose two unrelated words and connect
 them with a non-alphabetic character -- for example, Fred&Argon or Ocean!Ozone. Another
 possibility is to use words with digits or symbols randomly distributed within the words, such as
 Me3ow%Mi7x or Sev7en8Knight9s.
 Make sure that you can answer yes to the following questions:
     Are the alpha characters in your password a mixture of uppercase and lowercase?
     Are the alpha characters all different (no AA or bb or AbAb)?
     Is your password at least eight characters long?
     Does your password include special characters (such as, !, @, #, $, %, ^, &, *) that do not
      appear at the beginning or ending of your password?
     Are your user name and password completely different?
     Does your password include at least one number?
     Is your password free of common names (Bob, Fred, Bertha), names or numbers to which you
      have a personal association (birthday, street address, child's birthday, social security number),
      and easily predictable strings of characters (123456789, abcdefghi, stuvwxyz).
 If you are using the Windows Authentication option for Specify security, you may be able to force
 compliance with pre-configured password policies through Windows password policies. See your
 Windows documentation.




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                                                                       Specify 5.2 Help



Summary of Security Levels

     Security Level             Allowed                  Not Allowed
                       Add, delete, modify users
                       Create, delete, modify
                       collections
                       Modify forms
                       View, add, delete, modify
                       all queries
                       Synonymize and
    Administrator
                       desynonymize taxa
                       Set own preferences
                       View, add, delete, modify
                       data from any table
                       Import taxonomic data
                       View, add, delete, modify
                       reports
                       Modify forms                Add, delete, modify users
                       View, add, delete, modify   Create, delete, modify
                       all queries                 collections
                       Synonymize and
                       desynonymize taxa
    Manager            Set own preferences
                       View, add, delete, modify
                       data from any table
                       Import taxonomic data
                       View, add, delete, modify
                       reports
                       Synonymize and
                                                   Add, delete, modify users
                       desynonymize taxa
                                                   Create, delete, modify
                       Set own preferences
                                                   collections
                       View, add, delete, modify
                                                   Modify forms
                       data from any table
    Full Access User                               Add, delete, modify all
                       View all queries
                                                   queries
                       Import taxonomic data
                       View, add, delete, modify
                       own queries
                       View, add, delete, modify
                       reports
    Limited Access     Set own preferences         Add, delete, modify users



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Specify 5.2 Help


         User      View, add, delete, modify   Create, delete, modify
                   data from any table         collections
                                               Add, delete, modify all
                   View all queries
                                               queries
                   Import taxonomic data       Modify forms
                   View, add, delete, modify   Synonymize and
                   own queries                 desynonymize taxa
                   View, add, delete, modify
                   reports
                   Set own preferences         Add, delete, modify users
                                               Add, delete, modify data
                   View data from any table
                                               from any table
                                               Add, delete, modify all
                   View all queries
                                               queries
                                               Create, delete, modify
                                               collections
         Guest                                 Modify forms
                                               Synonymize and
                                               desynonymize taxa
                                               Import taxonomic data
                                               Add, delete, modify own
                                               queries
                                               View, add, delete, modify
                                               reports




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                                                                                          Specify 5.2 Help



Setting Up User Accounts
Specify provides a multi-user, multilevel security system for controlling access to the collections
database. In Specify, a user must supply a password to access to the collection. Each user is
associated with one of five built-in security levels. Each level has a predefined combination of
privileges. When you assign a user to a group, you grant the user all the privileges belonging to
that group.
The five Specify security levels are:
   Administrator, which lets the user perform any Specify task.
   Manager, which lets the user perform any task related to collection data and customization but
    not add, delete, or modify users. Managers also cannot make changes to the structure of the
    collection.
   Full Access User, the lowest security level that can synonymize taxa.
   Limited Access User is similar to Full Access Users, except Limited Access Users are not
    permitted to synonymize and desynonymize taxa.
   Guest, which has only the privilege of viewing data.
The Fishdemo and blank databases are set up with a default account for the Administrator-level
user. For the Fishdemo database, the user is Administrator. There is a user for each security level
already set up for the Fishdemo database. The user accounts are named for their privilege ranking:
Administrator, Manager, FullAccessUser, and so on. You will not need to enter any new user
accounts for the Fishdemo except for practice.
After you install Specify and log on through the Administrator account, you should create new user
accounts for the users who will be accessing your Specify database. Create an account for each
Specify user, and provide each user with the appropriate group membership.
Important: Create another Administrator account before you delete admin. Make sure you
remember the password of your Administrator account.
If you delete the admin account and then forget your Administrator password, the Specify team will
not be able to help you gain access to your system. You must log on under the new Administrator
account before deleting the admin account.
To learn more about Specify security, refer to Introduction to Specify Security in the Specify 5.2
Help Guide.
Creating User Accounts
Creating Specify user accounts confers the following advantages:
   User-specific security — You can restrict a user to a specific set of security settings. Refer to
    Introduction to Specify Security and Setting Up User Accounts.
   User preferences — Each user can set personal preferences for settings such as data and
    latitude/longitude format. See Setting Date and Latitude/Longitude Format.
   User-specific searches and reports — A user can save searches and reports that are stored
    under the user's name for later reference.
   Password control — Each user has an individual password. This is a safer approach than
    allowing multiple users to share the same password.
In high-security environments, it is important to delete built-in accounts with publicly known
passwords. After you have created your own user accounts, you should delete the built-in Specify
account or change its password. However, any saved searches or reports associated with a
deleted account will be inaccessible. Refer to Removing a User Account for more information.
Important: Make sure that you create new administrator-level account before deleting the original.
For a discussion of how to create Specify user accounts, see Adding a New User Account.



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 Security Procedures
 Adding a New User Account
 Note: Each user should have a unique login. There can be problems when more than one user
 logs in under the same name and attempts to delete records.

 To add a new user account:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Manage Users. The Specify Users dialog box appears.




2. Click New.




3. Enter a name and password for the new user. Click the arrow in the Security Level box to
   choose from available Security Levels.




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                                                                                    Specify 5.2 Help




Note: Passwords must be at least eight characters and include at least one symbol and one
number.
4. Click OK. You're prompted to reenter the password.
5. Enter the password again and click OK. The new user account appears in the list in the Specify
   Users dialog box.




6. Click Close.
Removing a User Account
Note: If you remove a user account, you may lose the associated searches and reports. To save
those searches and reports, you need to log in as a Manager or higher-level user and open and
save the associated search to the current user. You can recover lost reports and searches by
reinstating the old user, with the same user name.




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Specify 5.2 Help


 To remove a user account:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Manage Users. The Specify Users dialog box appears.




2. In the Specify Users dialog box, select a user you want to remove.
3. Click Delete.
4. When the Confirm dialog box appears, click Yes.




 
5. The new user account disappears in the list in the Specify Users dialog box.




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                                                                                  Specify 5.2 Help





6. Close the Specify Users dialog box.
Changing a Password or Security Level
Note: Make sure you have the old password spellings memorized or written down, as you will have
to enter them in the process of changing passwords.

To change a password or security level:
1. Tools > Admin > Manage User
    The Specify Users dialog box appears.




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Specify 5.2 Help


2. In the Specify Users dialog box, select a user from the list and click Edit. The Specify User
   dialog box appears for that user.




3. To change security level for the user, click the arrow in the Security Level box and choose from
   the available levels.




4. To change a user's password:
      a. Enter the new password in the Password box and click OK. (Passwords must be at least
         eight characters and include at least one symbol and one number.)
      b. You're prompted to reenter the new password in a separate dialog box. Do this and click
         OK.
      c.   You're prompted to enter the old password in a separate dialog box. Do this and click OK.
5. Close the Specify Users dialog box.
 Setting Security for a Data Field
 You can configure specific fields to be hidden from users who don't have a high enough security
 level to view them in a form. In the following steps you will select the form first, then the desired
 field within the form, and finally edit the Read Security and Write Security properties of the field.

 To set security for a data field:
1. Choose Tools > Admin >Customize Forms. The Forms Manager dialog box appears.
2. Select the data form that contains the field for which you want to configure security and click the
   desired field.




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                                                                                                Specify 5.2 Help




3. Click Edit to display the properties of the form, along with its list of available fields.




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Specify 5.2 Help




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                                                                                             Specify 5.2 Help


4. In the Available Fields list, scroll to the desired field and double-click it. The field's properties are
   displayed in front of the Form Customizer window.




5. Click the triangle in the Read Security box, then select the name of the least-secure group that
   will have read access to the data field. (Any user in a group below the one you choose will not
   be able to view the field.)
6. Click the triangle in the Write Security box, then select the name of the least-secure group that
   will have write access to the data field. (Any user in a group below the one you choose will not
   be able to edit the field.)
7. Click OK to dismiss the field properties dialog box.
8. Back in the Form Customizer window, choose File > Save.
9. Close the Forms Manager dialog box.
Setting Security for Individual Records
Sometimes you need to temporarily protect the confidentiality of certain records in your Specify
database, possibly for the protection of a rare species or because research is still pending
publication. Specify lets you hide a specific specimen, locality, collecting event, or taxon name
record at any time that it would normally be displayed, either as primary fields on a form or as fields



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Specify 5.2 Help


 in a subform. The record is hidden (displays as an empty field) to any viewer whose security level is
 lower than the security level you assign to the record.
 To enable record security, Specify provides a special field called GroupPermittedToView (or
 Security in some forms). To activate record security, you'll be editing the desired record and
 assigning a security level (Administrator, Manager, Full Access user, etc.) to this field. The value
 you choose will affect the display of all the fields in the same record.


 Record            Effect of Changing Read Security in the GroupPermittedToView field
 Type
 Collecting        If a user's security level doesn't grant access to the collecting event
 Event             record, none of the related time and place information is displayed in
                   search results of a collecting event form or in any form in which that
                   record's data appears in a subform.
 Taxonomy          If a user's security level doesn't grant access to the taxonomy record, none
                   of the related taxon and taxon-related information is displayed in search
                   results: no full taxon name, no parent taxon, no date, no determiner, and
                   no common name of a taxonomy form or in any form in which that record's
                   data appears in a subform.
 Locality          If a user's security level doesn't grant access to the locality record, the
                   user won't see latitudes and longitudes, verbatim locality, elevation, or
                   geography information in search results of a locality form or in any form in
                   which that record's data appears in a subform.
 Specimen          If a user's security level doesn't grant access to the collection object
                   record, the user won't see any data in the browse or detail view of the
                   hidden specimen.

 To hide a specimen, collecting event, locality, or taxon record in all forms:
1. (The purpose of steps 1-8 is to make sure the security field is switched on for this form.)

      Choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager window appears




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                                                                                        Specify 5.2 Help


2. Select one of the following: an event under Collecting Event, an object under Collection Object,
   Locality, or a name under TaxonName, depending on which type of record you want to hide.
3. Click Edit to display the three Form Customizer windows. If you see a field called
   GroupPermittedToView or Security already on the form, skip to step 8.
4. To add the field, first inspect the Available Fields list.




5. Click the GroupPermittedToView field to add it to the form. (This field is sometimes called
   Security).
6. Drag the field to a convenient and visible position in the form.
7. In the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
8. Close the Form Customizer and the Forms Manager windows.
9. In the navigation panel, expand the Search & Edit Data heading and choose the table that
   contains the record you want to hide -- the same table that you worked with in the earlier steps.
10. Perform a search that returns the record you want to hide. To review this task, refer to
    Conventional Field Searches or Creating and Saving a New Search. The example in the
    illustration returns a couple of locality records:




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Specify 5.2 Help




11. Click the row whose data you want to hide, then click Detail at the bottom of the screen. You
    should see the GroupPermittedToView or Security field on the form.




 38
                                                                                           Specify 5.2 Help



    If you don't see it, return to the Form Customizer steps and make sure that the field is switched
    on and visible.
12. Click Edit at the bottom of the screen to enable editing of this record.
13. Click the triangle in the GroupPermittedToView field to display the drop-down list.
14. Choose the security level required to show the record. In the illustration, the security level is
    being changed from Guest to Full Access User.




    Any user whose security level is below the one you choose in this step won't see the data in this
    record.
15. Click Save at the bottom of the screen to save your change. You're done.
16. Click Specify at the top of the navigation panel if you want to clear the window.
Configuring Windows Authentication
Specify’s Windows Authentication feature bypasses the normal Specify user account system. The
user’s Windows login credentials (user name and password) are instead passed directly to SQL
Server for authentication. Once the account is configured for access through Windows
Authentication (as described below), the user invokes the Windows Authentication method by
checking the box labeled “Use Windows Authentication” in the Specify login screen.
Note: You can invoke Windows Authentication for Specify databases that use Microsoft SQL
Server but not those that use Microsoft Desktop Engine (MSDE).

To configure Specify to use windows authentication:
1. Open a text editor such as Notepad and create a one-line file.
2. Type Win as the one line.
3. Save the file as Auth in the Specify\Specify\Images folder, as shown:




                                                                                                        39
Specify 5.2 Help




      The file will automatically be saved as a text file. This will need to be changed, the file will not
      work with a .txt extension on it. This can be solved in one of two ways.
        1. Go to File. Click on Open. Click on Auth.txt, then after a second, click on it again
           (double-clicking will open the file, which is not what we want to do). Then delete the .txt,
           so only Auth is left over.
        2. If the extension is not displayed, you will need to change the settings so it can be
           removed. To display the extension:
            a. Go to My Computer, then Local Disk (C:).
            b. Go to the Specify\Specify\Images folder. Auth.txt should be the first file. See image
               above.
            c.     At the top of the window, click on Tools, then Folder Options, then click on the View
                   Tab.




            d. In the advanced settings "Hide extensions for known file types" will be checked.
               Uncheck it.




 40
                                                                                           Specify 5.2 Help




            e. Click OK.
            f.   Click on Auth.txt, then after a second, click on it again (double-clicking will open the
                 file, which is not what we want to do).
            g. Delete the .txt, so only Auth is left over.

To add a login for the windows user using Enterprise Manager:
1. Open Enterprise Manager
2. Find your server in the list of optional servers.
3. Expand the Security node.
4. Right-click on Logins.
5. Click on New Logins.
6. On the General tab choose the Windows Authentication option.
7. Click the ellipsis button for the Name field.
   a. If you want the login to be able to access Specify databases on other computers, choose a
      windows account from a domain.
   b. After you select the user or group from the list, click Add.
   c.   The domain name should appear first in the box followed by a “\” and then the user/group
        name. You can choose your computer name as your windows authentication user.



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Specify 5.2 Help


      d. Click OK.
8. Click on the Database Access tab and perform the following steps for each database you want
   the user to be able to use in Specify.
      a. Choose the database you want to log on to by checking the box next to the database name.
      b. Choose a Specify database role corresponding to the Specify user level, plus additional
         roles indicated:

            UserLevel                          Dbowner          Dbdatareader          Dbdatawriter
            SpecifyAdmin                       X                X                     X
            SpecifyManager                                      X                     X
            SpecifyFullAccessUser                               X                     X
            SpecifyLimitedAccessUser                            X                     X
            SpecifyGuest

      c.   For SpecifyGuest users, you need to grant update permission on the USYSUserPreferences
           table.
9. Click OK.

 Adding Specify Preferences for the Window Login
 Note:If you added a group in the procedure above, you must add USYSUserPreferences entries
 for each individual user in the group that should have database access. Adding an entry for the
 group is not necessary and doesn't take the place of the following procedure.
1. On the Enterprise Manager Page, expand the list of databases under the name of your server.
2. Select your database.
3. Find the USYSUserPreferences table.
      a. Right-click on the table.
      b. Choose Open Table/Return all rows.
      c.   Copy a record for an existing user by clicking on the extreme left column next to a user. This
           action will highlight the entire row including the binary code that explains the user’s abilities.
      d. Right-click on that row and choose Copy.
      e. Go to the row where you see an asterisk that represents an empty row for a new user. Click
         on the asterisk to select it, right-click on that row, and choose Paste.
      f.   Replace the user name with the user you are trying to create but don't include the domain
           name.
4. Start Specify.
5. Choose Windows Authentication.
6. Click OK.




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                                                                                  Specify 5.2 Help




Maintenance and Utilities

Database Utilities
Specify includes options for attaching, detaching, renaming, and deleting databases. Because
Specify 5.2 uses SQL Server, you must follow procedures for manipulating your database. Only
users with sa-level permissions can use these utilities.




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 What the options do

 Attach database          When you install Specify 5.2, you have the option to automatically
                          attach a Specify database. You can also attach a database at any
                          time after installation. For more information, refer to Attaching a
                          Database. When you attach a database, you have the opportunity
                          to reset user passwords.
 Detach database          If you want to move your database for whatever reason, you must
                          first detach it to avoid data loss. For example, if you want the
                          Specify Project team to troubleshoot your database, you would
                          first detach the database before sending the MDF file. If you want
                          to copy your database — for troubleshooting or for backing up to
                          removable media, for example — you must also detach it first.
                          Caution: After your database is detached from SQL Server, it no
                          longer has the security of SQL Server. Your MDF is vulnerable
                          and must be guarded while detached. Anyone with an instance of
                          SQL Server can attach this MDF file without knowledge of your
                          passwords.
 Rename                   SQL Server does not require that your database name match the
 database                 name of the corresponding MDF file. You can use this option to
                          rename your database. Renaming your database does not change
                          the corresponding MDF file. Be sure to keep track of both the
                          database and MDF file names.
 Delete database          You might delete a database such as the Fishdemo database or a
                          database you have moved to another server. You may also need
                          to delete a database if the Specify Project team has provided a
                          new MDF file. Deleting a database does not delete the user
                          associated with the database. You cannot restore a deleted
                          database. Deleting a database removes the associated MDF file(s)
                          and any transaction files.


 To use database utilities:
1. Open Specify. The login screen (shown above) appears.
2. In the Server field, select the server name from the drop-down list. If this is a new Specify
   installation, you may need to type in the server name.
3. Enter the sa user name and password for the SQL Server to which you want to attach.
4. From the drop-down list at the bottom of the screen, select the desired option.




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Attaching a Database
SQL Server uses MDF files for storing database information. To use this information, the MDF file
must be attached to the server. These MDF files are typically placed in the Microsoft SQL Server
data folder. If you use the default MSDE installation, these files will be in C:\Program
Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL$Specify\data.
To perform the following procedure, you must be running Specify on the SQL Server computer or
MSDE computer. In addition, the MDF files also must be on the same computer.
How user accounts are handled
If you detach then reattach a database, Specify will, on reattaching, reinstate the user accounts that
were originally created for that database. However, if in the interim those user accounts were
assigned to another database -- which SQL server will sometimes do -- Specify will add a number
to the end of the user name portion of the account when you reattach the database (the password
remains the same). For example, if the original user was ABentley and it was associated with a
different database, Specify will create an ABentley1 user and assign that account to the database
instead of ABentley. If, in this situation, you need to keep exactly the same user name, open
Enterprise Manager and delete those user accounts. Then, when you reattach the database,
Specify will reinstate the user accounts without adding any numbers.
If you are using MSDE instead of MS SQL Server, you have three options:
   Accept the new user names as they are.
   Detach the database, save a copy of the .mdf file in another folder, uninstall MSDE, and re-
    install MSDE.
   Call the Specify Software Project for a custom script to remove the old user names.

To attach a database:
1. Start Specify. The login window appears.
2. In the Server field, select the server name from the drop-down list. If this is a new Specify
   installation, you may need to type in the server name.
3. Enter the sa user name and password for the SQL Server to which you want the database
   attached.
4. From the drop-down list at the bottom of the screen, select Attach Specify Database.
5. Click OK. The Open dialog box appears.




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6. In the Look In drop-down list, navigate to and select the database you want to attach.
7. Click Open.
8. In the resulting message box, click OK.
        You are now ready to enter Specify. The first time you log in to the database you have just
        attached, Specify will take a few seconds, or a few minutes depending on the size of the
        database, to update. When the OK button is displayed, click it to continue.




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                                                                                       Specify 5.2 Help



Attaching a Blank or Fishdemo Database
If you did not install the blank or Fishdemo database through the Specify installer, you can follow
these instructions to attach the blank database. If you want to attach the Fishdemo database, just
substitute Fishdemo for BlankDatabase in this procedure.

To attach a blank database:
1. Copy (NOT move) the blank database from the MDFStartupFiles folder within your Specify
   folder ...




   ... and paste it into your Data folder within your MSSQL folder.




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2. Start Specify.
3. Be sure your server name is entered. In the user name and password boxes, enter sa and your
   SQL Server password. The database name box should be the only empty one.




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4. Change the operation drop-down list from Login to Attach database as shown above.
5. Click OK.
6. Navigate to the Blank Database by going to Program Files/Microsoft SQL Server/MSSQL/Data.
   You may also find a copy of the FishDemo database in the mdf startup files folder within the
   Specify folder.




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7. Select the BlankDatabase2005.mdf and click Open.
8. After you click OK to attach your database, enter a password for the designated top level user
   and confirm the password by entering it in a second time.'(The top level user of the Blank
   Database is admin_BlankDatabase. The top level user for the FishDemo is
   ExampleAdministrator. There are other users for the demonstration database and they can be
   examined once logged into specify under the user management option within Specify.)
9. When you return to the Specify Login page, you may need to enter your database name, user
   name, and password in the appropriate boxes.
 If you'd now like to set up a collection on your blank database, refer to Creating a Collection
 Definition




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Backing Up a Database
Backup and restore operations are available to users with Administrator security level. Back-up
space is automatically determined for you during installation. However, you can back up to any
location on the database server computer by providing the path name and file name relative to that
computer. You can also back up to a network drive if it is accessible to the database server
computer.
For example, suppose you have a network drive called g: with the folder called SpecifyBackup at
the top level. Assuming your SQL server computer (the one where the database resides) has
access to the g: drive, you can back up to


 g:\SpecifyBackup\daily5


This is not necessarily the same path that would be on your local computer. Due to SQL server
setup, the entire backup (and restore) paths are relative to the SQL server computer that is home
to the Specify database.
How Many Backups?
To make the backup process more reliable and useful, you should maintain more than one backup
file (for example, March 2003 backup, July 2003 backup, Sept. 2003 backup).

To back up a database
1. Go to the navigation panel, expand Perform Admin Functions, and choose Backup Database or
   choose Tools > Admin> Backup Database.
2. The resulting dialog box displays a list of previous backup files, including the file name, date,
   and the Specify user who created the file.




    You can either overwrite one of the previous files or create a new backup file.
3. Select either an existing backup file or <Create new backup> and click OK.
    Note: After you back up your database, you can copy the .mdf file and transfer it to another
    machine to be attached. It's a good idea to put a copy of this file on another computer, so that if
    the main computer crashes, you'll have a backup elsewhere.



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         If you choose an existing back-up file, you are asked to confirm that you really want to
          overwrite the existing backup. Click Yes.




          Caution: If you overwrite the existing backup, you cannot recover it.
         If you choose to create a new back-up file, you are asked to enter a file name and an
          optional description for the backup.




         You must enter a file name for the process to continue. Then Click OK
         Then Specify backs up the database.
 Restoring a database




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Backup Schedules
For the long-term security of your Specify database, it is crucial that you make frequent backups
using the Backup Database menu option. We recommend that you back up after every day in
which changes were made to the database. If that is not practical, you should back up at least once
a week. If you encounter problems, you lose only the data entered since the last backup.
If you have adequate disk space, we recommend you make two backups a week for two months, to
give you 2 backups x 4 weeks x 2 months = 16 backup files on disk or other media at any one time.
If you don't have adequate disk space, then we recommend that you make 1 backup a week for 2
months for a total of 8 files on disk at any one time.
Finally, your backup schedule also depends upon how reliable your database server is. If your
server crashes frequently, you might want to back up biweekly.
Caution: If you overwrite the existing backup file, there is no recovery process to restore it. To
make the backup process more reliable and useful, be sure to keep more than one backup file
(e.g., March 2003 Backup, July 2003 Backup, Sept. 2003 Backup).



Backup Recommendations
   By default, your database backup files are saved to the Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server
    directory. If you decide to override this default and choose a different folder, be sure to note the
    folder name and path. If you do not have this information, the Specify Project team cannot help
    you find your backup data files.
   All backups are automatically saved to the SQL Server computer. If you want to add a path for
    the backup, it must be relative to the SQL Server computer.
   Make backups to your hard drive and then copy the backup file to removable media such as a
    CD or tape drive. Do not back up directly to removable media.
   Backup cycles can vary widely, but the basic idea is to back up whenever you cannot afford to
    lose the data that was changed since the last backup.
   It is important that the person performing backups verify that the backup files were made and
    that they are about the right size based on previous backups.
   Keep a handwritten log of when backups were done, or keep a calendar next to a computer
    dedicated to recording backups.

Sample Backup Schedule
Most server sites store monthly backups. After the second month, you can delete all but the last
backup for the first month, leaving
   Month 1 — 1 backup file
   Month 2 — 4 backup files (weeklies)
   Month 3 — new backup files once or twice a week, and so forth
At the end of the year, you have
   Month 1 backup file
   Month 2 backup file
   Month 3 backup file
   And so forth, to
   Month 10: backup file
   Month 11: 4–8 weeklies




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     Month 12: 4–8 weeklies
 In month 13 you delete all but one of the Month 11 weeklies, and start making one to two backups
 per week for Month 13. We strongly recommend that you have at least one monthly backup for
 months older than two.




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Detaching a Database
Important: User accounts are not removed when you detach a database. This means that you
cannot create new user accounts with user names that Specify has retained from a previous
attachment. Therefore, if you want to re-use those names, you must delete the corresponding
user accounts before you detach the database for which those accounts were created. Removing
a User Account
You'll need to use this procedure in several situations:
   You need to move the database to another folder, another disk drive, or another computer.
   You need to make a backup of your Specify database mdf file outside of Specify, that is, not
    using Specify's backup command.
   You need to make a copy of the mdf file to send to another organization, such as the Specify
    Project


Note: When detaching a database, you must be running Specify on the SQL Server 2005 or 2005
Express computer. In addition, the MDF files also must be on the same computer .


Detaching the database does not remove the user accounts from the SQL Server instance. This
can lead to different outcomes depending on how you later re-attach the database.
   When you use Specify to re-attach the database, Specify will restore the user accounts that
    were previously created for that database, and you don't have to re-enter the passwords.
   If you use SQL Server's Enterprise Manager to attach the database, the Specify user accounts
    are not necessarily in the SQL server instance and must be manually added if they are needed.

To detach a database:
1. Start Specify. The login window appears.
2. Type the sa user name and password for the SQL Server instance from which you are
   detaching.
3. From the drop-down list at the bottom of the screen, choose Detach Specify Database.




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4. Click OK. The Detach Specify Database dialog box appears.




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5. Select the database you want to detach and click OK. This completes the Specify side of the
   task.
6. Use Windows Explorer to navigate to the folder that contains the database (mdf) file.




7. Find the _log.LDF file that starts with the same letters as the .mdf file that you just detached.
8. Delete the LDF file. This file will be recreated the next time you attach the database.



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 Restoring a Database
 Backup and restore operations are available to users with Administrator security level. Back-up
 space is automatically determined for you during installation. However, you can back up to any
 location on the database server computer by providing the path name and file name relative to that
 computer. You can also back up to a network drive if it is accessible to the database server
 computer.

 To restore a database:
1. Go to the navigation panel, expand Perform Admin Functions and choose Restore Database or
   choose Tools > Admin > Restore Database.
2. The resulting dialog box displays a list of backup files.




3. Select a file to restore from and click OK. You must select a back-up file that was created on the
   same computer that you are currently using. You are then prompted for the user name and
   password of an Administrator account for your server.
      Note: No other users can access the database when it is being restored. If another user is
      accessing the database, the restoration will fail and you must restart Specify.

      Verifying backup: The Windows option called 'Verify the Integrity of the Backup when Complete'
      is automatically switched off in Specify. At this time, this function is not a part of the Specify
      back-up process. This option creates the possibility of database inaccessibility and does not
      actually check the integrity of your data.
 Backing up a database




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Removing Duplicate Records
This page addresses the problem created by the appearance of duplicate records in your Specify
database. These redundant records (in which all fields contain the same values) can sometimes be
unintentionally generated when you use the Batch Editing tool. For example, replacing all
occurrences of "Laurence" in locality names from Douglas County, Kansas, with "Lawrence" would
probably result in some identical locality records.
Specifically, the batch identification procedure can generate duplicate records.
Specify implements a fast duplicate removal process that finds and removes duplicate records from
tables chosen by the user. The process relinks records in related tables to the appropriate
remaining single records in the table being updated, without breaking the links to any related
records.

To remove duplicate records:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Remove Duplicates. The Duplicate Remover dialog box appears.
2. Select a table from the drop-down list, and click Remove.




    Once the process has finished running, the dialog box reports how many records were
    processed and how many records were removed.




3. Click Close, or return to step 2 to remove additional duplicate records.




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 Unused Record Removal
 This page addresses the problem created by the appearance of duplicate records in your Specify
 database. These redundant records (in which all fields contain the same values) can sometimes be
 unintentionally generated when you use the Batch Editing tool. For example, replacing all
 occurrences of "Laurence" in locality names from Douglas County, Kansas, with "Lawrence" would
 probably result in some identical locality records.
 Specifically, the batch identification procedure can generate duplicate records.
 Specify implements a fast duplicate removal process that finds and removes duplicate records from
 tables chosen by the user. The process relinks records in related tables to the appropriate
 remaining single records in the table being updated, without breaking the links to any related
 records.

 To remove duplicate records:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Remove Unused Records. The Unused Record Remover dialog
   box appears.




2. Select a table from the drop-down list. It will automatically process how many records are
   unused in that table.




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3. Click View and Remove Records... A list of the records found will appear.




4. Select either Remove All or Select multiple records to remove. Multiple records can be selected
   in two ways. You can select blocks of records by clicking on the first record in the block then
   holding down the Shift and clicking on the last record in the block.




     You can select multiple individual records by holding down the Control button when clicking on
     the records.




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5. Click Remove Selected.
6. A Confirmation Box will appear. Click Yes.




7. You will be returned to the list of Unused Records. You can choose to either remove more
   records or click Close if you do not want to remove any more records.
8. You will then be returned to the Unused Record Removal Box. Choose another table and
   repeat steps 3-7 or Click Close if you are finished.




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Using the Web Search Log
If you have created a Specify web interface, you can use the following procedures to display and
export the Web Search Log.

To display the Web Search Log:
Use your browser to open the following page:

http://your computer name:your jsp container port number (8080)/your web interface folder/stats.jsp


IPAddress                     The address of the web user that made the search
searchName                    The title of the particular search that the user picked
ParamInfo                     A large field containing the available parameters for a search
                              and the values used for this particular session
RecordsReturned               The number of records returned by this particular search
LogDate                       When the search page was processed


Web Search Log Limits
When you configured Specify's web interface (see Installing the Specify Web Server), you set a
limit for the number of records to hold in the search log. If that limit is reached, the search log is
copied to a file in the ScriptsFolderName/DatabaseAliasName/ folder with a prefix of "Web search
Log" and the suffix of a time date stamp, where ScriptsFolderName and DatabaseAliasName are
placeholders for the names that you define.
You can use the Export Web Search Log command to clear the search log manually. The export
function generates a comma-delimited text file that can be read as is or imported into other
applications.

To export the web search log:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Web Settings >Export and Delete Web Search Log. The Save
   Web search Data dialog box appears.




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2. Navigate to the location where you want to save the text file, name the file (such as
   MammalLog1.txt), and click Save.




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Navigation in Specify

Viewing Collection Data
The following procedure shows you how to view a group of arbitrarily chosen specimen records in
the Demofish database.

To view an existing database:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click CollectionObjects. The
   search setup window appears.
2. In the Fish_Catalog# row:
       Select Between in the field under Operator.
       Type 29000, 30000 in the field under Criteria (The space is optional.)




3. Click the Search button at the bottom of the window. A list of catalog entries appears.




    You can resize the columns by dragging the dividers in the table header.

4. You can inspect the individual records in detail by double-clicking the record or highlighting a
   record and clicking detail at the bottom of the screen.




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  5. To view a brief description and a summary of properties for a particular field, press Ctrl and
     right-click the field name. A second window opens to display the information.




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6. To navigate through the individual collection objects, use the buttons at the bottom of the
   window. The first button displays the first record, the second button displays the previous
   record, the third button displays the next record, and the fourth button displays the last record.
   You can also type a record number in the center box and press Enter to display the desired
   record.




7. To view a report (usually for printing), click the Print button. The Available Reports dialog box
   appears.




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  8. Select the desired report and click OK. The Report Setup dialog box appears.




  9. Select the Preview option, then click OK.
  10. To view the various pages of the report, click the pointing hand icons on the toolbar at the top
      of the window. The toolbar also contains buttons that allow you to zoom in or out, print, and
      exit the Report Preview window.




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11. Once you have inspected the report, click the Door icon to close the Report Preview window
    and return to the Detail button.




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 Creating and Saving a Search
 You'll use this procedure whenever you need to search a specific table and its related records. If
 you are looking for help with an express search, refer to Overview of Express Searching.

 To create and save a search:
1. Choose the table you want to search from the Navigation Panel.
2. The condition list for that table appears.




      If you want to display all the records in the table, don't enter any values in the condition rows
      and skip to step 4.
3. To restrict the search to certain records, fill in as many condition rows as necessary. For each
    condition row that is displayed:
    If you want the field in that row to show up in the Custom view, make sure that its box is
       checked in the Display column. This option has no effect on whether the field is displayed in
       the Browse or Detail views.
    If you want the records in the search results to be sorted according to the values in the field,
       click the button in the Sort column once or twice (up arrow = ascending sort; down arrow =
       descending sort). Clicking the button a third time switches sorting off for that row.

          If you want Specify to sort on more than one field, drag the primary sort row to the top of the
          list, drag the secondary sort row to the second position in the list, and so on.

         If you want only the records that don't satisfy the stated condition in a row, check the box in
          the Not column.
         To review the different kinds of operators, refer to Operators Overview.
         If you need to add a condition row for a field that is not displayed, refer to Adding a Condition
          Row.
4. When you have defined as many conditions as you need, click Search at the bottom of the
   screen. The illustration shows the connection between two conditions and the results of a
   search in the collection objects table.
5. If you didn't get the results you wanted, click New Search at the bottom of the screen to return
   to the condition rows and modify them as desired. Then repeat step 3.
6. If the search worked to your satisfaction and you don't want to reuse the search, you're done.
   You can click Specify in the navigation panel to dismiss the search results.
7. If the search worked to your satisfaction and you want to repeat it later without having to define
   the conditions again, follow the remaining steps.
8. Click New Search at the bottom of the screen return to the search setup window.
9. Choose Search > Save. A dialog box asks you to enter a name for the search.




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10. Type a name in the space provided and click OK. The search is saved under the name of the
    current user.
Note: If you try to save a Search under a previously existing name, Specify asks you to rename the
search.




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 Entering Data
 The following procedure shows you how to add a specimen record to the Fishdemo database.

 To enter data:
1. You have the option of creating your own Catalog Numbers or Auto Assigning Catalog
   Numbers. If you want to Auto Assign Catalog Numbers, you have to set it first. Choose View >
   Auto-Assign Catalog Numbers. If you want to create your own, enter the number after
   opening a new record as instructed below.
2. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Data heading, and click CollectionObject. The Collection
   Objects form appears. The upper left corner is shown below. To create your own catalog
   numbers, enter it now in the Cat # field.




3. Leave Catalog set to Main and the AccessionID box blank. For more information on accession
   numbers, refer to Accessions. Note that the CatDate field is filled in automatically.
4. To enter a determination, enter the first part of the taxon name in the TaxonNameID field. Click
   the triangle next to the field. An alphabetical list of taxa beginning with the letters entered will
   appear.




 Note: The Taxa listed in the drop down menu are derived from the Taxon Tree you created. To see
 how to create a Taxon Tree, refer to Building a Taxon Tree Within Specify.
11. Select the correct taxon. If the desired taxon is not listed, click the first line, which will end in
    <Add> to add a new taxon name to the taxon tree.




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12. In the DeterminerID box, enter the first part of the determiner's name in the TaxonNameID field.
     Click the triangle next to the field. An alphabetical list of agents whose name begins with the
    letters entered will appear (the list will be of last names if the agent is a person).
 13. Select the correct agent or to add an agent, click the first line, which will end in <Add>.
 14. The resulting box will offer the choice between adding a person or a different type of agent.




15. Select the appropriate option and click OK. The DeterminerID dialog box appears. If the Person
    Option is selected the resulting subform will be the following.




     If the Other Option is selected the resulting subform will be the following.




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16. Click Save at the bottom of the DeterminerID dialog box. The main form is now back at the
    front.
17. Click Save at the bottom of the form.




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Navigation Panel
Introduction

The navigation panel, which is new in
Specify 5.2, displays the most commonly
used functions of the application. Many of
the options you'll see in the navigation
panel can also be chosen from Specify's
menus, but there are some differences
between the navigation panel and the
menu bar commands.
To learn more about what you can do with
the navigation panel, click each heading
in the illustration at right to display a
detailed description.




Hiding and Showing the Navigation Panel
Moving Searches to the Navigation Panel
Moving Reports to the Navigation Panel
Renaming Headings in the Navigation Panel
Moving Searches to the Navigation Panel
If you run a certain set of searches frequently, you can save the time required to open them by
moving the searches to the navigation panel for easy access.

To move a search to the navigation panel:

1. Click Open an Existing Search in the navigation panel. The Searches dialog box appears.

2. If necessary, click the triangle in the User Name box to choose the user who created the
   search.

3. Click the triangle in the Search Table box to choose the table (CollectionObject, Localities,
   Agents, etc.) in which the search desired is listed.

4. When the list of searches is displayed, drag the desired search to the navigation panel and
   drop it under Open an Existing Search.




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      The search is now installed in the navigation panel.




      To run the associated search, click its title under the Run an Existing Search heading.

 To remove a search from the navigation panel:

  1. Right-click the search's name under the Run an Existing Search heading and choose Remove
     from the shortcut menu.
 Moving Reports to the Navigation Panel
 If you print a certain set of reports frequently, you can save the time required to open them by
 moving the reports to the navigation panel for easy access.

 To move a report to the navigation panel:

  1. Click Print in the navigation panel. The Reports dialog box appears.

  2. Click the triangle in the Report Category box to choose the table (CollectionObject, Localities,
     Agents, etc.) whose reports you want to choose from.

  3. When the list of reports is displayed, drag the desired report to the navigation panel and drop it
     under Print.




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    The report is now installed in the navigation panel.




    To print the associated report, click its title under the Print heading.

To remove a report from the navigation panel:

1. Right-click the report's name under the Print heading and choose Remove from the shortcut
   menu.
Hiding and Showing the Navigation Panel
You can free up more room on your screen by temporarily closing the navigation panel.

To hide the navigation panel:                          To show the navigation panel:

Click the Hide button, shown below.                    Click the Show button, shown below.




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 Headings
 Specify
 Clicking Specify at the top of the navigation panel clears any search setup, search results, or other
 data from the Specify window. It has the same effect as clicking the inner close box:




 Return to Navigation Panel Introduction
 Enter New Data




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You'll use the Enter New Data heading of the navigation
panel to add new records to eight commonly accessed
tables in Specify: CollectionsObject, CollectingEvent,
Localities, Agents, TaxonName, References, Geography,
and Project.
When you click any of the subheadings, Specify displays
the data entry form for the corresponding table.


Return to Navigation Panel Introduction



Search & Edit Data
You'll use the Search & Edit Data heading of the
navigation panel to run searches of eight commonly
accessed tables in Specify: CollectionsObject,
CollectingEvent, Localities, Agents, TaxonName,
References, Geography, and Project. Clicking Other
displays the Other Tables dialog box, from which you can
select any Specify table.
When you click any of the subheadings, Specify displays
the default search setup for the corresponding table.
Once you have run the search, you can enter Edit mode
to modify or delete individual records in the search results
window.


Return to Navigation Panel Introduction


Enter New Transactions
You'll use the Enter New Transactions heading of the
navigation panel to add new transaction records to
five commonly accessed tables in Specify:
Accessions, Deaccession, Gift, Loan, Permit, Borrow,
and Shipment.
When you click any of the subheadings, Specify
displays the data entry form for the corresponding
table.



Return to Navigation Panel Introduction
Search & Edit Transactions




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 You'll use the Search & Edit Transactions heading
 of the navigation panel to run searches of five
 commonly accessed transaction tables in Specify:
 Accessions, Deaccession, Gift, Loan, Permit,
 Borrow, and Shipment.
 When you click any of the subheadings, Specify
 displays the default search setup for the
 corresponding table. Once you have run the
 search, you can enter Edit mode to modify or
 delete individual transaction records in the search
 results window.


 Return to Navigation Panel Introduction


 Open an Existing Search
 You'll use the Open an Existing Search heading of
 the navigation panel in two ways:
     To display a list of saved searches (click the
      Open heading), from which you can choose the
      search you want to run.
     As a shortcut to any the searches that you have
      installed under this heading. In the illustration at
      right, the Specify user has installed three
      searches. Clicking any of the shortcuts under
      Open an Existing Search opens the search
      setup window for the corresponding search.


 Return to Navigation Panel Introduction
 Moving Searches to the Navigation Panel


 Taxon Tree
 Expanding this heading in the navigation panel
 displays the View Taxon Tree subheading, which is
 identical to choosing Tools >Taxon Tree > View
 Taxon Tree from the Specify menu bar.


 Return to Navigation Panel Introduction


 Print
 You'll use the Print heading of the navigation panel in
 two ways:
     To display a list of saved reports (click the Print
      heading), from which you can choose the report
      you want to print.
     As a shortcut to any the reports that you have
      installed under this heading. In the illustration at
      right, the Specify user has installed three reports.



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   Clicking any of the shortcuts under Print opens the
   Matching Searches dialog box, from which you'll
   select the search that will generate your report's
   data.


Return to Navigation Panel Introduction
Moving Reports to the Navigation Panel
Perform Admin Functions
You'll use the Perform Admin Functions heading of
the navigation panel to carry out many of the tasks
also available in the Tools > Admin submenu in
Specify's main menu bar.
To learn more about administrative functions, click
the appropriate link below.


Batch Identification
Remove Duplicates
Customize Forms
Manage User Accounts
Backup Database
Restore Database


Return to Navigation Panel Introduction
Links
Expanding this heading in the navigation panel displays a list
of internet links to web pages that contain the most recent
information available on Specify. Clicking a link will start your
computer's internet browser and display the corresponding
web page.
To add a new link, right-click the Links heading and choose
Add from the shortcut menu, then fill in the boxes for Caption
and URL or File Name and click OK.


Return to Navigation Panel Introduction


Help
Clicking Help in the navigation panel displays the online Help system for Specify. It is identical to
choosing Help > Contents and Index from the Specify menu bar.
Return to Navigation Panel Introduction
Exit Specify
Clicking Exit Specify in the navigation panel closes the Specify application. It is identical to
choosing File > Exit from the menu bar.
Return to Navigation Panel Introduction
Statistics




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 You'll use the Statistics heading of the
 navigation panel to inspect a summary of
 the latest counts of various categories in
 your collection.
 To display a complete list of statistics,
 double-click the word Statistics (not the
 plus or minus box), and the Database
 Statistics dialog box appears.




 Click the word Statistics in the navigation panel to refresh the counts under the Statistics heading.
 Double Click the word Statistics in the navigation panel to display the Statistics Dialog Box with a
 complete list of statistics.
 Note: Some statistics can appear to be incorrect if there have been some modifications from the
 standard way that information is stored.
 For example, the Type Status field is used to calculate the Type specimens. It counts all specimens
 that do not have the value of <No data>. The statistical calculation will not be valid for your
 database if you use another phrase for <No data> or if you are using another field to track your
 type specimen. If you have any questions about a statistical calculation, please contact the Specify
 helpdesk.
 Return to Navigation Panel Introduction
 Setting up the Database Statistics Page
 Renaming Headings in the Navigation Panel
 You can change the name of the link to the report, although the report name stays the same..
 Do not change any of the following:
     Enter New Data, Search & Edit Data, or any other top level items
     Subheadings of Perform Admin Functions or Taxonomic Tree
 You can change the name of the link to the report, although the report name stays the same.

 To rename a heading in the navigation panel:

    1. Click the desired heading to select it.




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2. Right-click the heading and choose Edit from the shortcut menu.




3. Type in the new heading and click OK.




     The Heading will now be changed.




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Windows and Views
Overview
Following the completion of a search, Specify can display any of the following four views of the
information in your collection database:
   Grid
   Detail
   Custom
   Report
To switch to a particular view, click the appropriate button at the bottom of the results window:




New Search            Dismisses the results window and redisplays the search setup window.
Print                 Displays the list of available reports.
Export                Displays the Export setup dialog box.
Grid                  Displays the results in the columns defined for the table in the Form
                      Customizer. (The button is disabled in the illustration above because
                      Grid view is already being displayed.)
Detail                Displays the selected result record in its form, in which you can
                      perform editing tasks.
Custom                Displays the results in just those columns selected for display in the
                      search setup window.


The Specify database is an interrelated complex of more than 70 tables and nearly 800 data fields.
Specify simplifies this data model by providing different forms* for the purpose of entering new
values or editing existing ones. Each form displays a specific type of data, which can include values
from the primary table as well as embedded fields from related tables. The tables on which the
forms are based are listed in the navigation panel under the Enter Data or Search & Edit headings.
   If you select a table under the Enter New Data heading, you'll see the data entry form for that
    table, which corresponds to the Detail view described above.
   If you select a table under the Search & Edit heading, you'll see the search setup window, which
    allows you to change the definition of the search before running it. Following the search, the
    results are displayed in Grid view. You can then switch to Custom view or Detail view as
    desired.
Examples of Specify forms include the following:


Collection            This form tracks specimens or specimen lots in the collection catalog.
Objects               Nearly every data field in the Specify database can be associated with
                      a collection object, and the Collection Objects data form is therefore
                      the most versatile and complex data form in the Specify interface. The
                      Collection Objects search setup window is typically the most effective
                      vehicle for searches that relate directly to specimens in the collection.
                      You can use the Collection Objects window to find all specimens of a
                      specific species or to determine which collection objects were found at
                      a specific location.



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 Localities            This form displays information on the locations in which specimens
                       were collected: place name, country, state, county, section, township,
                       range, latitude, longitude, elevation.
 Agents                This form focuses on data related to persons, groups, or organizations
                       referenced in the collection catalog. Use the Agents window to manage
                       information such as the mailing address and phone number of a
                       museum curator requesting a loan.
 Taxon Name            This form lets you restrict and modify the taxonomic information used
                       in Specify. You can change the spelling of a taxon or change a taxon's
                       position in the taxon tree.
 * Forms in Specify correspond to views in database terminology. However, the term view, in
 Specify, refers only to the three ways of displaying data in the results window: Grid view, Custom
 view, and Detail view. Finally, the Detail view is identical to a Specify form. It also appears when
 you select a table under the Enter New Data heading in the navigation panel.
 Search Setup Window
 The search setup window is one of three kinds of workspaces that appear on the right side of the
 main window in Specify 5.2, but it's called the search setup window because that is the one you will
 see first when you create or open a search:




 In its simple form, the search setup window consists of zero or more condition rows that define the
 conditions each record must satisfy to be included in the search results. Note that checking a box in
 the Display column affects the Custom view rather than the Grid view. To see more on adding or
 removing condition rows, refer to The Search Tree under Searching Data.
 Result Windows
 The results can be displayed in one of three formats; Grid View, Detail View, or Custom View. Grid
 View displays a list of records meeting the conditions with the data from pre-identified fields (default
 is the first five fields). Detail View displays the first record from the list of records generated. You
 can then move between the records by clicking arrows presented at the bottom of the screen.
  Custom View displays a list of records meeting the conditions, but only the data from the condition
 rows is presented in this screen.
 The format is chosen by clicking the arrow next to the Search button and selecting from the list
 presented. The default format is Grid View. You can move between formats once in the Result
 Window.


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                                                                                         Specify 5.2 Help


Grid View
Detail View
Custom View
Grid View
The Grid view appears when Specify has completed the search defined in the search setup
window.




You'll use the horizontal and vertical scroll bars to inspect the results. Each row displays a separate
record, and each column of that row is a field in the record.
You can drag a column to the left or right, and its new position will persist through additional
searches of the same table. However, the change to the Grid view is not permanent. If you search
a different table and then return to the earlier search, the column you moved will be reinstated in its
default position.



In addition, from the Grid view of your search results, you can use the button bar (above) to do any
of the following:
Action                                             Click
Return to the search setup window.                 New Search
Print the Grid view results.                       Print
Export the Grid view results to a file. To         Export
learn more, refer to Exporting a Search.
Display the selected record in its form and        Detail
edit it if desired. To learn more, refer to
Detail View.
Display the results in Custom view (shows          Custom
only columns selected in the condition
rows). To learn more, refer to Custom
View.


In some result windows, the Grid view has a set of tabs, which means that you can choose from
two or more Grid views of the information. Each subtab displays records of a particular type. For


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 example, Browse views for the People, Organizations, and Others searches include tabs for Group,
 Other, People, and Organization.
 You can generate reports from either the Grid view or the Custom view.
 Detail View
 The Detail view appears when you:
     Run a search then click the Detail button at the bottom of the Grid view.
     Choose any of the tables under the Enter New Data or Enter New Transactions headings in the
      navigation panel.




 The Detail view displays one record at a time in an arrangement of fields, controls, and subforms
 that is known collectively as a form. You move from record to record by clicking the arrow buttons
 at the bottom of the screen.
 You'll use the Detail view to enter new records and update existing ones, using the New, Edit, and
 Delete buttons to the right of the arrow buttons.


 Custom View
 The Custom view appears when you:
     Run a search then click the Custom button at the bottom of the Grid view.
     Click the Custom button while viewing the Detail view.
 At first glance, the Custom view looks just like the Grid view.




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The difference is in the columns. The Custom view includes columns only for the fields that were
checked for display in the search setup window. Therefore, if you removed all the condition rows
from the search setup window, the Grid view would look the same, but the Custom view would be
empty. If you checked the box in the Display column for just one condition row, there would be just
one column in the Custom view.
You can generate reports from either the Custom view or the Grid view.
The Custom view can display summary information, such as what areas are represented by your
collection or what taxonomy is represented by your collection. This result works as long as you
don't include specimen specific information such as catalog number. For more information, refer to
creating unique lists with no duplicates.
You can also use display formatting to combine fields. See Customizing Display Format
Series and Custom View
If series processing is switched on and CatalogNumber, FieldNumber, or both are selected for
display in the search setup window, Specify displays the series in Custom View. Series on the
Detail view or Grid view appear as records with identical data.
For example, if CatalogNumber, TaxonName, and Locality are selected in the search setup
window, sets of records with consecutive catalog numbers and identical taxon names and localities
are displayed as a series, regardless of whether the specimens differ in other respects.
Adding extra columns to the Custom view
You can add fields to or remove fields from the Custom view, which can then be exported. To do
this, click New Search to return to the setup window, display the search tree, and click the fields to
be added or removed. For more information, refer to the search tree.


From the Custom view of your search results you can use the button bar to do any of the following:


Action                                             Click
Return to the search setup window.                 New Search
Print the Custom view results.                     Print
Export the Custom view results to a file. To       Export
learn more, refer to Exporting a Search.
Switch to the Grid view of the results.            Browse
Display the selected record in its form and        Detail
edit it if desired. To learn more, refer to



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 Detail View.
 Print Options
 When you click the Print button at the bottom of the search results window, Specify displays a list of
 reports:




 From here you can click a report name, then click OK to move through the process of printing a
 report. To review these steps, refer to Printing a Report from the Result Window.


 If you are getting a different window, your express search index may need to be rebuilt. For
 instructions on how to rebuild an express search index refer to Building an Express Search Index
 Table.


 Note: The indexes may need to be rebuilt even if their status is reported as "Up to date".


 Forms Manager Window
 With Specify's new form set feature, you can make modified copies of any of the standard forms
 and save them in a separate location. Special team members can use the customized or simplified
 forms to speed the task of data entry or updating existing specimen information.
 Form sets and the Form Customizer are both accessed via the new Forms Manager window. It's
 displayed when you choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms from the Specify menu bar.




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This window leads to two Specify functions: customizing forms and the creating and editing of form
sets. The illustration above includes two user-added form sets, which can be deleted, in addition to
the <Standard> form set, which cannot be deleted.
Forms Manager Buttons
Edit Form             (Enabled when you have clicked a form in the Forms list. If the form
                      has a plus sign next to it, you have to expand it and click one of the
                      subtypes, like Fish or Fish Preparation under CollectionObject).
                      Clicking this button displays the Form Customizer window, Available
                      Fields list, and Alignment palette for the form you have selected.
New Form Set          Creates a new form set, which you must name and populate using
                      the Add Form button.
Add Form              (Enabled when you've created and selected a form set. For example,
                      if you clicked Simple Data Entry in the illustration above, the Add
                      Form button would be enabled.)
                      Clicking this button displays a list of forms from which you can select
                      the ones you want in your form set. When you select a form, Specify
                      displays the Form Customizer window so that you can simplify the
                      form for the convenience of the persons using the form set.
Delete Form           (Enabled when a custom form set is highlighted.)
Set                   Clicking this button removes the highlighted form set. All the forms
                      remain available in the <Standard> form set.
Delete Form           (Enabled when a form is highlighted within a custom form set.)
                      Clicking this button removes the highlighted form from a form set. All
                      the forms remain available in the <Standard> form set.
Other Forms           Clicking this button displays a list of all the less commonly edited
                      forms in Specify. You can use this for both the Form Customizer and
                      for creating form sets.


Control Overview
In Specify's data forms, the various boxes, buttons, and panels that are used to display data from
your collection are called controls. This page describes the behavior of the most common controls.


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 Related Table Button Control
 A related table button reduces a set of embedded fields from a related table to a single button.




 Clicking a related table button displays a full view of the embedded fields. This option minimizes the
 clutter on the form but requires you to open a separate form to view or edit the embedded fields.
 Drop-Down List Box Control
 A drop-down list box lets you choose from a predefined set of options that is displayed when you
 click the disclosure triangle.




 This reduces the amount of typing you have to do during data entry, and it ensures that the option
 you select is spelled uniformly. One item in the list is always selected by default. You can add items
 to a drop-down list or change the default selection through the Field Properties dialog box in the
 Form Customizer. For more information, refer to Customizing Your Specify Forms.
 Button List Box Control
 A button list box looks like the list box element, but it depicts embedded fields from a related table.




 When you choose an entry in this form of list box, you are actually linking the current record with a
 record in a related table. You can thus select a Specify record directly rather than having to type in
 your choice.
 To operate a button list box, type the first few characters in the box and click the disclosure triangle
 or press the Tab key. You have to type at least one character to see the drop-down list. If you type
 more than one character, you refine the list. For instance, typing G in a taxon table button list box
 gives you a list of all taxon entries starting with G; typing Glyp lists all entries that start with Glyp.

 Clicking the ellipsis button     , on the right side of a button drop-down list, opens the data form
 associated with the list. For example, if the button drop-down list displays taxon entries, the ellipsis
 button invokes the Taxon Name form. You can use the ellipsis button to enter new background
 records (such as accessions and agents) from the Collection Objects form. For more information
 on button list boxes, see Using a Button List Box.
 Yes/No Button Control
 A Yes/No button field can be set to Yes, No, or empty.




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                                                                                         Specify 5.2 Help


The button displays Yes or No to show the current setting. When the field is set to empty, the
button is blank.
Text Field Control
Text Box fields can contain any characters, including letters, numbers, and symbols, but Specify
regards them strictly as characters.




No numerical or date operations can be performed on the contents of a text box. Text boxes are
usually restricted to fifty characters.
Number Box Control
Number boxes can contain only numbers.




Specify ignores any letters or non-numeric symbols in a number box. You can use the Form
Customizer to impose limits on the size and precision of the number associated with a number box.
The Min property causes the field to reject any entries below a specified number. The Max property
causes the field to ignore any entries above a specified number. The Precision property lets you
designate how long and wide the decimal portion of a number entered in the associated field can
be. For more information, refer to Customizing Your Specify Forms.
Date Box Control
Date boxes accept only date-formatted information.



Specify accepts seven date formats. You can specify the data format for a date box through the
Field Properties dialog box in the Form Customizer. For more information, refer to Setting the Date
Format.
Grid Control
A grid displays information from a related table as a scrollable table of columns and rows.




The rows of the grid represent entries in the related table that are associated with the current
object. The grid represents a one-to-many relationship between the current object, such as a
collection event, and a set of related records, such as collectors (one event, many collectors).
Double-clicking an entry in a grid displays the related data form. For instance, if the grid displays
preparations, double-clicking one of its rows opens the Preparation window. If you are adding or
editing an object and you want to add a new entry to a grid, double-click an empty line in the grid.
Subform Controls
A subform shows some or all of the fields from a related table just as they would appear in the main
form for that table. Unlike the other embedded field options, a subform does not require you to



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 open a new form to access the embedded fields. The subform may not contain the full set of fields
 that you would see if you opened the form for its native table.




 You can view, enter, and edit subform fields just as you would any other fields on the form. The
 only way to know that the subform is not part of parent form is that the subform section is
 surrounded with a thin gray box on the parent form. In some cases, the subform also might have its
 own title, which looks like a section title within the parent form. For more information, refer to
 Modifying Subforms.
 Navigation Buttons Control
 The navigation buttons let you move from record to record in Detail view or in a subform.

                   Displays the first record in the
                   search

                   Displays the previous record in
                   the search

                   Displays the next record in the
                   search

                   Displays the last record in the
                   search



 Data Entry and Update Buttons Control
 These buttons let you insert, update, and delete records in your Specify database tables.
                     Clicking New creates a new
                     record in the current table.
                     Clicking Edit lets you make
                     changes to the record
                     currently displayed.
                     Clicking Delete removes the
                     record currently displayed.



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Menus
Overview
The following Help pages describe the commands in Specify's various menus.
Specify Menu Bar
Express Search Configuration Menu Bar
Taxon Menu Bar
Print Preview Menu Bar
Specify Menu Bar




The following tables describe the commands displayed from the Specify menu bar
Return to Menu Overview.
File Menu
The File menu commands are always enabled.


Exit             Closes the Specify application.


Edit Menu
The Edit menu commands are enabled when a value has been selected (Cut, Copy), a value is
currently on the Clipboard (Paste), or when Specify is retaining a field value for re-use (Previous
Entry).


Cut            Places the value you have selected on the Clipboard and removes it from its
               current location.
Copy           Places the value you have selected on the Clipboard without removing it
               from its current location.
Paste          Inserts the value on the Clipboard at the location you have selected.
Previous       Inserts the most recent value (if any) you previously entered for the selected
Entry          field in a data entry form. If you continue to choose Previous Entry, it will
               back up through six more previous entries (if you have typed in that many
               different ones in the current Specify session).
               Shortcuts: Ctrl+Up Arrow moves one value backward.
                         Ctrl+Down moves one value forward.


View Menu
The View menu commands are enabled when the results of a search are being displayed.


Detail                              Display a record highlighted in Browse or Custom view so
                                    that its values appear in the form that was designed for the
                                    corresponding table. Refer to Detail view.
Grid                                Return from Detail or Custom view to show search results in



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                                  a grid. Refer to Grid view.
 Custom                           Display search results in a grid containing only the fields
                                  selected for display in the search setup window. Refer to
                                  Custom view.
 Sort                             (Enabled when the results of an express search are
                                  displayed)
                                  Displays the Sort Order dialog box from which you can
                                  define the field (or column) order in which rows will be
                                  sorted.
 Related Records                  (Enabled when search results are displayed in Detail view)
                                  Displays a submenu showing the names of all the tables for
                                  which Specify has defined relationships to the current table
                                  (the one whose data is shown in the Detail form).
                                  If the record you are inspecting has related records in any of
                                  those tables, their names are enabled (clickable) in the
                                  submenu. If you select one of those tables in the submenu,
                                  it will display the related records in a grid.
 ITIS Information                 Lets you change the web site for the ITIS information.
 SQL                              Display the SQL statement that is derived from the search
                                  setup window.
 Options
                    Search Tree   Displays the Specify search tree above the search setup
                                  window. For more information, refer to The Search Tree,
                                  Adding a Condition Row and Search Tree Icons.
                    Taxon Rank    Pertains to the TaxonNameID table displayed in the search
                    Labels        tree. Before using this option, choose Tools > Taxon Tree
                                  > Automatically Update Taxon Tree Structure Info (to
                                  make sure the taxon tree is built).
                                  When this option is selected, the subheadings under
                                  TaxonNameID in the search tree are Class, Order, Family,
                                  Genus, Subgenus, Species, and Subspecies.
                                  When this option is not selected, the subheadings under
                                  TaxonNameID in the search tree are TaxonName,
                                  Accepted, CommonName, FullTaxonName, Author, Source,
                                  GroupPermittedToView, and Remarks.
                    Series        When this option is selected, you can create several
                    Processing    records at once by entering a range of catalog numbers and
                                  a set of values, which will be identical across all the records
                                  in the specified range.
                                  When the option is not selected, you can modify individual
                                  records within the series, thereby breaking the series into
                                  two or more smaller series. For more information, refer to
                                  Series Processing Overview.
                    Unique        When this option is selected and you are viewing search
                    Results       results in Custom view, only one row is displayed for each
                    Only          unique combination of field values. To learn more, refer to
                                  Display Unique Results Only.
 Auto-Assign Catalog              When this option is selected, Specify assigns catalog



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                                                                                        Specify 5.2 Help


Numbers                          numbers automatically. Switch this feature off if you need to
                                 assign catalog numbers manually. If your organization does
                                 not use catalog numbers, leave the feature switched on to
                                 satisfy the application's requirement for catalog numbers,
                                 and then you can ignore them. Refer to Automatically
                                 Assigning Catalog Numbers.
Carry Forward                    Enabled for data entry functions. When this option is
                                 selected, Specify copies the values you entered in the
                                 previous record to the same fields in the new record. It's a
                                 time saving feature for situations in which many new
                                 records will have identical values in certain fields.
                                 If Carry Forward is selected, Default and Clear are
                                 automatically switched off.
Default                          Enabled for data entry functions. When this option is
                                 selected, Specify copies to the new record any values that
                                 were saved in this form's fields the last time the form was
                                 modified in the Form Customizer.
                                 If Default is selected, Carry Forward and Clear are
                                 automatically switched off.
Clear                            Enabled for data entry functions. When this option is
                                 selected, Specify includes no values in any of the fields of a
                                 new record. The user must enter data in all required fields.
                                 If Clear is selected, Default and Carry Forward are
                                 automatically switched off.


Search Menu
The Search menu commands are enabled whenever a search setup window is open.


Open Table            Displays a comprehensive list of Specify tables, from which
                      you can choose the one upon which you want to run a
                      search.
Create New            Creates a new search setup window for the active table.
Open Existing         Opens a saved search, which you can then modify and/or
                      run.
Save                  Saves the current search under its current name. If the
                      search has not yet been saved, this command automatically
                      changes to Save As.
Save As               Displays a directory dialog box and prompts you to choose
                      a name and location under which to save the current
                      search.
Export                Lets you export the current search definition (not its results)
                      to an .mdb file. Refer to Exporting a Search.
Import                Lets you import a search that was previously exported by
                      Specify. Refer to Importing a Search.
Save As Default       Causes the current search to be displayed automatically
                      whenever you choose the corresponding table from the
                      navigation panel. The previous default search is replaced.




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 Save For Web               Causes the current search to be saved as a web-deployable
                            search page.
 Delete                     Displays a list of saved searches. Click the one you want to
                            delete, then click OK. For more information, refer to
                            Deleting a Search.
 Notes                      Lets you associate a text with the search definition. It is
                            essentially a memo field for the search that has no effect
                            upon the search results.


 Tools Menu
 The Tools menu contains commands that let you modify the way Specify behaves. Some of these
 commands also appear in the navigation panel under the Perform Admin Functions heading.


 User Preferences
                   Choose Focus Color             Lets you modify the color used to highlight subforms
                                                  when editing records.
                   Choose Language                Lets you choose the language that Specify will use
                                                  in its menus, window title bars, dialog boxes, and so
                                                  forth.
                   Choose Form Sets               Lets you choose a group of standard data entry
                                                  forms that have been simplified for speed and ease
                                                  of use.
                   Setup Statistics               Lets you designate whether and how long statistics
                                                  are displayed as you exit Specify. For more
                                                  information, refer to Setting the Database Statistics
                                                  Page.
                   Set Field Masks/Series         Lets you choose how dates, latitudes, longitudes,
                                                  and numeric series are displayed.
                   Set Report Print Options       Displays the Reports Preference dialog box, from
                                                  which you can switch on a dialog box that allows
                                                  you to print duplicate reports.
 Admin
                   Batch Edit                     Enabled when search results are displayed. Lets
                                                  you update a single field in all records in the current
                                                  table with a new value. For more information, refer
                                                  to Batch Editing.
                   Batch Identification           Lets you change, in one operation, the identification
                                                  information of a group of specimens. For more
                                                  information, refer to Batch Identification.
                   Remove Duplicates              Enabled when any table's edit or data entry form is
                                                  open. Lets you remove from the table any records
                                                  whose values in every field exactly duplicate those
                                                  of other records. Refer to Removing Duplicate
                                                  Records.
                   Customize Forms                Displays the Forms Manager window, in which you
                                                  can choose a form you need to modify. For more
                                                  information, refer to Customizing Your Specify



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                          Forms.
 Express Search           Displays the Bulk Insert Settings dialog box, from
 Configuration            which you can advance to the procedure of building
                          one or more express search index tables. For more
                          information, refer to Overview of Express Searching.
 Manage User Accounts     Lets you add, modify, and delete user accounts. For
                          more information, refer to Introduction to Specify
                          Security.
 Modify Collection        Displays the Preferences Collection dialog box, in
 Properties               which you can designate whether to display sub-
                          species in the taxon name.
 Backup Database          Lets you initiate a backup of your Specify database.
                          Refer to Backing Up a Database.
 Restore Database         Lets you restore your Specify database from a
                          backup copy. Refer to Restoring a Database.
DiGIR Settings
 Export DiGIR Metadata    Creates a file from the user's database to enable the
                          Specify team to create a search that corresponds to
                          the DiGIR Darwin core requirements.
 Import DiGIR Search      Imports the search created by the Specify team.
                          This can be run against the database and create a
                          DiGIR cache, a copy of the data generated by
                          Specify in a format suitable for DiGIR.
 Update DiGIR Data        Runs the search imported by the command
                          described above to create the DiGIR cache.
                          Because the cache is not live data, this will need to
                          be re-run to keep the data updated.
 Edit DiGIR Settings      Modify information used by DiGIR but not by
                          Specify, such as- institution name. This is entered
                          during the Export process, but you can change it as
                          needed.
Web Settings
 Web Server               You'll need to have at least one saved search to use
 Configuration            this option, which helps you set up the Specify Web
                          Interface.
 Edit Web Page            The HTML statements that are embedded in the
 Templates                Search Parameter section can also be edited.
 Edit Search Parameter    The Specify HTML pages can be edited for selecting
 Table                    a search (if more than one), search parameters,
                          search results and web search logs.
 Export and Delete Web    Clears out the Web Query Log table to a file named
 Search Log               by the user. This information can be viewed using
                          the Specify Web Interface application.
 External Link Settings   Lets you designate the web address of an
                          organization, such as ITIS, from which taxon data
                          can be downloaded.
 Report Designer          Displays a list of available reports, which includes
                          such functions as adding, editing, and deleting


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                                                  reports. Refer to Reports Overview.
 Taxon Tree
                   View Taxon Tree                Displays the taxon tree. Refer to the Taxon Tree.
                   Import Taxon Data              Lets you import taxon data from a file. Refer to
                                                  Importing Information from a Taxon Database.
                   Taxon Rank Display             Displays the Collection preference, in which you can
                   Settings                       opt to display sub-specific rank indicators for the
                                                  selected collection.
                   Show Synonymized               Displays prior taxon names along with current
                   Taxon Entries                  names.
                                                  When this option is selected during data entry, if you
                                                  select a synonymized taxon, you are asked to
                                                  confirm before allowing Specify to save the record.
                                                  Refer to Synonymizing a Taxon.
                   Automatically Update           Causes Specify to redraw the taxon tree whenever
                   Taxon Tree Structure           changes have been made to it. Refer to Updating
                   Info                           the Taxon Tree.


 Help Menu


 Contents and               Displays the Contents, Index, and Search tabs of Specify's
 Index                      Help system.
 About Specify              Displays the version number of the Specify build you are
                            viewing.


 Express Search Configuration Menu Bar




 The following tables describe the commands displayed from the Express Search Configuration
 menu bar. To review express searching, refer to Overview of Express Searching.
 Return to Menu Overview.
 File Menu


 Close             Dismisses the Express Search Configuration dialog box.


 Actions Menu
 The Actions menu commands are enabled when a table is selected in the Expression Search
 Configuration dialog box.


 Build             Builds an index table for the selected standard table. Refer to
                   Building an Express Search Index Table.
 Edit              Lets you modify the way Specify builds the index table for the
                   selected standard table.



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Clear           Deletes the index table, if any was previously built for the selected
                table.
Update          (Enabled if the selected standard table has changed since you last
                built an index table for it.) Lets you bring the index table up to date by
                incorporating changes made to the standard table. Refer to Updating
                an Express Search Index Table.


Settings Menu


Bulk Insert      Displays the Bulk Insert Settings dialog box so that you can reenter
Settings         your administrator identification information.


Taxon Menu Bar




The following tables describe the commands displayed from the Taxon menu bar. For more
information, refer to Managing Specify Taxa.
Return to Menu Overview.
Taxon Menu


Find                     Displays the Enter Taxon Name dialog box, in which you
                         can enter a taxon to be searched for.
Find Next                Enabled after the Find command has selected the first
                         occurrence of the taxon you are seeking. Choosing Find
                         Next searches for the next occurrence in the tree.
Details                  Displays the Taxon Details form.
Delete                   Removes the selected taxon after first prompting you to
                         confirm the deletion.
Edit                     Lets you edit the record of the selected taxon.
New                      Creates a new taxon record.
Drag to                  When checked, this option allows you to replace taxon A
synonymize               with taxon B by dragging A to B in the tree. Taxon A then
                         becomes the past determination, and taxon B becomes the
                         current determination. Refer to Synonymizing a Taxon.
Mark taxon               Works like a bookmark. The taxon you mark is displayed in
                         the lower left corner of the Taxon window.




Go to mark               Enabled if you used Mark taxon (above) to bookmark a



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                         taxon. Choosing Go To Mark takes you back to the marked
                         taxon.
 Move mark               Enabled if you used Mark taxon (above) to bookmark a
                         taxon and you then selected a parent node that is different
                         from the parent of the marked taxon. Choosing Move Mark
                         moves the marked taxon to the selected parent's node. You
                         are asked to confirm the move.
 ITIS information        Displays the web page that contains ITIS information about
                         the taxon selected in the tree.
 Update taxa tree        Rebuilds the taxon tree following any additions, deletions,
                         moves, or "synonymizations." Refer to Updating the Taxon
                         Tree.
 Select data to          Displays the Select Taxonomic Authority File dialog box,
 import                  from which you can select the .mdb file you want to import.
                         Refer to Importing Information from a Taxonomy Database.
 Import                  Imports the file you selected above.
 Redisplay Local         Restores the window to your Specify taxon tree after
 Taxonomic Data          displaying the tree from the external file.
 Automatically           If checked, this feature performs the Update Taxa Tree
 Update Tree             command (described above) each time you modify the
 Structure Info          taxon tree. If not checked, the item has no effect.
 Show Number of          If checked, this feature displays the aggregate number of
 Valid Species and       species and subspecies in brackets to the right of the genus
 Subspecies              taxon and all taxa above it.




                         If not checked, no counts are displayed.
 Exit                    Closes the taxon tree window.


 Help Menu
 Clicking the Help menu displays the Contents, Index, and Search tabs of Specify's Help system.
 Print Preview Menu Bar




 The following tables describe the commands displayed from the Print Preview menu bar. To review
 Specify's reporting features, refer to Reports Overview.
 Return to Menu Overview.
 File Menu


 Open                    Lets you open a Rave print file.




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Save As             Lets you save the report preview to a file in any of the
                    following formats: web page (HTML), Rich Text File (RTF),
                    Rave snapshot, Text (txt), or Acrobat (PDF).
Print               Send the report to a printer.
Exit                Dismiss the Print Preview window.


Page Menu
First               Display the first page of the report.
Previous            Display the page before the one on the screen.
Next                Display the page after the one on the screen.
Last                Display the last page of the report.
Go to Page          Display the entered in this box.


Zoom Menu
Zoom In             Enlarge the view.
Zoom Out            Show more of the page.
Fit to Page         Display the page within the vertical and horizontal
                    dimensions of the window.
Fit to Page Width   Display the page within the horizontal dimensions of the
                    window.




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 Data Entry

 Overview
 You can enter data into Specify's database tables using a wide variety of data forms accessible via
 the navigation panel. Each form presents a different view of your collection's data. Moreover, with
 the aid of form sets, you can customize forms for individual users or for special projects.
 The default data forms used by Specify's sample Fishdemo database are listed below. Specify
 experts can customize their data entry forms. For more information, refer to Customizing Specify
 Forms.
 The Collection Data category includes the following forms and a link to other forms. Click the View
 link to see how the form looks in the Fishdemo database. Click outside the popup window to
 dismiss it.


 Collection         A collection object is anything that can be a part of your collection-for
 Objects            example, a specimen, a sound recording, a slide, a tissue, an extract, or
 Form               a spectrogram. When you add a new specimen to your collection, you
 View               enter a new collection object using the Collection Objects data form.
                    When you search for a specimen record in your Specify collections
                    database, the search results appear in the Collection Objects data form.
 Collecting         A collecting event is a particular time and place or expedition in which
 Events Form        specimens, generally referred to as objects or items, are collected.
 View
 Localities         The Localities form lets you define a location where one or more
 Form               specimens were collected. You can then reference the location record
 View               when entering collection objects that were found at that location. The
                    look of the Localities data form changes slightly if you take advantage of
                    Specify's optional Latitude/Longitude subform.
 Agents Form        An agent is a person or organization that is associated with your
 View               collection. Examples are collectors, authors, permit issuers, and
                    organizations that borrow specimens from your collection.
 TaxonName          The TaxonName form allows you to keep track of the hierarchy of
 Form               taxonomic names used in your collection.
 View
 References         A reference is any publication that is associated with taxon, locality,
 Form               collection objects, or any other field linked to a collection.
 View
 Geography          The Geography form allows you to keep track of geographic locations in
 Form               Specify's geography database.
 View
 Project Form       The Project form allows you to keep track of the research project under
 View               which data was collected.

 Other              Displays the complete list of tables from which you can select


 The Transactions category includes seven forms:



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Accessions          When a group of objects is formally admitted into a collection, all the
Form                objects in that group share a common accession number and other
View                common attributes- agents, dates, and so forth- that are defined for
                    the accession. Those attributes are entered and updated in the
                    Accessions form.
Deaccession         When a group of objects is formally removed from a collection, all
Form                objects in that group share a common deaccession number and other
View                common attributes- agents, dates, and so forth- that are defined for
                    the deaccession. Those attributes are entered and updated in the
                    Deaccession form.
Gift Form           The Gift form contains information on objects leaving your collection
View                to be donated to another organization and not to be returned.

Loan Form           The Loan form contains information on objects loaned to other
View                institutions.

Permit Form         Whenever your organization is required to obtain a permit to collect
View                specimens or other objects at a - locality, all identifying information-
                    start and end dates, issuer, restrictions, and so forth- for the permit is
                    entered and maintained in the Permit form.
Borrow Form         When your collection borrows a group of objects from another
View                collection, all objects in the borrowed group share a common set of
                    attributes- agents, dates, and so forth- that are defined for the
                    borrowing. Those attributes are entered and updated in the Borrow
                    form. This function is used for record keeping only: borrowed
                    specimens or items do not become part of your collection.
Shipment            The Shipment form allows you to keep track of the shipment
Form                information for any of your collection objects.
View
Related Topics
Entering Background Data
How Editing Affects Related Records




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 How Editing Affects Related Records
 If you edit a record in one table, the change is automatically reflected in records in other tables that
 are related to it. For example, if you change the spelling of the Last Name field in an agent record,
 the name change will also appear in DeaccessionAgents, LoanAgents, Authors, and so forth.
 You'll occasionally need to remove records that were entered more than one time for the same
 individual entity but with slightly different spellings. You remove such records to clean up situations
 where records on one table should all be linked to the same individual in a related table. Suppose,
 for example, that some records in LoanAgents are linked to "Burton Davis" in the Agents table, but
 others are linked to "B. Davis", and still others to "Burt Davis". All should be linked only to "Burton
 Davis".
 If there are several slightly differing entries for one agent (or locality or stratigraphy -- the principle
 applies to all tables), use the Batch Edit function to assign the correct (and identical) values to each
 of them, then use the Remove Duplicates function. Alternatively, you could manually edit each
 record and make it the same as the others and then use Remove Duplicates. The Remove
 Duplicates function assures that all related entities maintain their relationship with the appropriate
 primary record.
 Related Topics
 Data Entry Overview
 Entering Background Data




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Entering Background Data
Many of Specify's data forms are linked to one another via embedded fields. Because of this
embedding, you can enter all the necessary data for a specimen through the Collection Objects
data form.
However, if you are entering multiple specimens from the same expedition, you will find that it is
more straightforward to pre-enter certain background information for the sake of uniform spelling,
punctuation, and capitalization. The following sections discuss how to predefine:
   Localities, the information related to the place where an object was found, and
   Agents, the person or persons who played a role in collecting and processing the specimen.
After you define a background record such as a locality or agent, that record is displayed in drop-
down list box within the Collection Objects data form.




You can simply choose the record from the drop-down list rather than having to enter the relevant
data directly through the Collection Objects form.
Specify also lets you track other preliminary data; such as accessions, if your collection uses them.
For more information, see Entering an Accession Record.
Taxonomic authority files are also background data. Taxonomic authority files should be
downloaded before you begin entering specimen records. For more information, see Importing
Information from a Taxon Database.
Related Topics
Data Entry Overview
How Editing Affects Related Records




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 Data Entry Outline
 This page describes a typical data entry session that might occur when a collector returns from a
 collecting event:
1. The Specify user enters an agent record for each collector who participated in the collecting
   event. The agent record includes the collector’s name and optional contact information. He also
   enters an agent record for the person who identified the specimen.
2. The Specify user enters a locality record for the collecting event, detailing legal and
   geographical data associated with the site.
3. The user enters each specimen obtained from the expedition as a collection object record. The
   collection object record references the locality and agent data entered in the preceding steps.
   Notes on the locality and specimen are entered with the collection object.
 After you become familiar with the Specify user interface, you will notice that it is also possible to
 enter most collection data in the Collection Objects form. Entering locality and agent records
 directly from the Collection Objects form is often the fastest method, especially when you are
 entering only one specimen with unique auxiliary information.
 For functions related to loans, borrows, deaccessions, accessions, permits or shipments, begin
 with Transactions Overview.




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General Data Entry Procedures
Starting Specify
This section and the Setting Up Your Specify Database section of this guide will give you an
overview of the considerations and the steps required when installing and setting up Specify. For
complete instructions on installing and setting up Specify, please refer to the Specify 5.2 Installation
and Setup Guide.
After Installation, there are three scenarios for beginning to use Specify:
1. Attach the demonstration database (see Attach a Blank Database and replace Blank Database
   with fishdemo in the instructions) and begin testing.
2. Attach the Blank database (see Attach a Blank Database), set up and customize Specify as
   described in the Installation Manual, and begin entering your specimen and transaction data
   from your legacy system one field at a time. We ask that you register your collection with the
   Specify Software Project. To see how to register, please refer to Becoming a Registered User.
3. Attach a database containing your existing data which has been migrated into the Specify
   format. Once you have evaluated Specify and have committed to using it to manage your
   collections, we ask that you register your collection with the Specify Software Project - see
   Becoming a Registered User. If your registration is accepted, our staff will convert any existing
   computerized data into Specify and return it to you. No automated import function is included in
   Specify 5.2.

To start the Specify application:
1. Choose Start > All Programs>Specify>Specify.




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       The Specify login screen appears. The Server and Database fields are already filled in.




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2. Make sure the server name is correct, then, if necessary, select a different database from the
   drop-down menu.

    If the server name is not correct, enter the desired server name, database name, user name
    and password for an existing database. If you suspect that no database has been attached yet,
    refer to Attaching a Database.
3. Enter a user name and password for the database you chose in step 2.
4. Click OK. If you are logging into a database that you have just attached, Specify will take a few
   seconds, or a few minutes depending on the size of the database, to update. Click OK in each
   of the following dialog boxes.




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5. Click the OK button to continue.
 Creating a New Record in Any Form
 The following generic procedure shows you how to add a new record to any of your Specify tables.
 It does not discuss specific data entry controls, such as text boxes, subforms, or Yes/No fields,
 within the forms.

 To create a new record:
1. Go to the navigation panel and click either the Enter New Data or the Enter New Transactions
   heading, but don't select a form yet.
2. From the Specify menu bar, click the View menu to determine what information, if any, will be
   filled in automatically.




       If Carry Forward is selected, then all values from the main form of the current record will be
        copied (carried forward) to their respective fields in the next new record.
       If Defaults is selected, then any preset values entered at the time the form was last modified
        will appear in the next new record. For more information, see Customizing Your Specify
        Forms.




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      If Clear is selected, then all fields will be blank in every new record.
3. From the options just described, choose the one you want to apply to your data entry form.
4. In the navigation panel, click the desired form under the Enter New Data or the Enter New
   Transactions heading. The corresponding data entry form is displayed with a new record ready
   for you to fill in. It may have some values filled in, depending on your View menu choice in step
   3.

    In some cases, you'll need to complete an intermediate step. Depending on the window you are
    using, you may be asked to choose a record type. This is because some windows allow you to
    create several kinds of records, and Specify needs to know which kind you want to create..




    Select the desired record type and click OK.

    In the data entry form, you should be able see all or most of the commonly used fields without
    having to scroll. If necessary, drag the lower-right corner of the window to maximize your view.
    Or, use the scroll bar along the right edge of the window to move within the data form.

5. Click in the desired fields (text boxes, lists, etc.), and then enter and select the appropriate
   information. You can move from field to field by pressing the Tab key. If the field caption is
   displayed in bold text, it is a required field and you must enter a value. You cannot save a
   record until all required fields are filled in. You can cycle through recently typed values for a field
   using the Ctrl and arrow keys.

    Any buttons labeled More are inaccessible when entering new data. For help with button list
    boxes, refer to Using a Button List Box.
6. When you have completed your data entry for the record, click Save at the bottom of the form.
   The Save and Cancel buttons now change to New, Edit, and Delete At this point, you can
   create another new record, modify the record in the form (the one you just added), or delete the
   record you just added.
7. To add the next record, click the New button at the bottom of the form. (A second New button
   may be displayed inside the form. Use that New button only when creating related records for
   the primary record you are adding.)
8. Repeat steps 5-7 for each additional new record.




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       Important: Each field name in any given table must be different and must differ by more than a
       special character (i.e. ?, &, *, etc.). For example, a table with fields named count and counts is
       fine, but count and count? is not. If the names are not the same searches and search builds will
       become confused and send out error reports. To change field names, refer to Changing Field
       Properties.
 Updating an Existing Record
 You'll use the following steps to display a record so that you can change or add to the information
 stored in it. For simplicity, the procedure uses the CollectionObject form as its example, but it can
 be applied to any form.

 To update an existing record:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click CollectionObject.




       The search setup window appears on the right, showing several blank condition rows. If you
       were updating a record in a different form, you would choose it here either under the Search &
       Edit Data heading or under the Search & Edit Transactions heading.
2. Fill in condition rows as necessary to display the desired record. For the CollectionObject form
   used in this example, you might enter just the catalog number of the object you want to update.
   This number would go in the Criteria box in the first row.




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3. Click Search at the bottom of the window. Specify displays the record or records in Grid view.




4. To edit the record, first click Detail at the bottom of the window. Specify redisplays the first
   record in the form that was defined for its table:




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5. Click Edit to put Specify into update mode for this record. You can then select the desired part
   of the information to add to or change.
6. Make your changes. You may need to scroll the tab or enlarge the window by dragging its
   lower-right corner. You can restore the original values at any time (before you click Save) by
   clicking Cancel.
7. Click Save to confirm the changes.
8. To clear the window, click Specify at the top of the navigation panel.
Note: If the field you are editing is in grid format, clicking a partially concealed record will
automatically create a new record. If Specify is set for Carry Forward, the record may look like the
record you clicked on. Editing the record will create a new record instead of updating the original
record.
 Deleting a Record




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In the following procedure, you'll run a search for the record you need to delete, then delete it from
the Detail view.
Important: You cannot delete a secondary record that is related to a primary record (for example, a
locality record that is related to specimen record). Therefore, you must always delete the higher
(more inclusive) record before Specify will let you delete the lower one.

To delete a record:
1. Go to the navigation panel and select the desired table under either the Search & Edit Data
   heading or the Search & Edit Transactions heading.
 2. Create a search that will display the record you need to delete.
 3. Run the search by clicking the Search button at the bottom of the search setup window.
 4. When the Grid view of the results is displayed, scroll to the desired row (if your search
    returned more than one result row) and click the row to highlight it.
 5. Click the Detail button to display the record in its form.
 6. Click Delete at the bottom of the form.

     The Confirm dialog box asks you to make sure you want to delete the record.




 7. Click Yes. You're done.
Using a Button List Box
The button list box is displayed on nearly every Specify form. It is a portal to records in a related
table, typically agents or localities. The box allows you to retrieve a record from the related table to
insert in the current form. If Specify can't locate the related record, based on the first several letters
you type, it will allow you to create a new one (new agent, new locality, etc.) while you are still in
the primary form. This is convenient because it means you don't have to spend time opening the
form of the related table to add the new record.
The disadvantage of this convenience is that the desired record may actually be in the related
table, with a different spelling or word order, for example, "Spencer, David A." instead of "Dave
Spencer". Therefore, if you create a new related record with "Dave Spencer" in the related table,
you end up with duplicate records for the same entity. Some of your specimen records are linked to
"Spencer, David A.", others to "Dave Spencer", and others possibly to "D. A. Spencer". For that
reason, it's a good idea to enter as many records as possible in the related tables when you are
first setting up your Specify system and keep a list of the spellings used in those tables for the use
or your data entry people.
If you discover that you have a problem with duplicate records, you can remove them, and Specify
will automatically repair links between primary and related tables in the process. To learn more,
refer to Removing Duplicate Records.

To use a button list box:
1. Type the desired word or phrase or just the first few letters. You can use an asterisk (*) as a
   wildcard character at the beginning of or in the middle of the search string. It is not necessary to
   insert the character at the right end of the search string.



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2. Press Tab. Specify searches the related table and displays the closest match.
    If you type a word or phrase that is already in the related table for this field, Specify
      automatically accepts your entry and moves to the next data entry field.
    If the word or phrase that you type is not found, Specify displays your entry, followed by
      <Add>, and a list of near matches that are already on file.
3. Do one of the following:
    Click the desired item from among the near matches. The name is displayed in the button
      list box.
    To add a new item to the related table, click the <Add> item in the list. (Only list boxes with
      the ellipses button allow you to add.)
 Note: To delete a misspelled entry from the list, you must delete the original record after editing all
 the links that lead to it.
 Retrieving Recent Values Retained in Fields
 Specify retains the last seven values that were entered for a field during a session. To cycle
 through the past seven values entered for a particular field, use Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow.
 This works for text, number fields, or list buttons.
 Using a Bar Code Reader
 Specify lets you enter a catalog number (or any relevant data field) using a bar code reader.
 Specify's bar code feature works with any bar code format that is supported by Windows.
 A bar code reader is useful in the following scenarios:
      Data entry — A bar code sticker representing the catalog number is placed on a specimen in
       the field. The catalog number associated with the bar code is then recorded with the field data.
       When the specimen is entered into Specify, the user places the cursor in the Catalog Number
       field of the Collection Objects form and scans the bar code. The bar code appears in the
       Catalog Number field. The user then enters other data associated with the specimen in the data
       entry form. In this case, the bar code reader does not save very much time or very many
       keystrokes (since the bar code reader only enters one field and the user must type the rest), but
       it does provide a means for ensuring the uniqueness of the catalog number and reducing the
       possibility of a data entry error.
      Search — A collector or museum visitor arrives with a specimen from the museum and wants to
       see all available data on the object. The Specify user sets up a search of collection objects with
       Catalog Number as a search criterion. Before running the search, the user selects the criteria
       box and scans the bar code to enter the specimen's catalog number. The user can then run the
       search and click the Detail button to display data associated with the collection object.
      Loans — A group of specimens is loaned to another museum. The Specify user employs the
       bar code reader to enter the catalog numbers of the loaned items into the Loan data form.
 Specify treats the bar code reader as an ordinary data entry device. No special configuration within
 Specify is necessary. Refer to your bar code reader documentation for instructions on how to install
 and configure the bar code reader in Windows. Once the bar code reader is successfully installed
 and configured, it should work automatically in Specify as long as you are using one of the bar
 code formats given above. Make sure you select the field where you wish to place the bar code
 data.
 The bar code reader can be used to fill information on any alphanumeric, numeric or alpha field
 depending on the type of bar code. Specify also lets you print a bar code as part of a report.
 Depending on the practices of your institution, you may have other uses for a bar code reader.
 There are options for creating a relationship between the bar code and the catalog number in the
 case that they are different. This specific function is called Number Catalog Lookup. If you are
 using bar codes and your bar codes are different than your catalog number and you would like to
 use your bar codes for easy entry on loan object entry, please contact the Specify Project.
 For information on printing a bar code with a report, contact the Specify Project.


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Collection Objects
Entering a Collection Object
The following procedure describes how to enter a collection object. Specify forms are customizable.
If the default forms include fields you do not want (or do not include fields that you do want), you
can change the form to provide more efficient data entry for your collection. For more information,
see Customizing Your Specify Forms and Herbarium Information.
1. Go to the navigation panel and click Collection Objects under the Enter New Data heading.
2. A new Collection Objects record is displayed in its form.
3. If necessary, enter a catalog number for the specimen. If your preferences are set to
   Automatically Assign Catalog Numbers, a catalog number is automatically assigned to the
   specimen.
    Note: The CatalogNumber field requires a numeric value. Even if your institution does not use
    catalog numbers to classify specimens, you must enter a catalog number. If your institution
    does not assign catalog numbers to specimens and you do not want to create a unique catalog
    number, you can configure Specify to assign catalog numbers automatically. To do this, choose
    View > Auto-Assign Catalog Numbers.

    Only Administrator, Manager, and Full Access security levels give access to this feature.
    Furthermore, you can't switch on Auto-Assign Catalog Numbers if Series Processing is
    selected.
4. If necessary, choose a different series name from the drop-down list. By default, Specify uses
   the default catalog series MAIN.




    For more information, refer to Choosing a Collection Configuration.
5. Move down to the next group of fields on the form.
6. Enter the taxon name for the specimen in the TaxonName field. The easiest way to ensure a
   match with the taxon database is to choose the taxon from the drop-down list. Enter the first few
   characters of the taxon name in the TaxonName field, then click the triangle. A list of taxa with
   matching first characters appears. Select the taxon you are looking for.




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       If the determination selected is a synonymized taxon, a menu with several options will be
       presented. The determination can be changed to the current synonymized taxon by selecting
       Replace .... The selected taxon can be kept by selecting Create a new current determination....
       The determination can be changed to a completely different taxon by selecting Nothing. I will
       edit the determination myself.




7. If the taxon name you are searching for does not appear you may enter a new taxon name from
   this form. You can enter a new taxon from the taxon name form by clicking the ellipsis button.
   Refer to Entering a New Taxon Name.
       The Current button should be set to Yes (the default) unless the determination for the specimen
       is no longer current. Every time you enter a new determination, that determination becomes the
       current determination for that specimen.
Note: One specimen can have more than one determination. For instance, a herbarium specimen
might receive one determination in the field and a different determination later. Or, two experts may
disagree on the determination. Specify supports multiple determinations for a single specimen. To
enter a new determination for an existing specimen record, click the Edit button at the bottom of the



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Collection Objects form and then click the New button under the TaxonName/Determiner section of
the form. Choose the new taxon name, set the Current field to Yes and save the new determination.
You can page through the different entries using the subform navigation buttons.
8. Click the triangle beside the TypeStatus field to choose a type status setting.
9. Now move on to the DeterminerID field, which is an agent field.
         If the person who identified the specimen has been entered as an agent record in the
          Specify database, type the first letter of the person’s last name and then click the triangle
          next to the name.
         If the determiner is not currently entered as an agent, click the ellipsis (…) button and
          enter a new agent record. Refer to Entering an Agent Record.
**Important**: Do not change the PreparationID field into subform format. Attempts to create or edit
records will result in error boxes. If this does happen, change the field back to the list button format
and restart Specify. To see how to change a field's format, refer to Changing a Field Type.
10. Move to the Locality field and enter the first few characters of the locality name, then click the
    triangle to browse for the event.
11. If the locality is not already entered in the Specify database, you can enter it by clicking the
    ellipsis button and providing the necessary information. Refer to Entering a Locality.
12. Enter a collection date and any notes on the locality or habitat.
13. Move to the Collectors grid if there is one. Otherwise, skip to step 19.
    Note: Depending on the type of collection or set of forms you are using, there may be no
    Collectors subform on your Collection Objects main form. Alternatively, there may be a Collector
    button instead of a Collector area. If the latter is the case, check with your form customization
    expert or the Specify Project team.
14. The Collectors grid lists the names of the collectors involved in the collecting event. To add a
    collector, double-click the highlighted blank line in the grid. The Collectors form appears.




    A collector entry is a reference to an agent record. Therefore, the collector you specify must be
    listed as an agent in the Specify database.
15. Do one of the following:
         If the collector is currently listed as an agent, type the first letter of the collector’s last name
          in the Collector field. Then click the triangle, and select the collector from the drop-down
          list.




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           If the collector is not currently listed in the Agents database, you can add the collector to
            the agents list by clicking the ellipsis button to the right of the Collector field. Refer to
            Entering an Agent Record.
16. Move to the Order field, which is a required field that gives the rank this collector will have in the
    collector list.
17. Enter an integer value in the Order field. Collector order refers to the hierarchy among two or
    more collectors. If a collector worked alone, you can accept the default value of 1 and enter
    nothing. If more than one collector is responsible, you must set a collector order for that
    collection. For example, if Alpha and Beta are collecting and Alpha is the senior collector who
    enters the specimen in her field book, Alpha should be considered Collector 1 and Beta would
    be Collector 2. This would mean that Alpha's name would show up first on the labels.
       Note: The Collector Order number is not the same as the CollectorID number. The CollectorID
       number always stays the same for a given collector. Collector Order numbers apply only to a
       given collection because in another collection, Beta might take the lead and Alpha would be
       filling a secondary role.


    The button list box at the bottom of the Collectors form displays the collecting event ID. This field
    is filled in automatically.
18. When you have finished entering the collector, the order, and any relevant remarks, click the
    Save button in the Collectors form. The collector entry appears in the Collector list of the
    Collection Objects form.
19. Move to the Prep and Use Info field.
       Note: The Prep and Use Info field lets you create a physical object for the specimen. You can
       create multiple physical objects from one specimen. A physical object lets you track
       preparations derived from the specimen independently. Each physical object is associated with
       a preparation type setting that describes the final form of the specimen (depending on what type
       of collection you are working with — dried, fluid, skeleton, skin, tissue, slide, etc.).

       If you plan to use Specify's loan feature, you must create a physical object. If you are not going
       to loan the specimen, a physical object is not required. The Loaned Information field displays
       the current loan number if the physical object is now on loan.
20. Click the triangle beside the Object Type box to choose a preparation method for the physical
    object. You can also enter a count, which is the number of objects/sheets that, for example, are
    grouped together and treated as a single preparation entity.

       If the physical object is currently loaned, the Loan Information field displays the loan ID of the
       loan associated with the physical object. This field is for inspection only. To associate an object
       with a loan, refer to Entering a Loan.




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21. To create another physical object, click the New button in the Prep and Use Info subform.
22. The Counts box allows for more in depth information on the characteristics and numbers of
    specimens. Counts may be on the form in button, grid, or subform format.




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       Note: The attributes listed depend on the type of collection you are using (e.g., age, sex, mass,
       condition, stage, reproductive condition, Snout Vent Length (SVL), tail length, total length,
       remarks, color in life). Not all of these attributes are relevant for every collection.
23. When you have finished entering your attribute information, click Save in the Attributes subform.
24. When you have finished entering data in the Collection Objects data form, click the Save button
    at the bottom of the form.
 Adding a Preparation
 In this procedure you'll display a record for a specimen and add one or more preparations to that
 record's information.

 To add a preparation:
1. Follow the steps in Updating an Existing Record until you have displayed the desired
   specimen's record in Detail view and clicked the Edit button.
2. Click the Prep and Use Info box or button. Specify highlights the entire subform. If Preparation
   is in the form of a button or a grid, clicking the button or double clicking on a blank line (in the
   grid format) will take you to a new subform. (The Preparations section might look different from
   the illustration below).




3. Click New at the bottom of this panel.
4. Enter values into as many fields as desired.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 as many times as you have preparations to add to the collection object's
   record. It is not necessary to save after each addition.
6. When you're finished adding preparation methods, click Save at the bottom of the
   CollectionObject form.
 Note: Some subforms may be superfluous in the Prep and Use Info form.
 Changing Determination for a Group of Specimens
 Specify's Batch Identification feature lets you change the determination for a group of specimens
 through one command. This action will change the newly added determination's status to current
 and switch the last entered determination to a non-current status.

 To change determination for a group of specimens:



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1. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Batch Identification. The Batch Specimen
   Identification dialog box appears.
2. In the Selected Records box, enter all the catalog numbers of the specimens to which you wish
   to assign the taxon. Place a comma between numbers. Use a hyphen to denote a series of
   consecutive numbers. For example, enter 18,20-22 for catalog numbers 18, 20, 21, and 22.

    If you enter wrong numbers and click OK, click the ellipsis button to the right of Selected
    Records and reenter the numbers.
3. Select the new taxon name from the TaxonNameID list and add any other pertinent information
   to the form.




4. Click Save. The taxon name is added to all the selected specimens, and that name is set to be
   the current taxon. The status bar at the bottom of the screen is updated with the number of
   records that are modified.
Important: You will not be able to use batch editing if the subform you are editing is in button format.
You will need to change the subform to another format, make the appropriate changes with batch
editor, then change the format back. To see how to change the format, refer to Changing a Field
Type.

 If you want the form to look different or include other fields, such as determiner, use the Customize
 Forms feature to edit the Determination form for the appropriate collection subtype. Refer to
 Customizing Your Specify Forms.




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 Agents
 Entering an Agent Record
 Agent is a Specify database table that contains information about people, groups, and
 organizations. Some roles for an agent include collector, determiner, preparer, cataloger, donor,
 issuer of permits, and so forth. You can enter agents under many different roles on various forms,
 but all names are stored in a single table, so they can be entered once and accessed repeatedly to
 standardize spelling. Because there are four categories of agents, this page directs you to the
 specific kind of agent you will be entering.
 Because there are four categories of agents, this page directs you to the specific kind of agent you
 will be entering.


 Entering an agent as person
 Entering an agent as group
 Entering an agent as organization
 Entering an agent as other


 Entering an Agent Record as Person
 A person agent record represents a person who plays one or more roles in the creation or
 maintenance of a collection. The person may, for example, be a collector, a determiner, a loan
 agent, an author, or the person may assume several of these roles.

 To enter a new agent as a person:

  1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Data heading, and click Agent. The Adding New
     Record.(Agents) dialog box asks you to choose a record type.




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2. Select Person, then click OK. Specify displays a blank record for a new person.




3. Type the person's title, first name, middle initial, and last name in the appropriate boxes. Only
   last name is a required value.
   Note: There is a subform for Agent Address. You can have more than one address per agent
   (such as work, home1, home2). The Agent Last Name field name is displayed for tracking
   purposes. The New button below Agent Last Name lets you add another address. If you click it,
   you will see arrows so you can page through the different options.

4. Click Save.
Entering an Agent as Group
Using the group option lets you group agents into one entity and give it a name. You might use it
when you have a common group of collectors that shows up in a variety of places and you want to
search by that grouping name.

To enter a new agent as a group:

1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Data heading, and click Agent. The Adding New
   Record.(Agents) dialog box asks you to choose a record type.




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  2. Select Group, then click OK. Specify displays a blank record for a new group.




  3. Type the group's name in the Group Name field, enter any remarks

  4. Double-click the blank row in the GroupPersons panel to display the GroupPersons form.




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   You'll use this secondary form to add each member to the new group record.

5. Type the member's name and order. Both are required values. If Specify does not recognize
   the name, it will display another dialog box in which you can save the new name. The order
   must be a unique number within the group. We recommend 1, 2, 3, etc.

6. Type remarks as needed, then click Save to dismiss the GroupPersons dialog box. The
   member's name appears at the bottom of the GroupPersons list in the dialog box shown in
   step 2.

7. To add the next member, return to step 4.




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  8. When you're finished entering members, click Save at the bottom of the New Agent form.




 Entering an Agent as Organization
 An organization agent record is intended for a college, university, museum, research institute,
 business, or other organization that is linked to your collection.

 To enter a new agent as an organization:

  1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Data heading, and click Agent. The Adding New
     Record.(Agents) dialog box asks you to choose a record type.




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2. Select Organization, then click OK. Specify displays a blank record for a new organization.




3. Type the organization's name and abbreviation (required fields), and include interests,
   remarks, and parent organization ID as needed.

4. Click Save.
Entering an Agent as Other
An "other" agent record is intended for a local informant and includes only fields for name and
remarks.

To enter a new agent as an "other":

1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Data heading, and click Agent. The Adding New
   Record.(Agents) dialog box asks you to choose a record type.




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  2. Select Other, then click OK. Specify displays a blank record for a new organization.




  3. Type the person's name in the Name field, enter any remarks, then click Save.




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Localities
Localities Overview
A locality record is a record describing a place. You need to create a locality record only once. You
can then assign that locality to all specimens associated with the locality.
Entering a Locality
Entering a Locality
Follow these steps to create a new locality record.

To enter a locality:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click Localities. The Localities form
   appears.




2. Enter locality data in the fields provided. Some of the fields require explanations in the following
   steps.




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    Note: The Latitude and Longitude coordinates cannot be entered unless a LatLongType is
    entered.

  3. Enter the locality in the LocalityName field. You use LocalityName to reference the locality
     when you enter a collection object. Some Locality forms contain two special fields that are
     combined to form the locality name. For more information on the Named Place field, refer to
     the next section, Named Place and Relation to Named Place Fields.
4. If your form includes a GeographyID field, enter the geographical information by clicking the
   ellipsis (...) button for the GeographyID field. In the subform that appears, choose the
   appropriate Continent, Country, State, and County from the available drop-down lists. (To
   activate the geography drop-down lists, choose a Continent value first, then country, then state,
   then county.)




5. Click Save. The geographical information displays in the GeographyID field.
6. Enter the requested geographical data in the fields labeled SectionPart, Section, Township, and
   Range. These fields are based on geographical parameters used in the United States. If your
   collection contains specimens captured in another country, you may want to customize the
   Localities form to support a different form of collection description. Refer to Customizing Your
   Specify Forms.
7. Enter Latitude and Longitude settings. By default, the Latitude/Longitude format is decimal
   degrees with negative (-) for south or west. You can change the Latitude/Longitude format
   through the Specify Preferences dialog box. Click the Field Masks tab and choose the latitude
   and longitude mask that best suits your data.
       To take advantage of the advanced Latitude/Longitude controls available in Specify , see
        Latitude/Longitude Controls. Latitude/Longitude controls no longer use negative degrees to
        indicate south or west. However, before you change any latitude/longitude controls to the
        new, optional controls, contact the Specify Project.
       Note that you can copy and paste decimal degree values into the Specify form when the Lat
        Long Units is set to Decimal Degrees.




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8. Enter the maximum and minimum elevation of the site, the elevation method, and the elevation
   units.
9. When you have finished adding data to the Localities form, click the Save button.
NamedPlace and RelationToNamedPlace Fields
If your Locality form contains NamedPlace and RelationToNamedPlace fields, enter the place
name associated with the event in the NamedPlace field.
The RelationToNamedPlace field lets you locate the site of the collecting event in relation to the
named place. For instance, if the event took place 5 miles south of Lawrence, the NamedPlace
would be Lawrence and RelationToNamedPlace would be 5 mi S. The LocalityName field is
generated automatically by concatenating the NamedPlace and RelationToNamedPlace fields. The
generated LocalityName would be Lawrence; 5 mi. South.
Editing a Locality
A locality record describes a place. You need only one record for each locality. You can then
assign that locality to all specimens associated with the locality.

To edit a new locality:
1. To edit the record you just entered (refer to Entering a Locality), click the Edit button at the
   bottom of the form.
2. To change Latitude and Longitude units, click the triangle to the right of Lat/Long Units. Select
   one of the units. The options are
        Decimal Degrees
        Degrees Minutes Seconds
        Degrees Decimal Minutes
3. To change the Latitude and Longitude type, click the triangle next to Lat/Long Type and select
   one from the list. If you select Line or Rectangle, an additional data tab, P2, appears to the right
   of the latitude and longitude. If you switched from Line or Rectangle to Point, this tab
   disappears.
4. To change the values of the latitude or longitude, click the box you want to edit and type in the
   new information.
    Note: Specify does not allow you to enter latitudes greater than 90 degrees or longitudes
    greater than 180 degrees.
5. To change the direction of latitude and longitude, right-click the N and W buttons next to latitude
   and longitude.
6. After you have finished making changes, click Save.
Localities of Specimen Records
Creating and Editing Locality Information for a Specimen Record
These procedures show you how to create a specimen record that contains locality information

To create a new specimen record with locality information:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Data heading, and click CollectionObject. A blank
   Collection Objects form appears.
2. Choose View > Auto-Assign Catalog Numbers.
    Note: User level determines if the Automatically Assign Catalog Numbers feature is available.
    Only Administrator, Manager, and Full Access users can use this feature. Automatically Assign
    Catalog Number cannot be activated if series processing is selected.




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4. To assign a locality to the new entry, enter the first few letters of the Named Place in the
   FieldNo:Locality button list box, and then click the triangle. A list of the collecting events you
   have saved beginning with those letters appears. Select the appropriate event.
5. If you want to review locality details, click the button next to the FieldNo:Locality list box. The
   FieldNo:Locality data form displays. It contains the information previously saved for that event.
   The information can be saved or altered from this form as well.
       If the locality field is in list button format (rather than subform format) click the ellipses next to
       the field. The LocalityID subform will appear. Information can be viewed or altered from this
       form.
       Note: If the Locality information is changed in a subform, the original Locality record will not be
       changed. Instead, a new Locality record will be created with the changes.




          
6. To close the LocalityID form, click Save.



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7. Once you have entered the rest of the object's information, on the Collection event and
   Collection Object data forms, click Save.




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 Batch Editing and Series Processing
 Batch Editing
 Batch Editing
 You'll use the batch editing operation to replace the value of a specific field in all records that are
 returned in the results of a search. The operation replaces whatever values it finds in those records
 with the single value that you specify for the designated field.


 Caution: Batch editing can make dramatic changes to your data. Its ability to undo changes is
 limited; therefore, use batch editing with caution. Make sure you have a fresh backup of your data
 before using this feature. (Refer to Backing Up and Restoring a Database.)


 Speeding Up Performance: Before you apply batch editing to a table, it's a good idea to switch off
 automatic updating of that table's express search index table. To learn how to do that, refer to
 Switching off Automatic Updating.
 Before you continue, you should keep in mind that:
      Only users with Administrator-level privileges can perform this operation.
      Batch editing does not function while series processing is enabled.
      During the operation, a user can create duplicate records. If this does occur, you can remove
       them through duplicate removal of records or you can undo the edit.
      Text fields, number fields, dates, times, latitudes/longitudes, picklists, and most list button fields
       can be batch edited. Memo fields (text fields with unlimited length) cannot be batch edited.
      It is not possible to batch-edit related data from the parent form. For example, you cannot batch-
       edit Locality data from the Collection Objects form. Instead, you must run a search of the
       Localities table to display just the records that require batch editing and then use the steps
       below to batch-edit those records.
      To batch-edit data in forms that are not displayed in the navigation panel (for example,
       preparation data), click the Other heading under Search & Edit Data and run a search on the
       desired table.

 To make changes to a batch of records with a single command:
1. Run a search to display just the records that require batch editing. Refer to Creating and Saving
   a New Search.
2. When your search results are displayed, choose Tools > Admin >Batch Edit. The Batch
   Editing Tool dialog box appears.
3. Click the Field drop-down menu and choose the field whose contents you need to replace or
   substitute.
4. In the Operation box choose replace, and in the Value box type the expression that will replace
   the existing values in the field you selected, as in the example shown below. (The substitute
   option is explained in the following section.)




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    If you don't see the field you need, it is in a related table. You'll need to use the Form
    Customizer to determine which form to open for batch editing.
5. Click Run. The Batch Editor updates every record in the results window with the new value. A
   message box indicates progress. If you want to stop the batch editing process, click Cancel.




4. To undo a batch editing operation, click Undo. You can then choose from a list of editing
   operations performed in the current editing session.




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 Note: The Undo option changes the field back to the value it was before that particular change.
 Therefore, if you have made two changes to the same field and undo the first change, the field will
 display its original value. If you then undo the second change to that field, the field will display the
 values that the first change made by the batch editor. This cannot be undone.


 Using the Substitute Option
 Using the Substitute Option in Batch Editing
 When using the batch editing function, in addition to replacing the entire contents of a field, you can
 also replace a segment of a text (not numeric) field. To do this, choose Substitute instead of
 Replace in the Operation list. Specify changes the Value panel to Values.




 In the Substitute box, type the expression that will be replacing an existing one.
 In the For box, type the expression that you wish to replace whenever it is found in the field
 selected at the top of the dialog box. When you click Run, Specify will replace only the characters
 you designated in the For box. Therefore, in the above example, if the Locality Name contained
 "Aran Islands: Inishmore Island" before the batch edit, it would contain "Aran Islands: Inishfree
 Island" afterwards.
 Removing Duplicate Records
 This page addresses the problem created by the appearance of duplicate records in your Specify
 database. These redundant records (in which all fields contain the same values) can sometimes be
 unintentionally generated when you use the Batch Editing tool. For example, replacing all
 occurrences of "Laurence" in locality names from Douglas County, Kansas, with "Lawrence" would
 probably result in some identical locality records.
 Specifically, the batch identification procedure can generate duplicate records.
 Specify implements a fast duplicate removal process that finds and removes duplicate records from
 tables chosen by the user. The process relinks records in related tables to the appropriate
 remaining single records in the table being updated, without breaking the links to any related
 records.

 To remove duplicate records:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Remove Duplicates. The Duplicate Remover dialog box appears.
2. Select a table from the drop-down list, and click Remove.




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    Once the process has finished running, the dialog box reports how many records were
    processed and how many records were removed.




3. Click Close, or return to step 2 to remove additional duplicate records.
 Series Processing
 Series Processing Overview
 The series processing feature can streamline repetitive data entry tasks by letting you enter and
 edit multiple specimen records in a single operation. A set of records with consecutive catalog
 numbers or field numbers is called a series.

Example
 Suppose you collect a group of ants or termites from the same nest on one sampling visit. The
 locality, collector, collecting event, taxonomic determination, and preparation data for these
 specimens all have the same respective values. Series processing copies the common information
 from record to record, so you can focus only on the data that varies from entry to entry.
 How Series Processing Differs from Specimen Lots
 When series processing is in use, specimens are assigned individual catalog numbers but share
 the information that is common to all of the items. Items in a specimen lot share a single catalog
 number in common.
 Switching on Series Processing
 When the series processing feature is switched on, Specify lets you create or modify a group of
 records (with consecutive catalog numbers) in a single operation




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 To switch on series processing:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click CollectionObjects. This
   enables the Series Processing command in the View menu.
2. From the Specify menu bar, choose View > Options. If the Series Processing menu item
   already has a check mark by it, dismiss the menu. If not, choose View > Options > Series
   Processing to switch it on. Make sure that View > Auto-Assign Catalog Numbers is not
   checked.




       Note: The Grid view may take longer to display when series processing is activated because
       Specify has to process more data.
 Switching off Series Processing
 When the series processing feature is switched off, you will view, add, or update one record at a
 time, as opposed to multiple records when series processing is switched on.

 To switch off series processing:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click CollectionObjects. This
   enables the Series Processing command in the View menu.
2. From the Specify menu bar, choose View > Options. If the Series Processing menu item
   already has no check mark by it, dismiss the menu. If it does have a check mark, choose View
   > Options > Series Processing to switch it off.




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Adding a Series of Specimen Records
This page explains how to add to your collection data a range of new records with sequential
catalog numbers in which the contents of the records are identical. To learn the purpose for this
feature, refer to Series Processing Overview.

To add a series of specimen records:
1. Switch on series processing.
2. Open any CollectionObject record.
3. Click New at the bottom of the record. To create a completely new record, with no carry over
   from the original record, select Default or Clear in the Specify menu bar under the View
   heading.




4. In the catalog number field, enter a series of catalog numbers that have not yet been
   unassigned. Use one of the following formats:




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       A complete beginning and ending number separated by a hyphen. For example, entering
        66671-66770 will save 100 records for items between 66671 and 66770.
       A complete beginning number and the last digit(s) of the ending number. For example,
        entering 66771-80 will save 10 records for items between 66771 and 66780.
        Note: This is an inclusive numbering system. If you enter 2340 to 2349, for example, you
        would save 10 records.

        Specify does not save your series if any of your records contain specimen numbers that
        have already been assigned. Furthermore, when two or more users are accessing the same
        database and try to enter the same series numbers, a whole complex of errors can occur.
        Therefore, we recommend turning the Auto-Assign Catalog Numbers feature off when
        entering new series. You may want to run a search for the next available specimen number
        before you enter a series.
7. Enter any other data on the form that you want to have exactly the same for each record in the
   series.
8. Click Save at the bottom of the form. If your series is large (more than forty records), it may take
   a few moments to process.
 Saving One Collector Number for an Entire Series
 This page explains how to assign a single collector to a series of specimen records so that you
 don't have to retype the name for each record.

 To save one collector number for an entire series:
  1. Switch on series processing.
  2. Open any CollectionObject record.
  3. Click New at the bottom of the record. To create a completely new record, with no carry over
     from the original record, select Default or Clear in the Specify menu bar under the View
     heading.




  4. In the catalog number field, enter a series of catalog numbers that have not yet been
     unassigned, as explained in Adding a Series of Specimen Records.
  5. In the CollectorNumber field, enter a single collector's number, which will be different in format
     depending on the needs of your collection data. For example, in some collections at the
     University of Kansas, the collector number is a combination of the collector's initials, the year




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     the collection took place, and a field sample number: WSH 98 1. Do not include dashes in the
     collector number. Spaces are acceptable.
 6. Click Save at the bottom of the form.
Saving Unique Collector Numbers for Each Item in a Series

To save unique collector numbers for each item in a series:
1. Follow steps 1-3 in Saving One Collector Number for an Entire Series.
2. In the CollectorNumber field, enter a range of collector numbers equal to the number of catalog
   numbers in your series. For example, if you are entering a series for catalog numbers 6030-
   6039, there are ten records in the series. You will need 10 collector numbers: WSH 98 1, WSH
   98 2, WSH 98 3, and so forth, up to WSH 98 10. To indicate that this is a range of numbers, use
   a dash. The entry should look something like this: WSH 98 1-10. Again, the format depends on
   the particulars of your collection.
3. Click Save at the bottom of the form.
Viewing a Series

To view a set of records created with series processing:
1. Switch on series processing. The search setup window for the Collection Objects table appears.
 2. Go to the catalog number condition row and check its Display column.
 3. In the same row, click the Sort button until a red up arrow appears.
 4. If you remember your series number, type it in the Criteria box.
 5. Click the Search button.
 6. If you want to check individual records, click New Search, switch off series processing in the
    View > Options submenu, and check the records in your series. Refer to Editing a Single
    Record in a Series.
Series and Custom View
If series processing is switched on and CatalogNumber, FieldNumber, or both are selected for
display in the search setup window, Specify displays the series in Custom View. Series on the
Detail view or Grid view appear as records with identical data.
For example, if CatalogNumber, TaxonName, and Locality are selected in the search setup
window, sets of records with consecutive catalog numbers and identical taxon names and localities
are displayed as a series, regardless of whether the specimens differ in other respects.
Editing a Series
Editing a series is like editing single records, except that you cannot edit catalog numbers or field
numbers while in series processing mode.

To edit a series:
 1. Switch on series processing. The search setup window for the Collection Objects table
    appears.
2. Create a search for the catalog number of the series.
3. Click Search to display the record.
4. Click the Detail button to display the form.
5. Click the Edit button at the bottom of the form. You can now edit all the collection object
   information except CatalogNumber.
6. When you finish making changes, click the Save button at the bottom of the form.
Breaking Up a Series




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 When you break up a series, the result is one or more individual records that are no longer part of
 the series, as well as two or more smaller series. Suppose you have created a series that ranges
 over the following consecutive catalog numbers: 21000-21100. You then edit records 21030 and
 21050 so that they contain different values from other records in the series. The result will be three
 series and two records that aren't in any series:
  21000-21029
  21030
  21031-21049
  21050
  21051-21100

 To break up a series:
1. Switch on series processing.
2. Create a new search that displays the series of records you want to break apart.
3. Click the Search button at the bottom of the search set window. The records are displayed in
   Grid view.
4. Click the Detail button, and then page through the records until you locate the series. Write
   down the catalog numbers of these records.
5. Click the New Search button to return to the search setup window.
6. Choose View > Options > Series Processing to switch off Series Processing.
7. Using the catalog numbers that you wrote down in step 4, change your search criteria to display
   these records.
8. Click Edit at the bottom of the form for the record that you want to remove from the series. Any
   data change removes this record from the series.
9. After you have finished editing the data, click Save. The record no longer appears as part of the
   series.
 Deleting a Series

 To delete a series:
1. Display the series, then click Detail to view the data form.
2. Click the Delete button at the bottom of the form.
3. A dialog box asks you to confirm deletion.




4. Click Yes.
 Editing a Single Record in a Series
 This procedure removes the edited record from its series, but the record stays in your collection
 objects database. One or two smaller series will be left intact, just as in Breaking Up a Series.

 To edit a single record in a series:



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1. Switch off series processing.
2. Create a search that generates the record you want to edit.
3. Click the Search button to display the results, then click the Detail button to display the record in
   its form.
4. Click Edit at the bottom of the form and make your changes.
5. When you have finished, click Save at the bottom of the form.
Series and Reports
The results of "serializable" searches can be sent to the Report Designer from the Custom view or
the Grid view and used to design and print reports. The Report Designer does not distinguish
between series searches and normal searches
Series Overview
Report Overview




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 Transactions

 Overview
 The transaction forms of Specify help you create and manage documents that record loans, gifts,
 borrowed items, permits, shipments, accessions, and deaccessions. The documents may also exist
 in paper form, but each has its own electronic record in the Specify database.
 As an example, the collection manager may respond to a request for a loan of a group of
 specimens to another institution for research. He or she would create a new loan record in Specify
 that would include the list of lent specimens, along with other required loan information. When the
 loan was returned, the manager would update the loan record to note the date of the return and
 which specimens were returned.
 The following pages contain step-by-step procedures for managing transaction records.


 Entering a Loan
 Returning a Loan
 Entering a Gift
 Entering a Borrowed Object
 Entering an Accession Record
 Entering a Deaccession
 Entering a Permit
 Entering a Shipment




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Entering a Loan
Each loan record documents the group of specimens you are lending at a particular time to a
particular borrower. Refer to Returning a Loan to complete the processing of the loan.
The details of the following steps will vary with your form design. You will need the catalog numbers
of the specimens you intend to lend. If the specimens don't have catalog numbers yet, skip this
page and go to Entering a Loan of Uncataloged Specimens. Or you can enter a loan that combines
cataloged and uncataloged specimens by using both procedures.

To enter a loan record:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Transaction heading, and click Loan. The loan form
   appears.




2. The Loan Number, To, and Role fields must be filled in for the record to be saved (the
   highlighted fields).
    Any numbering system can be utilized in the Loan Number field.
3. Fill in other fields as desired. Though helpful, they are not required.
4. When you are finished entering data, click Save.
To add items to the Loan:



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 Loan items can be entered one at a time or in groups.

 To enter loans one at a time:
 This procedure is also be used for loans in which the catalog number will not be used.
1. In the Loan form, double-click a blank row in the Loaned Object grid. The Loaned Object
   subform appears.




2. The Quantity, QuantityResolved, and QuantityReturned fields must be filled in for the record to
   save. If the specimens have not been resolved or returned, enter 0. The Catalog Number must
   be filled in for Specify to associate the loan to the specimen, however it is not required.
3. When you are finished entering data, click Save. The data will appear in the Loaned Material
   grid.
4. To add more loaned items, click on the next empty row and repeat steps 2 and 3.


 To enter multiple loans one at a time:




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1. Click the Add Items button at the bottom of the form. A dialog box will be presented.




2. Choose the appropriate Catalog Series from the drop-down list.
3. Enter the catalog numbers you wish to loan, separated by commas; for example: 22676, 29624,
   30542, 30549. Then, click OK. Or, search for the catalog numbers.

      To search for the catalog numbers
      1. Click Search in the dialog box.
      2. A list of Available Searches will appear. Select from the list. Click OK.




          This is a list of saved Collection Object Searches. If the search you want is not present,
          exit the Available Searches form, save the loan form, and create a Collection Object
          search, then return to the loan and click Search.




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       3. Adjust the search parameters if needed, if not click OK.




       4. A list of records fulfilling the set parameters will appear. Select the records included in
          the loan. To select a group of records, click the top record in the group, then hold Shift
          down and click on the bottom record in the group. To select several non-adjoined records
          hold the Control button down and click the records to loan.




4. Confirm the quantity of the specimens to be loaned. To change a number for a specimen, click
   the number under Quantity and enter the correct number. Specimens will be listed separately
   for each preparation type. If no specimens are available, the quantity available will list 0.




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5. When you're ready to continue, click OK. This will add the information to the Loaned Material
   table on the Loan form.




6. To edit individual records (such as adding comments), click the record in the Loaned Material
   table. A subform will appear. Make any changes desired. Click Save or the arrow next to save
   to edit another specimen record. When all editing is completed, click Save.




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 About the Closed Button
 The Closed button can display three conditions:
      Yes, the loan has been closed (that is, the materials have been returned).
      No, the loan has not been closed.
      Blank, the status of the loan is undetermined.
 The button is preset to Blank when you create a new loan. Do not change this setting until the
 materials have returned to your collection. When the materials are returned, you may also want to
 enter a Date Closed setting. The ShipmentID field lets you associate a shipment number with the
 loan.




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Returning a Loan
You'll use this procedure when some or all of the specimens you have lent to another institution are
returned to your collection. Note that you don't need to wait until all items in the loan have been
returned.
Note: For loan items to be returned, the Loan form must be displayed as a grid. You can edit the
form in the Form Customizer.
The following two procedures cover the cases where (a) only a part of a loan is returned and (b) all
items of a loan are returned.
Processing a Partial Loan Return
Assume that a person has received and used the loan described in Entering a Loan and is now
ready to return either a part of or the entire loan. In the first case, he returns only the one specimen
in 19077. You will create a conventional or express search to find loan number 2006-01, as
explained below.

To process the partial return of a loan:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Transactions heading, and click Loan. The search
   setup window for the loan table appears.
2. Go to the loan number row, set the operator to the equals sign, and type the loan number on the
   Criteria field.




3. Click Search at the bottom of the window to display the loan record in Grid view.




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4. Click the Detail button to display the form, then click the Edit button at the bottom of the loan
   form.




5. Select the item or items in the loan that you want to return to the collection or database. You
   can select a contiguous set of items by clicking the first item in the list, pressing the Shift key,
   and clicking the last item in the list. You can select noncontiguous items in a list by holding
   down the Ctrl key while clicking items.
6. At the bottom of the form, click Return Items.
7. If the Quantity of any loaned item is greater than 1, you are asked to enter the number returned.




8. In the Return Quantity column, type the number of items that are being returned, and click OK.
9. You're given an opportunity to enter any remarks regarding the return (condition of the
   specimen, any changes that have been made, etc.). You can also change the return date that is
   displayed.




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10. Enter the ID of the receiver and click Save. The Loaned Physical Objects subform shows that
    the items have been returned.
11. Click Save at the bottom of the loan form to save the loan record.
Processing a Full Loan Return
To process a complete return of the loan is very similar to the procedure just described, but you will
be selecting all specimens and closing the loan.

To process the full return of a loan:
1. Do steps 1-4 above.
2. Shift-select all items in the Loaned Material Grid and click Return Items. You will again see the
   Additional Information needed form.




3. Since all of the items are being returned, click OK.
4. If necessary, you can also enter In Comments by double-clicking the desired row to display the
   corresponding subform.




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5. Click the Loan Closed? button to change it to Yes and enter the closing date.




6. (Optional) It's a good idea to write "Loan Closed" and the date in red across the front of your
   copy of the loan invoice in my files and transfer the invoice to your closed loans folder.




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Entering a Gift
Gift records are very similar to loan records, but, unlike loan records, they document a group of
specimens that your collection is donating to another institution. There is no gift procedure
corresponding to returning a loan.
The details of the following steps will vary with your form design.

To enter a gift record:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Transactions heading, and click Gift. The Loan (Gift)
   form appears.




2. The Gift Number, To, and Role fields must be entered for the record to be saved. Other fields
   though helpful, are optional.
3. To enter gift items one at a time, continue to step 4 below. To add multiple specimens in a
   single step, click Add Items at the bottom of the form and continue with the "Add Items" step in
   Entering a Loan, which parallels this procedure for the rest of the steps.
4. To add gifted materials, go to the Material Gifted grid and double-click the blank row under
   Catalog Number. The Material Gifted form appears.




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5. Enter the requested information in this form. If desired, you can fill in just the Description field
   and omit the catalog number, in which case the specimen record will not be marked as having
   been given away.
6. Click the Save button at the bottom of the Material Gifted form. The Material Gifted form is
   closed, and newly added item appears in the object list.
7. If you have more items to include in the gift, double-click the highlighted blank line below the
   item you just added, then repeat steps 5-6 as many times as necessary.
8. When you are finished entering data, click Save at the bottom of the Gift form.
 Note: The item return subform can be added to the gift form, but not all fields may function correctly
 on the subform.




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Entering a Borrowed Object
When you have a group of specimens on loan from another collection, the transaction is called a
"borrow" in Specify. You'll need to create a new borrow record in order to process it.
1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Transaction heading, and click on Borrow. The Borrow
   form will appear.




2. The Invoice Number, Agent, and Role fields must be entered for the record to be saved. Other
   fields, though helpful, are not required.
3. The Borrow Item grid lists the items that were included in the transaction. To add a borrowed
   item, double-click the highlighted blank line in the object list. The Borrow Item form appears.




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6. The Lender Item Number field must be entered for the record to be saved. Enter any more
   information you desire. When you are finished entering data for the item, either click the Save
   button or click on New to add another item. When you are done entering items, click on Save
   and all the items will be saved.
7. If you need to add more objects to the transaction after saving the Borrow Items form, double-
   click the next available blank row in the Borrow Items grid.
8. When you are finished entering data, click the Save button at the bottom of the Borrow form.




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Enter an Accession Record
This page explains how to create a new accession record.

To enter an accession record:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Transactions heading, and click Accessions. The
   Accessions data form appears.




2. Accession # and Permit fields must be filled for the record to be saved.
    The Accession Number and Permit are alphanumeric values assigned according to the policies
    of your institution.
    To enter a permit that has previously been entered, enter the permit number in the Permit field.
    If the permit has not yet been entered, click the ellipses next to Permit field. To see how to enter
    a permit form, refer to Entering a Permit.
3. Fill in other fields as desired. Though helpful, they are not required.
4. The Material Source grid lists the agents who played a role in the accession process. To enter a
   new record, double-click the highlighted blank line in the Material Source list. The Material
   Source form will appear.




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5. The Role and Agent fields must be entered for the record to be saved. Enter any more
   information you desire. When you are finished entering data for the item, either click Save or
   click New to add another source. When you are done entering sources, click Save and all
   sources will be saved.
6. If you need to add more agents to the transaction after saving the Material Source form, double-
   click the next available blank row in the Material Source grid and repeat steps 4 and 5.
7. When you have finished entering data, click Save at the bottom of the Accessions form.




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Entering a Deaccession
To enter a deaccession:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Transactions heading, and click Deaccession. The
   Deaccession form appears.




2. You must enter the Deaccession Number for the record to be saved. Other fields though helpful,
   are optional.




3. The Contents grid lets you list the collection objects that were included in the transaction. To
   add an object to the deaccession, double-click the highlighted blank line in the Contents grid.
   The Contents form will appear.




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7. You must enter data in the Catalog Number field for the subform to save. Enter the first few
   digits of the catalog number, and then click the triangle to select the catalog number of an object
   you are deaccessioning. For more information on the catalog number listed, click the ellipses.
8. When you are finished entering data for that item, click the Save button or New to add another
   item. When all items have been entered, click Save and all the items entered will be saved.
9. If you need to add more items to be deaccessioned after saving the Contents form, double-click
   the next available blank row in the Contents grid.
10. When you are finished entering data, click Save at the bottom of the Deaccession form.




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Entering a Permit
To enter a permit:
1. Go to the navigation menu, Enter New Transactions heading, and click Permit. The Permit data
   form appears.




2. The Permit Number field must be filled for the record to be saved. Other fields though helpful,
   are optional.
3. The Type field defines what type of Permit is being described. Click the triangle next to the field
   to see the options available. To add or edit the options see Changing the Items in a List Box.
4. When you are finished entering data, click Save at the bottom of the form.




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 Entering a Shipment
 To enter a shipment:
1. Go to the navigation menu, Enter New Transactions heading, and click Shipment. The
   Shipment form appears.




2. The Shipment Number field must be filled for the record to be saved. Other fields though
   helpful, are optional.
3. When you are finished entering data, click Save at the bottom of the form.
 Note: Shipments are usually added in the course of creating a new loan.




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Taxon Data Management

About Taxon Authority Files
Names of taxa are frequently used for retrieving, sorting, and aggregating species information. A
taxon name at some level — typically a species name — is attached to every observation or
specimen in a database. Classifications aggregate species hierarchically into more inclusive taxa,
and the names of higher taxa create an efficient means to search for and retrieve larger sets of
specimen records. Nomenclature plays a critical role in managing a specimen database catalog.
Spelling variants and inconsistencies in the formatting of taxonomic name strings cause search
results to be incomplete. From your perspective as a user, incomplete search results are errors that
appear to be missing specimen data.
Collection database managers appreciate the practical significance of consistent taxonomic
nomenclature, and they recognize that maintaining nomenclatural accuracy and consistency
requires the use of controlled vocabulary from lookup tables or authority files. Most biological
database applications now include some kind of taxon authority file or database to facilitate the
consistent assignment of taxonomic names.
Currently in Specify, there are three ways to build a taxonomic authority file for the Specify taxon
tree. You can create an initial taxon name file, during conversion of a legacy database, by selecting
the names from historical determinations from existing specimen records. Another method, less
efficient but sometimes necessary, is to enter new taxonomic name data into Specify one record at
a time through a data form. A third way, which saves a lot of time for starting new databases, is to
import a batch of taxon names for the class of organisms being computerized, and then to choose
among those names for determination records as new specimens are cataloged. However you
create the taxon names in Specify, you can always enter new names of taxa when they are
needed.
In a future release, Specify will work with online taxonomic authority web services to allow point-
and-click import individual of multiple names of organisms and subtrees of classification data from
internet data providers.
Specify uses taxon name data from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System for importing
batches of authoritative names. ITIS names represent a single, aggregated view of the tree of life,
and their choice of names for taxa may not necessarily agree with a collection's own taxon naming
decisions. ITIS data does provide a good starting point however for customizing and editing a taxon
tree for your collection.
To know more about importing ITIS data into Specify, see Import Information From a Taxonomy
Database.
To learn more about importing an ITIS-format file into Specify, refer to Importing Information From a
Taxonomy Database.
Note: Part of this text was extracted from the document:
http://research.calacademy.org/taf/TAF_NSF_Proposal.doc




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 Managing Specify Taxa

 Specify provides two ways of viewing and modifying taxon data: The TaxonName form and The
 Taxon Tree.
      The TaxonName form can be displayed from the navigation panel under the Enter New Data
       and Search & Edit Data headings.




       It lets you find, display, and modify taxonomic records. The form treats each taxon as an



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    individual data record and displays attributes associated with the taxon, such as the common
    name, author, and protection status.
   The taxon tree is displayed when you choose Tools > taxon tree > View taxon tree, or it can
    be displayed from the navigation panel under Taxon Tree.




If you wish to browse through the taxonomy database to view parent/child relationships in
hierarchical tree structure, use the taxon tree. If you wish to search for a taxon or a group of taxa,
use the TaxonName form. Both views let you enter new taxa and editing taxon attributes. You can
import an ITIS-format taxonomy database directly into Specify. Specify lets you enter and modify
taxonomic data within the taxon tree. You can change parent/child relationships, synonymize taxa,
or edit taxon attributes.


Note: Although it is possible to enter an entire taxon tree from within Specify, the Specify project
does not recommend building a complete taxon tree by manually entering new taxa. Import an
ITIS-compliant authority file and then modify the file within Specify if necessary. Some users may
have occasion to create a very limited taxon tree within Specify for testing and training purposes.
See "Building a taxon tree in Specify ” for more on creating a taxon tree.


To learn more about working with taxonomic data in Specify, see the following topics:
Importing Information from a Taxonomy Database
Entering a New Taxon
Modifying a Taxon
Moving (Reparenting) a Taxon
Synonymizing a Taxon
Desynonymizing a Taxon
Marking a Taxon
Updating the Taxon Tree for Labeling Linnaean Taxon Ranks
Creating Taxon Groups
Showing or Hiding the Number of Specimens Associated with a Taxon
Displaying Synonymized Taxon Entries



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 The TaxonName Form
 The TaxonName Form - Overview
 The TaxonName form treats each taxon in the taxonomic database as a separate data record. You
 can use the TaxonName form to add a new taxon to the database or modify an attribute of the
 taxon, such as the common name, author, or acceptance status.

 To open the TaxonName form:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click TaxonName. The
   TaxonName form appears.
 You can filter, add, modify, and delete data in the TaxonName form as you would in any other
 Specify data form.
 For more on the TaxonName form, see the following topics:
 Entering a New Taxon
 Modifying an Existing Taxon
 Taxon Name Group Numbers
 Entering a New Taxon
 You can enter a new taxon through either the TaxonName form or the taxon tree. Both methods
 are described below. You can also import taxonomic data into Specify from a taxonomic database.
 Refer to Importing Information from a Taxonomy Database.


 To enter a new taxon through the TaxonName window:


1. Go to the navigation panel, Enter New Data heading, and click TaxonName. The data form
   appears.




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     Note: The FullTaxonName field functions differently in a species record than other taxonomic
     ranks. In a species record, TaxonName is just the specific epithet, whereas FullTaxonName is
     the full binomial. In other Taxonomic ranks, the TaxonName and FullTaxonName fields offer
     the same data. In all records, the FullTaxonName field cannot be edited by the user. It is
     compiled by the Specify software from data in other fields.


2. The ParentTaxonNameID field defines where the new taxon will attach to the taxon tree. Enter
   the first few characters of the parent taxon name and click the triangle to choose a taxon from
   the list. The ParentTaxonNameID field specifies the parent (next level up) of the current taxon.
   You can view the parent taxon for the current taxon data by clicking on the ellipsis next to the
   ParentTaxonName field.
3. In the TaxonName field, enter the taxon name of the new taxon at a single rank. The
   TaxonName information appears in the taxon tree view.
4. The TaxonomicUnitTypeID field gives the rank of the new taxon. Click the triangle and select a
   taxonomic unit type setting. Specify forces the rank of the new taxon to be 'lower' than the
   Parent taxon. If the parent node is genus, the new taxon's rank could be subgenus or species
   or, less conventionally, subspecies etc.
5. Other fields in the TaxonName form are optional. Enter a common name and author. The
   FullTaxonName field is used for display purposes only and does not allow direct data entry. If
   the taxon is at the species or genus level only taxa with rank species or lower have full taxon



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       names with binomials or trinomials. Otherwise, the FullTaxonName is the same as the
       TaxonName.
       Note: The Accepted Y/N button is never enabled. It is used for informational and searching
       purposes only and indicates whether this is the synonym that your institution has chosen for
       cataloging this taxon. If you have entered a taxon that is no longer in use, synonymy can be
       edited from the Taxon Tree view.
6. Enter any remarks on the taxon. In the Source field, enter the taxon's source. The
   ProtectionStatus field lets you specify the current environmental protection status according to
   the governing environmental authority. The author is the person who first described or revised
   the taxon. The source is the taxonomic authority from which the taxon was obtained. If you
   import a taxonomic database, the Author and Source fields will most likely be defined for any
   imported taxa. You need to enter data in the Author and Source fields only if you are entering
   your own new taxon.
7. When you have finished entering the taxon information, click the Save button at the bottom of
   the form.
8. To enter another taxon, Click New at the bottom of the form and repeat steps 2 - 9.

 To enter a new taxon through the taxon tree:
1. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > Taxon Tree > View Taxon Tree.
2. Browse the taxon tree to the taxon that will serve as the parent taxon for the taxon you wish to
   create.
3. Click the parent taxon to select it.
4. Right-click on the parent taxon and choose New from the shortcut menu. Alternatively, choose
   Taxon > New from the Taxon menu bar.
5. The Taxon Details form appears. Note that the parent you selected in Step 2 is given as the
   parent taxon. Enter the new taxon name in the TaxonName field. Enter other settings as you did
   in the procedure above.
6. Click the Save button.
 Modifying an Existing Taxon Name
 You can modify a taxon through either the TaxonName window or the Taxon Tree. Both methods
 are described below.

 To modify a taxon using the TaxonName window:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search * Edit Data heading, and click TaxonName. The search
   setup window appears.




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2. Create a search that identifies the taxon you want to modify.
3. Click Search at the bottom of the setup window.
4. When the results are displayed, scroll to the taxon you want to modify.
5. Double-click the name of the taxon you want to modify. The TaxonName data form displays the
   taxon you want to modify.
6. Click the Edit button at the bottom of the data form. An editable version of the Detail view
   displays.
7. Enter new taxon data as desired.
8. Click Save to save the changes.

To modify a taxon using the taxon tree:
1. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > Taxon Tree > View Taxon Tree.
2. Browse the taxon tree to the taxon you wish to modify.
3. Right-click on the taxon you wish to modify and choose Edit from the shortcut menu.
   Alternatively, choose Taxon > Edit from the taxon tree menu bar.
4. The Taxon Details form appears. Edit the taxonomic information as desired.
5. Click the Save button.
Hint: To view a read-only copy of the Taxon Details data form, right-click on a taxon in the taxon
tree and choose Taxon Details.


The Taxon Tree
Entering a New Taxon Name
Moving Taxonomic Entities
Synonymizing Taxa
Desynonymizing Taxa
Marking a Taxon




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 The Taxon Tree
 The Taxon Tree - Overview
 The Taxon Tree window displays the taxa available for your collection in tree format.

 To display the taxon tree:
1. Choose Tools > Taxon Tree > View Taxon Tree.
2. Click the plus sign beside a taxon to reveal child taxa.
3. Right-click on a taxon name to display its shortcut menu:


        Find                     Displays the Enter Taxon Name dialog box, in which you
                                 can enter a taxon to be searched for.
        Find Next                Enabled after the Find command has selected the first
                                 occurrence of the taxon you are seeking. Choosing Find
                                 Next searches for the next occurrence in the tree.
        Details                  Displays the Taxon Details form.
        Delete                   Removes the selected taxon after first prompting you to
                                 confirm the deletion.
        Edit                     Lets you edit the record of the selected taxon.
        New                      Creates a new taxon record.
        Drag to                  When checked, this option allows you to replace taxon A
        synonymize               with taxon B by dragging A to B in the tree. Taxon A then
                                 becomes the past determination, and taxon B becomes the
                                 current determination
        Mark taxon               Works like a bookmark. The taxon you mark is displayed in
                                 the lower left corner of the Taxon window.




        ITIS information         Displays the web page that contains ITIS information about
                                 the taxon selected in the tree.


 These and additional options are also displayed in the Taxon menu.




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Updating the taxon tree
Displaying Synonymized Taxon Entries
Showing or Hiding Taxonomic Branches
Showing or Hiding the Number of Specimens Associated with a Taxon
Building a Taxon Tree within Specify
Building a Taxon Tree in Specify - Overview
For most institutional uses of Specify, a taxonomic authority file should be imported. The Specify
project does not recommend manually entering a complete taxon tree except for testing and
training purposes or in cases where there is no existing authority file for your collection type. A
complete taxon tree may have thousands of records. It could take weeks or months to enter all the
records through the Specify interface, and, even if you succeeded, you probably would not be able
to impose the kind of error control available through a predefined authority file. If you are not aware
of an existing authority file for your discipline, contact the Specify Project. We may be able to help
you locate one.
For each collection type you set up for your collection, Specify creates a root taxon node to which
taxonomic entries are attached. If you import a taxonomic authority file, the taxonomic tree in the
authority file is attached to the root node. You can also attach individual taxonomic entries to the
root node. If you build your own taxon tree, make sure the first rank of taxon entries references the
root node as a parent. The root node typically has the name of the collection type (Bird, Fish,
Mammal, Plant, etc.). After you have entered the first rank, proceed through the tree associating
each new taxon with a parent taxon that already exists on the tree.
For more on adding a new taxon entry in Specify, refer to Entering a New Taxon Name.
Importing Information from a Taxon Database
Importing Information from a Taxon Database - Overview
This page explains how to add taxon information from an external file to your Specify taxon tree. If
you are starting from the Specify window, use the first procedure. If you are starting from the Taxon




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 window, skip down to the second procedure. For more information, refer to Importing a Taxonomy
 Database.

 Before you begin
 Locate the ITIS-format taxonomy file you need and save it in a folder that is accessible to the
 Specify application. You can download a taxonomy file from the Specify web site or construct your
 own ITIS-format file. What you do next depends on your starting point:
 Starting from the Specify Menu Bar
 Starting from the Taxon Tree Menu Bar
 Importing Taxon Data from the Specify Menu Bar
 This page is a continuation of importing information from a taxon database.

 To import taxon data:
1. There are two ways to get to step 2 depending on your starting point.
       If you are already in the Taxon Tree window, from the Taxon Tree menu bar, choose Taxon >
       Select Data to Import > <biological object type> where <biological object type> is bird, fish,
       mammal, or whatever has been defined for your collection.




       Or
       If you are not in the Taxon Tree window, from the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > Taxon
       Tree > Import Taxon Data.




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   The taxon tree window appears, showing your current taxon tree. If you are adding taxonomy
   data for the first time, you see only a root node for each of your specimen types (in this case,
   Fish). In the foreground you see the Select Taxonomic Authority File dialog box.
     Note: A box may pop up asking Update Taxon Tree to be run. If this does occur, update the
     tree before proceeding with importing the taxon tree. For instructions on updating a taxon tree,
     refer to Updating the Taxon Tree.
2. The Taxonomic Authority File dialog box appears. Browse to the taxonomy file you want to
   import and click Open.




   A login dialog box may appear, asking you to enter a password to open the taxonomy file.

   The contents of the taxonomy file are displayed in the Taxon window. The red boxes indicate
   that the associated taxon is not yet selected for importing.


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3. Click the plus (+) sign beside any node to view the subtree beneath that node.
4. Check the box beside the node that contains the taxon or taxa you want to import. A red check
   mark replaces the box, and all child nodes beneath it are also checked.




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5. Deselect any child node or child branch that you don't want to include in the import.
6. When you have selected the taxa you want to import, choose Taxon > Import. Specify imports
   the taxonomy data. You may see a warning for duplicate taxonomic entries or a prompt for
   parent node information. If you are importing a large database, the import process takes a long
   time.
7. When the import is complete, choose Taxon > Redisplay Local Taxonomic Data to dismiss
   the view of the imported tree and show your Specify taxon tree again.

    A Confirm dialog box prompts you to perform an update.




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       Until you perform an update, any changes to the taxonomy database will not be reflected in
       Specify's taxon tree view.
8. Do one of the following:
         If you want to update immediately, click Yes
         To perform the update later, click No. When you're ready to update, come back to the Taxon
          window and choose Taxon > Update Taxa Tree (<type>), where <type> is a placeholder
          for mammal, fish, or whatever biological type your collection was defined for.

 To Re-display Local Taxa:
 To get back to the taxonomy in your database after you have imported taxa or viewed the contents
 of an external taxon file, choose Taxon > Redisplay Local Taxonomic Data from the Taxon Tree
 menu bar.
 Processing Duplicate Taxa
 While Specify is importing taxonomic data, it may detect entries that duplicate entries already in
 your taxon tree. By definition, two taxonomic entries are duplicates in either of the following
 circumstances.
      Taxonomic serial numbers and sources are the same.
      Ranks, full taxon names, and parents are the same.
 If duplicates are detected, a dialog box is displayed that provides the following options:
      Skip the importing of that particular entry and continue the import.
      Replace the Specify record with the new import record and continue the import.
      Cancel the remainder of the import process.
 Redisplaying Local Taxa After Importing
 Specify does not automatically return to your local taxa after importing taxonomy data. Use the
 following procedure to view your local tree again.

 To re-display local taxa:
 After you have imported taxa or viewed the contents of an external taxon file, choose Taxon >
 Redisplay Local Taxonomic Data from the Taxon Tree menu bar.
 Working with an Existing Taxon Tree
 Showing or Hiding Taxonomic Branches
 To display the branches (nodes) that are children (lower levels) of a taxon, click the plus (+) sign to
 the left of the taxon. The plus sign changes to a minus (-) sign.
 To hide the branches beneath a taxon, click the minus sign next to the taxon name. It changes
 back to a plus sign.
 Updating the Taxon Tree
 When running searches that Label Linnaean Taxon Ranks, Specify requires that the data
 describing the structure of the taxonomic hierarchy be up to date. Another reason to keep this tree
 up to date is so that when you or another one of your users accesses the taxon tree they see the
 most current version of the tree. There are two ways to keep taxonomic information current:
 automatic and manual updating.

 To switch on automatic updating:
    1. Choose Tools > Taxon Tree > View Taxon Tree.
    2. From the Taxon Tree menu bar, choose Taxon > Automatically Update Tree Structure Info.




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     When this option is selected, Specify automatically updates the hierarchy structure when taxa
     are added, moved, deleted, or synonymized. However, this slows down operations on the
     taxon records. If you intend to make many changes to your taxonomy, it is best to switch off
     this option while you make the changes. Afterward, rebuild the structural data explicitly as
     described below, then reselect the Automatically Update Tree Structure Info option.

To update manually:
If your taxonomy is constantly being modified, we recommend that you leave the Automatically
Update Tree Structure Info option unchecked and regularly update the taxonomy as follows:
From the Taxon Tree menu bar, choose Taxon > Update xxxx Taxa Tree (where xxxx is the name
of the taxonomy that needs to be updated).
Editing the Taxon Hierarchy
Moving (Reparenting) a Taxon
You may wish to relocate a taxon for a scientific reason, or a taxon may have been placed with the
wrong parent because of a data entry error. You can move a taxon to any parent as long as the
parent is at a higher taxonomic level than the taxon you are moving.
Note: Reparenting is different from synonymizing a taxon. Reparenting, usually the result of a
mistake in data entry, is reassigning a taxon to a new parent, such as a species to a different
genus. Synonymizing is saying that two taxa of the same level (i.e. two species or subspecies) are
the same. To see how to synonymize taxon, refer to the next section, Synonymizing a Taxon.


Specify gives you three ways to move a taxon.

To drag a taxon to a new parent:
1. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > Taxon Tree > View Taxon Tree.
2. When the taxon tree window opens, click the Taxon menu and make sure the Drag to
   Synonymize option is not checked. (If Drag to Synonymize is checked, click Drag to
   Synonymize to clear the check mark.)
3. In the taxon tree window, select the taxon you want to move and, holding down the left mouse
   button, move the cursor to the location of the new parent for the taxon.

To move the taxon by marking it:
1. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > Taxon Tree > View Taxon Tree.
2. Mark the taxon and move it using the Move Mark option in the taxon tree Taxon menu. Refer to
   Marking a Taxon.

To reparent a taxon using the TaxonName form:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search * Edit Data heading, and click TaxonName. The search
   setup window appears.




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2. Create a search that identifies the taxon you want to modify.
3. Click Search at the bottom of the setup window.
4. When the results are displayed, scroll to the taxon you want to modify.
5. Double-click the name of the taxon you want to modify. The TaxonName data form displays the
   taxon you want to modify.
6. Click the Edit button and enter a new parent in the ParentTaxonNameID field.
7. Click Save at the bottom of the form.
 Synonymizing a Taxon
 Synonymizing a taxon changes the moved taxon's status within the program to Not Accepted. It is
 then considered a junior synonym of an Accepted or Valid taxon your institution has chosen to use
 for cataloging. It may or may not refer to the published nomenclatural status of the taxon.
 Note: Synonymizing a taxon is different from reparenting a taxon. Synonymizing is saying that two
 taxa of the same level (i.e. two species or subspecies) are the same. Reparenting, usually the
 result of a mistake in data entry, is reassigning a taxon to a new parent, such as a species to a
 different genus. To see how to reparent a taxon, refer to the previous section, Moving
 (Reparenting) a Taxon.
 You'll use the taxon tree window to synonymize a taxon. The Taxon menu, in the menu bar of the
 taxon tree window, includes two options for synonymizing a taxon:
      Drag to Synonymize, which lets you drag the taxon to the taxon with which it will be
       synonymized.
      Mark taxon, which uses the Synonymize Mark option in the Taxon menu. For more information,
       refer to Marking a Taxon.

 To synonymize a taxon by dragging it:
1. Choose Tools > Taxon Tree > View Taxon Tree. This displays the Taxon window.
2. Expand the taxon tree by clicking the plus (+) signs and selecting the taxon (call it A) that you
   would like to synonymize to a new taxon (B).
3. In the Taxon window's menu bar, choose Taxon > Drag to Synonymize. The Drag to
   Synonymize menu item should now have a check mark next to it.




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4. Drag taxon A to taxon B. (A Not Permitted icon appears if you drag taxon A over an
   inappropriate node.)




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       The Confirmation Required dialog box asks you to confirm your decision.




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5. Click Yes.




6. Now you need to update the tree.
7. In the Taxon window's menu bar, choose Taxon > Update Taxa Tree object type, where
   object type is replaced by the name of your active database. A progress indicator shows
   Specify's update progress. An update to a typical database takes a few minutes.
Desynonymizing a Taxon
Desynonymizing a taxon name removes the name's status from Not Accepted or Invalid
classification. The name is no longer considered a junior synonym of an Accepted or Valid name.

To Desynonymize a Taxon:
1. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > Taxon Tree > View Taxon Tree, which displays
   the Taxon window.
2. Expand the taxon tree by clicking the plus (+) signs and select a taxon (A) that you would like to
   desynonymize.




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3. Hold down the Shift key and click taxon A in the taxon tree. A message box asks if you are sure
   you want to desynonymize the taxon. If taxon A is already accepted, you cannot desynonymize.




4. Click Yes. Another message box asks if you want to delete determination entries made when
   taxon A was synonymized.




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    If you click Yes, this deletes determination entries. There is no way to undo this deletion. Make
    sure this is what you want to do.
5. From the Taxonomy window's menu bar, choose Taxonomy > Update Taxa Tree
   (<Object_Type>), where <Object_Type> is the name of your active database; for example,
   Update Taxa Tree (Mammal). A progress indicator shows Specify's update progress. An update
   to a typical database should take only a few minutes. You will not need to do this if you have
   automatically update selected. If you are planning to do multiple desynonymizations, performing
   an update after every taxon will drastically slow down the process.
6. Close the Taxonomy window.
Marking a Taxon
To make moving and synonymizing taxa easier, it is now possible to mark taxa, which is similar to
book marking a web page. The marked taxon can then be reparented and synonymized without
being dragged. This can make operations on the taxon tree significantly easier and faster. The
marked taxon can also be automatically returned to (selected and displayed) at any time.

To mark a taxon:
1. From the Specify menu choose Tools > Taxon Tree > View taxon tree.
2. Navigate to the taxon you would like to mark.
3. From the Taxon Tree menu bar, choose Taxon > Mark Taxon.




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       The marked taxa displays in the lower-left corner of the taxon tree window.




 To reparent a marked taxon:
1. Select the new parent.
2. Choose Taxon > Move Mark.
3. You are asked if you really want to move the selected taxon and all its descendants to the new
   parent. Click Yes to reparent your marked taxon.

 To synonymize a marked taxon:
1. Select the taxon you want to synonymize the marked taxon with.
2. Choose Taxon > Synonymize Mark.



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3. Specify asks if you really want to synonymize the two taxa. Click Yes.

To return to a marked taxon:
1. Choose Taxon > Go To Mark.
Linking to ITIS for Taxonomic Data
Specify provides a link to search the online records of the Integrated Taxonomic Information
System (ITIS; www.itis.usda.gov). The link appears in two menus.
   When the TaxonName data form is open, you can choose View > ITIS Information.




   When the taxon tree window is open, you can choose Taxon > ITIS Information or you can
    right-click a node in the taxon tree itself and choose ITIS Information from the shortcut menu.




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 The ITIS Information command launches the default web browser with the URL containing the
 content of the FullTaxonName field. If the name is found in the ITIS records, the page displays links
 to related taxonomic content and associated data.




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 You can perform the same function from the taxon tree view. When a name is selected in the tree
 view, you can either choose the ITIS Information command from the Taxon menu or right-click the
 name and choose ITIS Information. See Setting the Internet Preference.
 Customizing the Display of Taxon Data
 TaxonName Form

Creating Taxon Name Groups
 Specify's TaxonName data form lets you define a group of taxon names. You can use this feature
 in situations in which a group of taxa are stored together. For example, a single shelf in a museum
 may contain penguin and puffin specimens. The penguin and puffin taxa can be associated with a
 group number representing the shelf number. A search for the group number then reveals the taxa
 of all specimens stored on the shelf (in this case, the penguin and puffin specimens).
 The group number can be any arbitrary value. After you define a group number for a taxon, all child
 taxa automatically receive the same group number. You can remove a child taxon from the group,
 or place a child taxon in a different group by editing the group number setting in the child's Taxon
 Name record.
 By default, the group number field does not appear in the TaxonName data form. You must add the
 group number field to the Taxon Name data form using the Form Customizer.
 To add the Group Number field:



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1. Open the Form Customizer and select the TaxonName table.
2. In the Available Fields list, select Group Number, then position the field in a suitable location on
   the form. The following illustration shows the Group Number field added to the TaxonName
   form in the Form Customizer.




3. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
4. Close the Form Customizer window.
5. Close the Forms Manager window.
 After you add the group number field, you can enter a group number for any taxon.

 To search by taxon group number:
1. Select the CollectionObject category under the Search & Edit Data Heading in the left hand
   menu.
2. From Specify's menu bar, choose View > Options > Search Tree.
3. The search tree will appear above the condition rows in the Search Setup Window.
4. Under the Determination heading, expand TaxonNameID by clicking the plus next to it. Then
   click GroupNumber once. It will appear in the Condition Rows.




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5. Enter the group number and click Search.
 Taxon Tree Window

Showing or Hiding the Number of Valid Species and Subspecies

 Number of Valid Species - Shown                  Number of Valid Species - Not Shown




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 Both of the follow procedures assume that you are viewing the taxon tree window.

 To display the number of species and subspecies of each taxon type in the taxon tree:


 Choose Taxon >Show Number of Valid Species and Subspecies.




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 To prevent the numbers of species and subspecies from being displayed:
 Choose Taxon >Show Number of Valid Species and Subspecies to deselect it.

Displaying Synonymized Taxon Entries
 Use the following procedure if you want to display synonymized taxon entries in the taxon tree.
 Synonymized taxonomic entries will appear below the new taxonomic name as follows:

 To display synonymized taxon entries:
 Choose Tools > Taxon Tree > Show Synonymized Taxon Entries.




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 A check mark should appear to the left of the menu item.




 CollectionObject Form

Adding Taxon Data for Display
 You can designate the field(s) that will be displayed in additional Taxon Level columns for the
 Collection Object Catalog subform formatting in Grid view. These additional columns can be
 displayed in Grid view and reports, as shown in the Before and After illustrations.


 Before                                               After




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To add taxon data for display:
1. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager
   window appears.
2. In the Forms Manager window, expand Collection Objects by clicking the plus (+) sign next to it.
   Select your collection type, and click Edit Form.
3. Select the Collection Object Catalog subform by clicking it once. (This is the subform that
   contains the catalog or specimen number.)




4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Properties.
5. In the Field Properties dialog box, click the Format button.
6. The Display Properties dialog box appears. In the Fields column on the left, select the field to
   which you want to add a column by clicking it once. The field then appears in the Current
   Format pane.
7. Under Additional Columns, click the Taxon button. A dialog box appears asking you to pick a
   taxonomic level. Select the level you want to add a column for, and click OK.




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8. Another dialog box appears asking you to pick a field for that level. Select the field you want to
   display, and click OK. The field then appears in the Additional Columns section.




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9. Repeat steps 6–7 to add all the fields you want to display.
10. When you are finished adding fields, click OK in the Display Properties dialog box, and then
    click OK in the Field Properties dialog box.
11. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
12. Close the Form Customizer window.
13. Close the Forms Manager window.




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 Searching Data

 Conventional Field Searches
 The purpose of entering data into the Specify database is to be able to retrieve that data when you
 need it. Specify offers a flexible interface for defining and running searches. You can restrict the
 type of returned records based on the contents of almost any of Specify's 800 data fields. On one
 hand, Specify can search for something as simple as a single collection record by its catalog
 number or taxon name. On the other hand, you can define more complicated searches, such as the
 following:
      All specimens of the species Opuntia humifusa (for a plant database) or Glyptocephalus
       zachirus (for a fish database) that were obtained at a specific location
      All specimens stored in alcohol that belong to the genus Opuntia (or all specimens stored as
       skeletons that belong to the genus Glyptocephalus)
      All specimens found by a specific collector in 1998
      All collecting events at which at least one Opuntia humifusa or one Glyptocephalus zachirus
       specimen has been collected
 The Specify collection data can be viewed in three ways:
      In Grid view, which is a two-dimensional grid with each column representing a field in the
       record. Click here to access the full explanation of Grid View or see the section on Grid views
       under the Windows and Views heading.
      In Detail view, which is a unique form designed to display a single record's fields in legibly with
       a minimum of scrolling needed. Click here to access the full explanation of Detail View or see
       the section on Detail views under the Windows and Views heading.
      In Custom view, which is a grid, like Grid view, but which only displays columns corresponding
       to the fields marked for Display in the search setup window. Click here to access the full
       explanation of Custom View or see the section on Custom views under the Windows and Views
       heading..
 There are three ways you can encounter a search in Specify.
      Default searches for Specify table are built in for your convenience. These are the easiest
       searches to practice with if you are just learning Specify.
      New searches generate results based on search criteria you enter at the time of the search.
       Refer to Creating and Saving a New Search.
      Saved or imported searches were previously saved for quick access. Refer to Opening a Saved
       Search and Importing a Search.
 Note: If searches are returning data from tables not searched on, the issue may be Search Tree
 related. To see how to resolve the situation, refer to The Search Tree.




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Displaying Unique Results Only
Note: This option pertains to the Custom view only and not to the results displayed in the Detail
view or Grid view. This option was formerly called No Duplicates.
Specify can generate a subset of records that contain no duplicate values for the fields you
designate.
Example 1
In a search of specimens, you could display one row for each unique value in the State field. The
results in the Custom view would contain only as many rows as there were different states
(provinces, etc.) in the table. This would be a relatively small number.
Example 2
You could display one row for each unique value in the FullTaxonName field. The results in the
Custom view would contain only as many rows as there were different full taxon names in the table.
This would probably be a larger number of results than you would generate in the first example.
Example 3
You could display one row for each unique pair of State and FullTaxonName values. The results in
the Custom view would contain only as many rows as there were different states with different full
taxon names in the table. This would normally generate an even larger number of records than the
first two examples because most states will be associated with more than one full taxon name.
To display unique results only:
1. Go to the navigation panel and click the table you want to search (either under the Search &
   Edit Data heading or under the Search & Edit Transactions heading). This displays the search
   setup window.
2. Choose View> Options> Unique Results Only. A checkmark now indicates that this feature is
   switched on.
3. In the condition rows, clear all the check boxes in the Display column.
4. Now go back and check the Display boxes of just the field values that should appear one time in
   the search results. If you were setting up the collection object searches in the examples above,
   you would do the following:

    For Example 1, you would check the Display box for State and no other rows.

    For Example 2, you would check the Display box for FullTaxonName and no other rows.

    For Example 3, you would check the Display boxes for State and FullTaxonName and no other
    rows.
5. Click Search at the bottom of the window.
6. When the search results are displayed in the Browse view, click the Custom button at the
   bottom of the window. Specify displays the unique list you have requested.




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 Default Searches
 Specify automatically inserts a number of condition rows in the search setup window. Thus, you
 can start a search as soon as the setup window appears. Just click Search at the bottom of the
 setup window to display all the records in the selected table. That is the meaning of a default
 search. It is what you get without modifying the search setup window. However, you will normally
 want to restrict the records that are included in the search results. To learn how to do this, refer to
 Creating and Saving a New Search.

 You can redefine the default search as shown below.

 To modify a default search:

  1. Create a search.

  2. Choose View > Options > Search Tree.

  3. Add and/or remove condition rows as desired.

  4. Choose Search > Save As to name and save the search.

  5. Choose Search > Save As Default to retain this arrangement as the default search. You're
     asked to confirm your decision.

  6. Click Yes.




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The Search Tree
The search tree contains all the fields that can be added to a search set up. It can be viewed only
when a search setup window is open. To display the search tree, choose View > Options >
Search Tree. The search tree now appears above the condition list.




To use the search tree it's helpful to understand what the icons mean.
   A highlighted icon means the associated field is already in a condition row of the current search
    setup. If you want to remove that condition row, click the associated icon in the search tree.
   An icon that is not highlighted means the associated field is not part of the current search setup.
    If you want to add it to the setup, click the icon in the search tree, and a new condition row is
    added to the search setup.
Configuring the Search Tree for Automatic Display
You may find it convenient to display the search tree automatically when a certain search is
opened.

To display the search tree automatically:
Make sure that View > Options > Search Tree is checked (switched on) when you save the
search.

To switch off automatic display of the search tree :




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 Make sure that View > Options > Search Tree is unchecked (switched off) when you save the
 search.

 If searches are returning data from tables not searched on:
 Make sure that irrelevant icons have not been selected. If they have been click the icon again to
 deselect it.




 In this example searches on the Gift table will return not only the records filling the conditions set
 for gifts, but also ALL records in the Loan Table. The icon next to Loan is selected as well as the
 Gift icon. If the icons are colored, they are selected. To resolve this, click the Loan icon. The icon
 will loose its colors and become a line drawing.




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Search Tree Icons
The icons displayed in the search tree tell you what kind of data each branch in the tree represents.
The simplest branches are fields that can hold single values and have no link to a related record.
Other kinds of fields are actually links to one or more values in a related table. When added to the
search setup window, they usually have to be formatted so that several fields or several records in
the related table are combined into a single field in the form.
To learn the meaning of the various kinds of relationships, refer to the glossary.


             A table in the Specify database. (There are 58 all together.)

             A one-to-one relationship to another table. If dimmed, it is not currently used in
             any condition row.
             One-to-one is a relation between the records of a primary table and those of a
             related table in which one record in the primary table is always linked to one
             and only one record in the related table. One-to-one relations are less
             common that many-to-one and one-to-many relations. An example is the one-
             to-one relation between the Localities and GeoCoordinates table. For each
             Locality record, there is exactly one record in the GeoCoordinates table, and
             vice versa.
             A one-to-many relationship to another table. If dimmed, it is not currently used
             in any condition row.
             One-to-many is a relation between the records of a primary table and those of
             a related table in which one record in the primary table can be linked to the
             several records in the related table. For example, a single collection event
             record might be linked to several records in the Agent table because several
             people participated in the event.
             A many-to-one relationship to another table. If dimmed, it is not currently used
             in any condition row. Many-to-one relationships must be formatted before they
             can be used in conditions.
             Many-to-one is a relation between the records of a primary table and those of
             a related table in which several records in the primary table are linked to a
             single record in the related table. For example, several specimen (collection
             object) records would be linked to a single record in the Collection Event table
             because all those specimens were collected during the same event.
             A single field in any table. If dimmed, it is not currently used in any condition
             row.
             An object type, such as Fish or Fish Preparation, which is always defined for
             the following tables: Collection Object, CollectionObject CatalogDetermination,
             and CollectingEventID. You can't include an object type in a condition row.




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 Conventional Field Search Procedures
 Creating and Saving a Search
 You'll use this procedure whenever you need to search a specific table and its related records. If
 you are looking for help with an express search, refer to Overview of Express Searching.

 To create and save a search:
1. Choose the table you want to search from the Navigation Panel.
2. The condition list for that table appears.




       If you want to display all the records in the table, don't enter any values in the condition rows
       and skip to step 4.
3. To restrict the search to certain records, fill in as many condition rows as necessary. For each
   condition row that is displayed:
         If you want the field in that row to show up in the Custom view, make sure that its box is
          checked in the Display column. This option has no effect on whether the field is displayed in
          the Browse or Detail views.
         If you want the records in the search results to be sorted according to the values in the field,
          click the button in the Sort column once or twice (up arrow = ascending sort; down arrow =
          descending sort). Clicking the button a third time switches sorting off for that row.

          If you want Specify to sort on more than one field, drag the primary sort row to the top of the
          list, drag the secondary sort row to the second position in the list, and so on.

         If you want only the records that don't satisfy the stated condition in a row, check the box in
          the Not column.
         To review the different kinds of operators, refer to Operators Overview.
         If you need to add a condition row for a field that is not displayed, refer to Adding a Condition
          Row.
4. When you have defined as many conditions as you need, click Search at the bottom of the
   screen. The illustration shows the connection between two conditions and the results of a
   search in the collection objects table.
5. If you didn't get the results you wanted, click New Search at the bottom of the screen to return
   to the condition rows and modify them as desired. Then repeat step 3.
6. If the search worked to your satisfaction and you don't want to reuse the search, you're done.
   You can click Specify in the navigation panel to dismiss the search results.
7. If the search worked to your satisfaction and you want to repeat it later without having to define
   the conditions again, follow the remaining steps.



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8. Click New Search at the bottom of the screen return to the search setup window.
9. Choose Search > Save. A dialog box asks you to enter a name for the search.
10. Type a name in the space provided and click OK. The search is saved under the name of the
    current user.
Note: If you try to save a Search under a previously existing name, Specify asks you to rename the
search.
Adding a Condition Row
Any time you begin new search, Specify displays a default set of condition rows from which you
can choose as many as you need to restrict the number of records that are included in the search
results. In some cases you may need to define a condition for a field in the record that does not
appear in the default condition rows. It's easy to add a row, as you'll see in the following procedure.

To add a condition row to a search definition:
1. Choose the table you want to search from the Navigation Panel.
2. The condition list for that table appears.




3. In the Specify menu bar, choose View > Options > Search Tree.




4. The search tree now appears above the condition list.




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       The search tree represents the relationships that Specify always sets up between records in the
       table at the top of the tree -- the Fish collection object in the example -- and records in a number
       of other tables, such as CollectionObjectCatalog and Determination.
5. Click the desired icon to add a new condition row to the list. If you need to remove the row, click
   the same icon again.
6. Choose View > Options > Search Tree again to dismiss the search tree.
 More about the search tree and search tree icons.
 Opening a Saved Search
 Why open a search you have saved?
      A saved search contains the setup instructions for a search but not the search results. When
       you run a saved search, you are performing a new search of the database with previously
       saved search criteria. If the information in the database has changed since the search was last
       run, the results may be different.
      Once you open a saved search, you can modify the search criteria. A saved search can
       therefore serve as a template, defining the basic structure of a search that you can later refine
       as desired. For example, you can save a search that requests certain information on a loan and
       then edit the loan number each time you run the search for a different loan. If you save the
       changes again when you exit the search window, the new settings are preserved. Otherwise,
       the new settings are discarded.

 To open a saved search:
1. Go to the navigation panel and select the table corresponding to the search you will be opening.
   The table will be under either Search & Edit Data or Search & Edit Transactions heading.


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2. The search setup window appears.
3. From the Specify menu bar, choose Search > Open Existing. A list of user-saved queries
   appears.




4. Select the desired search and click Open or double click on the search. The search setup
   window appears with the original search expressions filled in.
5. Modify the search as desired
6. Click Search at the bottom of the window to view the results.

 For Quick access to a common search:
1. Click Open an Existing Search in the Navigation Panel.
2. A list of saved searches will appear. Choose the table the search is in.
3. Highlight the search and drag it over to the Open an Existing Search. The cursor will change
   when the search is ready to be dropped in the Open an Existing Search heading.
 4. Expand Open an Existing Search. The search will be listed under the heading.
For more in depth information, refer to Moving Searches to the Navigation Panel.
 Entering Search Expressions
 You'll enter search expressions in the search setup window. To learn how to reach this window,
 refer to Creating and Saving a New Search.




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 Operator
 The Operator field defines the operator Specify uses in defining a condition. You select an operator
 by clicking the triangle to drop-down list and clicking the operator in the list. The list of available
 operators depends on the data type of the field to which the operator applies. For more information,
 see Operators Overview.
 Criteria
 The Criteria parameter is the comparison value that is used with the operator to create the
 expression. Multiple Criteria values (such as the two boundary values required for the BETWEEN
 operator) are separated with commas. The Criteria value must match the data type of the data field
 to which it applies.
 Display, Sort, and Not
 The search setup window also includes three other options:


 Display       Indicates whether to display the selected field in the Custom view.
 Sort          Lets you choose whether you want to search for records in ascending (up
               arrow) or descending (down arrow) order. If you choose the gray setting (no
               arrow) the results will not be sorted by that field.
               The order of the condition rows determines which field is the primary and
               secondary sort field (if you have more than one). If you want Specify to sort
               on more than one field, drag the primary sort row to the top of the list, drag
               the secondary sort row to the second position in the list, and so on.
 Not           Switches the operator into its opposite. If you choose the Like operator and
               select the Not check box, you will search for records that are "Not Like" the
               search criteria string.


 Label Linnaean Taxon Ranks
 Select "Label Linnaean Taxon Ranks" for searches on higher taxon ranks or to sort by rank (for
 example, family or order) in reports. You can search for all database items under a given level in
 the classification hierarchy simply by entering a name at the top level you want to search. For
 example, to find records for a given family (with Label Linnaean Taxon Ranks enabled), click on
 Family in the search tree which will add a new condition row at the bottom of the search setup
 window. In the Family condition row, enter the family name in the Criteria field. Make sure the Like
 operator is selected.




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Note: If you are searching for a binomial taxon, it is easier to perform the search with the Label
Linnaean Taxon Ranks option disabled. See the section on Searching Specimens by Binomial.
Here is a before-and-after comparison illustrating how Labeling Linnaean Taxon Ranks affects the
search tree.


   Label Linnaean Taxon Ranks - Not                   Label Linnaean Taxon Ranks -
Checked                                           Checked




To switch on Label Linnaean Taxon Ranks :
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click CollectionObjects.
 2. When the search setup window appears, choose View > Options > Label Linnaean Taxon
    Ranks.
Note: The default setting for searches in Specify 5.2 is to have the Label Linnaean Taxon Ranks
option enabled. However, if updating from a previous version of Specify, older searches will
maintain the settings used when the search was created.


Importing a Search
To import a search you must first know which table the search was defined for.

To import a search:
1. Go to the navigation panel and select the table corresponding to the search you will be
   importing. The table will be under either Search & Edit Data or Search & Edit Transactions
   heading.



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2. From the Specify menu bar, choose Search > Import.




3. In the Import From dialog box, select the name of the export file that contains the search you
   want to import. The file must be a Microsoft Access MDB file that was created through the
   Specify export process. You cannot import a search from an ordinary Specify database.




4. Click Open. If the export file contains more than one collection, Specify asks you to choose the
   collection that contains the search.
5. Select a collection, if necessary, and click OK. Specify displays a list of searches belonging to
   the collection you chose in the previous step.




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6. Select the search you want to import, and click OK.

    If the search you want to import does not appear in the list, the table the search uses may not
    be selected. For instance, a Collection Objects search will not appear in the list if you selected
    the Localities table in step 1.
7. The Search settings for the imported search are displayed.
8. To view a list of records found in the search, click Search at the bottom of the window.
9. To page through the results one record at a time, click Detail at the bottom of the window. The
   Browse and Detail Views display a predefined set of data fields.
10. To view the search results for the specific fields selected in the search setup window, click
    Custom at the bottom of the window.
11. To save the imported search in the current database, choose Search > Save.




Note: If you select Label Linnaean Taxon Ranks and the taxonomic ranks in the database are not
compatible with the ranks in the import set, the import will not work. Also, if the data forms in your
database are different from the forms used to create the search, the imported search may not
function.
Exporting a Search



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 Here you will be exporting the search and its parameters, not the results.
1. Open a saved search or create a new one.
2. Modify the condition rows if necessary.
3. From the Specify menu bar, choose Search > Export.




4. A dialog box asks you to choose the file into which you want to export the search parameters.
   The default name NewDB.mdb appears. You can use this default name, select an existing
   export file, or enter a new name. If you enter a new name, Specify creates a new export file.
   Click Open.




5. Within the export file, the search must be part of a collection. If you are exporting the search to
   an existing export file, Specify asks you to choose the name of the collection. Select a current
   collection or enter a new collection name. If you are exporting the search to a new export file,
   Specify asks you to enter a collection name. Enter a collection name, and click OK.


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6. Enter a name for the search, then click OK. You can export additional searches to the file if you
   want.




Restricting a Search to Certain Records
Normally you will want Specify to select a subset of the records in whatever table you are working
with. To do this, you define one or more conditions (or filters, as they are known in the database
world) that tell Specify which records to include in the search results and which records to ignore.
To review operators, refer to Common Operators, Date Operators, Number Operators, Text
Operators, and Yes/No Button Field Operators.
To use wildcard characters, refer to Using Wildcards.
Additional examples can be found at:
 Searching for Agents
 Searching for Loans by Date Scenario
 Searching Specimens by Binomial
 Searching Specimens by Catalog Number
 Searching Specimens by Collector
 Searching Specimens by Loan and Taxon
Exporting Search Results
To report your data to a geographical information system (GIS) or to share information with other
users, Specify allows you to export the records that are returned by a search.

To export search results:
1. Create the desired search. Refer to Creating and Saving a New Search. The search doesn't
   need to be saved to be exported.
2. Click Search at the bottom of the search setup window. The search results appear in Grid view.




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3. Click the Export button at the bottom of the grid view.




       Or Click Search > Export.




4. The Export dialog box appears.




5. Select the format you want the information to be sent in, either Microsoft Access database or a
   comma-delimited text file.
6. Click OK.




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7. Choose where you want to save the search results and enter a file name. Click Save.




8. A dialog box will inform you if the search results were exported successfully.
Deleting a Search
You can delete any search that was saved by the user account under which you logged into
Specify (and all user accounts of a lower security level that your own). The following procedure
requires you to define a temporary search in order to display the list of removable searches.
1. In the navigation panel, select the table corresponding to the search you want to delete. The
   table will be under either Search & Edit Data or Search & Edit Transactions heading.
2. The search setup window appears.
 3. From the Specify menu bar, choose Search >Delete.




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       A list of saved searches appears.




  4. Click the search you want to delete, then click OK.




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Operators
Operators Overview
The operator is the active ingredient in each condition you define for a Specify search. It defines
the relationship between some field in the records you will be searching and your criteria. For
example, if you wanted to find all catalog numbers less than 400, your condition would be:




The less than sign, "<", is the operator in this condition. You'll use it on number fields. Different
fields have different families of operators, depending on the kind of values that the field contains
(text, number, date, or Yes/No). To learn more about these families of operators, click the
appropriate link below.


Text Operators
Number Operators
Date Operators
Yes/No Button Field Operators
Common Operators

For Number Fields
 =                 finds all records for which the selected field is equal to the specified criterion.
 <                 finds all records for which the selected field is less than the specified criterion
 >                 finds all records for which the selected field is greater than the specified criterion
For Text Fields
 Like              lets you enter a wildcard character * into the criterion. Finds all records for which
                   the selected field matches the specified pattern expression.
 Contains          finds all records for which the selected field contains a specified character
                   sequence.
For Date Fields
 Before            finds all records for which the content of the selected field is a date before the
                   specified date.
 After             finds all records for which the content of the selected field is a date after the
                   specified date.
For Yes/No Fields


 Don't Care        finds all records for which the content of the selected field is Yes, No, or Empty.


 Yes               finds all records for which the content of the selected field is Yes.




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  No                finds all records for which the content of the selected field is No.


  Empty             finds all records for which the content of the selected field Empty.



 Yes/No Button Field Operators
 Specify supports the following operators for Yes/No button fields.


       Operator            Criteria                               Explanation
                                           The search accumulates only those records in which this
    Yes               [not used]
                                           field is set to Yes.
                                           The search accumulates only those records in which this
    No                [not used]
                                           field is set to No.
                                           The search finds all records regardless of the setting for
    Don't Care        [not used]
                                           this field.
                                           The search finds all records in which this field has no
    Empty             [not used]
                                           setting.


 Text Operators
 Specify supports the following operators for text. They require one or more letters or words,
 enclosed in single quotation marks, in the Criteria column. The table shows examples of each with
 sample Criteria values:


    Operator                Criteria                                 Explanation
    Like            *ist                       See Wildcard Characters.
                                               The field must contain the sequence "tufted" with or
    Contains        tufted
                                               without other letters or symbols.
                                               The field must consist of the string "northern," the
                                               string "north," or the string "No." The "In" operator is
    In              northern,north,No.         like the "=" operator except that it accepts multiple
                                               entries. See also the section at the bottom of this
                                               page.
    =               short-tailed               The field must consist of the string "short-tailed."
    Empty                                      The field must contain no data.


 Specifying a numeric range for the In operator
 When you choose the CatalogNumber condition row to set up a search, you can use the In
 operator with criteria such as the following: 44456-58, 44460, 44462-72, 55678, 56782, 44321. In
 this example, the search would find records with the following catalog numbers:


 44456             44464               44470
 44457             44465               44471



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44458            44466             44472
44460            44467             55678
44462            44468             56782
44463            44469             44321


Using Wildcards
The operator Like lets you restrict a search to specific patterns of letters or symbols or both in a
designated field. To do this, the Criteria entry must include an asterisk (*), which is known as the
wildcard character. Here are some examples.


        Operator             Criteria                 Match                      No Match
     Like                 *ist               list, biologist, atheist     cistern
                          str*               strict, stroll, strudel      destroy
                                             ought, through,
                          *ough*                                          taught, touch
                                             bought
                                             bland, blend, blind,
                          bl*nd                                           blow, bend
                                             blond


Wildcards and Button List Boxes
When you are seeking an existing value (agent, locality, taxon, etc.) in a button list box, you can
place the asterisk in several positions, depending on your expectation of the values to be found:
   At the left end of the search string:




    In the example, *lyp found a list of taxon names that contained but did not begin with the lyp
    string.
   In the middle of a search string:




    In the example, gly*z found a list of taxon names that began with a gly string that was followed
    (at any distance) by z.
   In more than one position in the search string:




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       In the example, gly*r*s found a list of taxon names that began with a gly string followed (at any
       distance) first by r and then by s.
      It is not necessary to append the asterisk to the right side of the search string, as trailing letters
       will be included in all found values.
 Date Operators
 Specify supports the following operators for dates. Except for the Empty operator, each operator
 requires one or more dates in the Criteria column.


    Operator                  Criteria                                 Explanation
    On                 06/26/92                  The field must contain the date June 26, 1992.
    Before             10/01/97                  The field must contain a date before October 1, 1997.
                                                 The field must contain a date during the years 1970–
    Between            12/31/69,01/01/76
                                                 1975.
                                                 The field must contain a date later than April 30,
    After              04/30/97
                                                 1997.
                                                 The field must have no value in it for this condition to
    Empty
                                                 be true.
 Number Operators
 Specify supports the following operators for numbers. Except for the Empty operator, these
 operators require one or more numbers in the Criteria column.


    Operator             Criteria                                   Explanation
    =                  45                 The field must contain the number 45.
                                          The field must contain a number that is greater than or
    Between            100,200
                                          equal to 100 and less than or equal to 200.
    <                  82                 The field must contain a number that is less than 82.
    >                  6020               The field must contain a number that is greater than 6020.
    In                 32,35,36,39        The field must contain 32, 35, 36, or 39.
                                          The field must have no value in it for this condition to be
    Empty
                                          true.




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Conventional Field Search Examples
Searching Specimens by Catalog Number
In this scenario, a museum visitor would like additional information on a collection object with a
specific catalog number.

To search specimens by catalog number:
 1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click CollectionObjects.




2. Go to the Fish_CatalogNumber row, make sure the equal (=) operator is selected, and type the
   desired catalog number in the Criteria box.




4. Click Search at the bottom of the window. Specify finds the record for the collection object with
   the catalog number entered and displays it in Grid view.




5. To display the record in its form click Detail at the bottom of the window or double click on the
   record you want to display.




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This displays the requested information. If you need to modify any of the information in the record displayed,
continue with the following steps.

6. Click Edit in the button bar below the form so that you can modify the data in the record.
7. The Edit button changes to a Save button, and the fields on the form become editable.
8. Make any changes, click Save in the button bar below the form.
 Searching Specimens by Binomial
 In this scenario, a collections manager wants to view collection records for all specimens with a
 particular determination.

 To search specimens by binomial:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click CollectionObjects.




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    There is not yet any condition row for full taxon name.
2. Choose View > Options and make sure Label Linnaean Taxon Ranks is not checked.




3. Choose View > Options > Search Tree. The search tree for the Fish collection object table
   appears.
4. Click the plus sign by Determination to expand its subtree. The subtree for the Fish
   Determination table appears.
5. Expand other plus signs, as necessary, to display the fields in the TaxonNameID table. Your
   destination is the FullTaxonName field shown at right in the illustration below.




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6. Click on FullTaxonName to add a new condition row at the bottom of the search setup window.




       Note: If you want to get rid of the search tree, choose View > Options > Search Tree again.
       The search tree does not have to be gone for searches to continue.
7. Enter the binomial you are searching for in the FullTaxonName field. If you are unsure about the
   name you may want to select the Contains operator.




8. Click Search at the bottom of the window. All specimens meeting the conditions entered are
   listed.




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9. If you want to save the search, click New Search at the bottom of the window to return to the
   search setup window, then choose Search > Save As. Enter a search name ion the resulting
   dialog box and click OK.
Searching Specimens by Collector
In this scenario, the promotions and tenure committee needs to know the catalog number and taxa
of all collection objects attributed to a particular collector.

To search specimens by collector:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click CollectionObjects.




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2. Choose View > Show Search Tree.




3. The search tree now appears above the condition list.
4. Expand the Determination table, then expand DeterminerID. Click Last Name and First Name if
   you want to use both criteria.




5. In the newly added condition rows, enter the collector's last name and first name if desired.




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     Note: If there were inconsistencies in entering the collector's name, not all specimens the
     collector is associated with will come up. You can try using wildcards to eliminate this
     possibility. For more information on using wildcards, refer to Using Wildcards.
6. Click Search at the bottom of the window. All specimens attributed to N. David, i.e. Nicholas
   David, Nick David, Nicki David will be returned.
7. If you want to save the search, click New Search at the bottom of the window to return to the
   search setup window (your search conditions will not be lost). Then in the Specify menu bar at
   the top of the screen, choose Search > Save As.




8. Enter a search name ion the resulting dialog box and click OK.
Searching for Agents
In this scenario, you need contact information for a particular person, who has participated in
several collecting events.

To search for agents:
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Data heading, and click Agents.




2. Enter the person's last and first names in the designated rows.




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       Note: If there were inconsistencies in entering the agent's name, the agent may not come up.
       You can try using wildcards to eliminate this possibility. For more information on using
       wildcards, refer to Using Wildcards.




3. Click Search at the bottom of the window. All specimens attributed to N. David, i.e. Nicholas
   David, Nick David, N. David, and Nicki David will be returned.
4. If you want to save the search, click New Search at the bottom of the window to return to the
   search setup window (your search conditions will not be lost). Then in the Specify menu bar at
   the top of the screen, choose Search > Save As.




5. Enter a search name ion the resulting dialog box and click OK.
 Searching Specimens by Loan and Taxon
 In this scenario, the collections manager wants to know the catalog numbers and taxa of all
 collection objects included with any loan whose loan number begins with a particular number.
1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Transactions heading, and click Loan.




2. Go to the Loan_LoanNumber row and type the number the loans begin with followed by a
   wildcard character in the Criteria box. For example, if you want all loans beginning with 19, type
   in 19*.




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3. Click Search at the bottom of the window. The Grid view is displayed first.




4. To view details of any of the loans listed, double click the loan or click the loan once so it is
   highlighted then click the Detail button at the bottom of the page.
5. If you want to save the search, click New Search at the bottom of the window to return to the
   search setup window (your search conditions will not be lost). Then in the Specify menu bar at
   the top of the screen, choose Search > Save As.




6. Enter a search name ion the resulting dialog box and click OK.
Searching for Loans by Date Scenario
In this scenario, as part of an audit of your collection procedures, you want to find loan records for
all loans made since a particular date.

To search for loans by date scenario:
 1. Go to the navigation panel, Search & Edit Transactions heading, and click Loan.




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2. Go to the Loan_Loan Date row, click the triangle beside the Operator field, and select After. In
   the Criteria field, enter the date.




3. Click Search at the bottom of the window.
4. To view details of any of the loans listed, double click the loan or click the loan once so it is
   highlighted then click the Detail button at the bottom of the page.
5. If you want to save the search, click New Search at the bottom of the window to return to the
   search setup window (your search conditions will not be lost). Then in the Specify menu bar at
   the top of the screen, choose Search > Save As.




6. Enter a search name ion the resulting dialog box and click OK.




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Express Searches
Overview of Express Searching
Express searching is an addition to and not a replacement of conventional Specify searches
(previously known as queries). An express search can return all the records from your collection
containing any or all of the words in the search expression that you enter in the search box.




Express searches are easy and fast. You type the search expression, click on Search, and, in a
few seconds, the results appear in the summary list below the Search box, along with a count of
the matching records found in each indexed table. To view individual data rows, you'll click on one
of the tables in the summary list.
Unlike Specify's conventional search (which is defined for a single table and any related records),
an express search canvasses multiple tables. Its coverage is limited only by the extent of the index
tables you have previously built. For example, you could enter "Parker" and click on Search. Any
table that contains Parker as a locality, collector, or as the value of any other field, will be displayed
in the summary list.
Note: Express searches find only data that is compiled when you build the search index tables for
your collection. The example above assumes that the search index tables include the fields that
contained "Parker".
When Not to Run an Express Search
If you want to return records based on defined conditions, such as "Catalog Number is less than
400" or "Date is Before 01/31/2002"), don't use an express search. Instead, run a conventional
search by selecting a table under one of the Search & Edit headings in the navigation panel.
Another scenario that would require a conventional search would be if you wanted to find "Parker"
only when it was in the Determiner field. (An express search would find all occurrences of "Parker"
in any field.)
To review conventional searches, refer to Creating and Saving a New Search.
In addition, you may want to limit express searches to tables that do not contain confidential data or
prohibit guest-level users from performing express searches, as further explained in the following
note.
Important: Express searching cannot filter out users who have been disallowed from viewing the
results of certain kinds of conventional searches (via the Group Permitted to View field). That is, if a
guest user runs an express search, whatever data was included in the search index table will be
visible in the express search results.
Where Express Searches Get Their Base Data




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 Express searches compile their results from index tables, which you must build for your collection.
 When you build an express search index table, Specify compiles the index table from two kinds of
 fields in the base table (such as CollectionObject, Locality, or Agent):
      Single-valued fields which are local or native to the table, typically strings, dates, or numbers.
       These fields are never formatted.
      Formatted fields, which pull in data from related records in other tables. The formatting
       (performed in the Form Customizer) combines multiple values or multiple records into a single
       string that is displayed in one field in the result window (Browse, Detail, and Custom views) of a
       search. Thus, for example, several fields from an Agent record (title, first name, last name, etc.)
       can be combined into one field in the results of a search of the Collection Object table.
 Some field formatting is built into the Specify program, whereas other formatting must be defined
 by you.
      Built-in formatting is called default formatting. It is used only in major subforms, such as
       Collecting Events, Localities, and Determination; that is, the subforms that appear on the
       Collection Object form.
      Formatting that you define for your collection is called custom formatting.
 Why Custom Data Form Formatting is Important for Express Searches
 You can build index tables and run express searches without any custom formatting. However,
 your searches may not generate results that are comprehensive enough for you. Therefore, in most
 cases, you'll want to add custom formatting to your main forms in order to make more information
 available to express searches. You can build index tables only on the following six base tables (ten
 if you count the sub tables as separate tables).


 Collecting Object                   Loan (Loan)                        Agents (Other)
 Collecting Event                    Accessions                         Agents (Group)
 Localities                          Agents (Organization)
 Loan (Gift)                         Agents (Person)


 Formatting lets you include fields from related tables, such as Determination, Habitat, and Permit,
 in one or more of the six forms listed above. In that way, the related data will be detected when you
 build your express search index tables. To learn more about formatting now, refer to Custom
 Formatting Overview, Multi-Field Formatting and Multi-Record Formatting.
 Ready to Try Express Searching?
 Continue your exploration of express searching with the following Help pages.
 Running an Express Search
 Building an Express Search Index Table


 Building an Express Search Index Table
 Express searches, like express trains, require special "tracks" to run on. In the case of an express
 search, the special tracks are index tables. Before you can run an express search, you must build
 each of the index tables to be searched. There is an index table for each Specify table that contains
 data for your collection (i.e. CollectionObject, Localities, Agent, etc.). The express search feature
 uses these index tables instead of Specify's standard database tables to do its work.
 You'll need to build index tables for Collection Object, Collecting Event, Locality, Agent, and Taxon
 information. Some users may also need index tables for loans and/or accessions.




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If you are eager to test express searches, build just the Collection Object index table first, then run
an express search to see the kinds of results it generates. Come back to this page when you're
ready to build the other index tables and expand the reach of your express searches.
You don't need to build indexes for tables that your organization is not using. For example, if you
don’t use Specify to keep track of your accessions, don’t build an index for the Accessions table.
How Long Will it Take?
Building any index table can take a long time, depending upon how much data is stored in the
selected table. For example, it could be the Collection Objects index table that takes the longest to
build, but the Taxonomy index table could take just as long, or even longer on some databases.
Important: Because some phases of index building may take a long time, it's a good idea to build
index tables during a down time in workflow or overnight.

To build an express search index table:
1. This step only needs to be done the first time you build an index. Thereafter, you can start at
   step 2.




        Using Windows Explorer or My Computer, create a folder called “fullText” and make a note
        of where you created it in your file system. (The easiest place is at the root of your file
        system, such as C:\ or D:\) This temporary folder is used to create files in the process of
        setting up the full text index. Technically speaking, you don't have to use this folder to
        create index files, but if you don't, the building process may take even longer.

2. Choose Tools > Admin > Express Search Configuration.




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3. The Express Search Configuration dialog box is displayed.




3. Update any indexes that require it. For more information about updating, refer to the section at
   the end of this page.
4. Select a row containing any table that has "Not Created" in its Status column. Start with
   CollectionObject if you haven't created that one yet.
5. Click Build. You'll be prompted to confirm your decision because building some of the index
   tables can take a while.




6. Click Yes to continue.
7. In the resulting Bulk Insert Settings dialog box, enter the following values:
       Make sure that Use Bulk Insert is checked.
       In the Location box, enter the directory path to the folder you created in step 1.
       In the Server Administrator User Name box, enter sa.




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      In the Password box, enter the unique password assigned to the sa user during installation.




       If you make a mistake when entering this information, Specify won't detect it until you reach
       step 6 below. If at that point, Specify tells you that it can't build a table, it probably indicates
       an invalid entry in the Bulk Insert Settings dialog box. To correct this, go to the Express
       Search Configuration menu bar, shown below, and choose Settings > Bulk Insert
       Settings. Re-enter your information carefully and continue with step 3.
8. In the status row at the bottom of the window, Specify displays

    "Express Search Index Build: checking formats (step 1 of 4)."
9. If a dialog box tells you that you have not modified the formats of certain fields from their
   defaults, click OK.

    In the status row at the bottom of the window, Specify displays

    "Express Search Index Build: generating data (step 2 of 4)."

    While it is compiling the index, Specify displays a status dialog box with approximate time
    estimates.




10. When Specify displays "Done," in the status dialog box, click OK.

    In the status row at the bottom of the window, Specify displays



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       "Express Search Index Build: verifying catalog settings (step 3 of 4)."

       The Express Search dialog box now appears:




       The Fields To Include section contains all of the fields whose contents will be compiled for the
       index table. Only text fields can be selected for an index table.

       This list is copied from the Available Fields list in the Form Customizer. If a field is switched off
       in the Form Customizer, it won't appear here and cannot be used to generate an index table. If
       you need to include more fields at this point, back out of this procedure and:
         Use the Form Customizer to check additional fields in the Available Fields list. If you clear a
          field's check box, the field will still appear in the search results, but its values will not be
          compiled in the index table.
         If necessary, use formatting to pull into the primary form any fields from related tables that
          you need to include in the express search index tables.
11. Repeat a-e below for each field in the Fields To Include section:




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    a. Deselect the field (clear its check box) if you don't want to include its values in index table.
       The remaining steps (b-e) apply only to fields that you are keeping in the index table.
    b. Go to the Exclude from Search panel.
    c.   Edit the Words To Ignore list for this field as necessary by selecting words, changing or
         deleting them, or by adding new words to the list. These are function words, such as articles
         and prepositions, which would make the index tables unnecessarily large and have little
         utility as search targets.
    d. Edit the Punctuation Characters list for this field as necessary by selecting punctuation
       characters, changing or deleting them, or by adding new punctuation characters to the list.
       It's important to exclude any punctuation that would be interpreted as part of a word. For
       example, you don't want the index table to compile "Kansas." "Kansas," "Kansas:" and
       "Kansas;" as separate words. However, for the Agents index table, you probably want to
       include periods because of the frequency of initials in names (J. R. Ewing).
    e. Edit the Whitespace Characters list for this field as necessary by selecting characters,
       changing or deleting them, or by adding new characters to the list. The default whitespace
       characters are space, tab, and new line.
12. Click OK.

    In the status row at the bottom of the window, Specify displays "Express Search Index Build:
    generating express search indexes (step 4 of 4)."

    After another wait (shorter than the first), you are told that the operation was successful.




    At this point, you can run an express search to check the results.
When you are ready to continue building indexes for additional tables or add fields, you can review
the steps in this procedure as a guide.
Updating Index Tables
When you make changes to the information in your Specify database, some of your index tables
will require updating. There are three indications that an index should be updated:
   A message tells you that updates are needed in the index update when you are viewing the
    Configuration Fields dialog box, shown in step 7 above.
   An asterisk appears with any of the express search results.
   The Update button is enabled (not dimmed) when you select a table in the Express Search
    Configuration dialog box, shown in step 3 above. Click the Update button to refresh any index
    table that needs updating.
Running an Express Search
You'll use the small panel in the upper left corner of the screen to set up and run an express
search.




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 Before you can run express searches, you must build express search index tables. For more
 information, refer to Building an Express Search Index Table.
 To run an express search
1. Type the word or expression you are searching for in the box next to the Search button. Use
   one of the following methods:
         If you're searching for an exact phrase and only that phrase, enter it within single quotes,
          such as
          ‘New Mexico’.
         If you want Specify to find records that contain one or more of the words in your search
          expression, don't use single quotes and select Any Words. (If you need a quick reminder,
          move the mouse pointer over Any Words.) Also, don't insert commas between multiple
          terms, only a single space.
         If you want Specify to find only records containing all the words in the search expression but
          not necessarily in the same order as in the search expression, don't use single quotes, but
          do select All Words. (If you need a quick reminder, move the mouse pointer over All Words.)
          Again, don't insert commas between multiple terms, only a single space.

          This method returns records that contain all the words of the search expression in a single
          field (but not over multiple fields in the same record). The found values may be interspersed
          within a longer string. As an example, for the search expression Pacific Tidal Beach, the
          express search would return records with individual fields that contain values such as "Tidal
          flows near Kanaana Beach, Pacific Rim zone" as well as "Northwest Pacific Tidal Beach"
          and "Tidal Flats near Pacific Beach". The search would not return records where "Pacific"
          and "Tidal Beach" were found in the same record but in different fields.
2. Click the Search button. Specify takes a few seconds to perform the search and then lists the
   tables in which your search expression was found.
       Punctuation: Specify will ignore any specific punctuation for those fields that are set to ignore
       that specific punctuation. But if you include the punctuation when building, you MUST include it
       for the search.

       Uppercase and Lowercase: The express search is not case-sensitive, but it is sensitive to
       characters with diacritical marks, such as accented vowels in Spanish. It will not match "Mexico"
       from the search expression with "México" in the index table.
3. When Specify displays the summary list of results, you can click any of the names in the list to
   display the individual records in Grid view.

       If an asterisk (*) appears next to a table in the summary list, Specify is telling you that the
       corresponding index table needs to be updated. You may not be seeing all the records that



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    contain your search string. For more information, refer to Updating an Express Search Index
    Table.
4. If you want to sort the rows in Grid view, click Sort (or choose View > Sort in the Specify menu
   bar). The Sort Order dialog box is displayed.




5. To add a Sort By field, click in the Available Fields list, then click the right arrow. To remove a
   Sort By field, click on it in the Sort By list, then click the left arrow.

    Specify uses the top row in the Sort By list as the primary sort key, the second row as the
    secondary sort key, and so forth. To achieve the sort order you need, drag the Sort By fields up
    or down.
6. Click OK. The Grid view is redisplayed with records in sorted order.
The Print, Export, and Detail buttons work in this Grid view just as they do in the Grid view of the
results of a conventional search.
Formatting Overview
Formatting has several meanings in Specify. You can, for example, format the way dates, latitudes,
longitudes, and numeric series are displayed, using Tools > User Preferences > Set Field
Masks/Series. However, on this page you'll be introduced to the formatting feature that is part of the
Form Customizer. It lets you perform three important tasks:
   Consolidate some or all of the fields already defined for a subform into a single column in Grid
    view and reports. This is called multi-field formatting. To learn more, refer to Multi-Field
    Formatting.
   Consolidate one-to-many fields into a single column in Grid view and reports. This is called
    multi-record formatting. To learn more, refer to Multi-Record Formatting.
   Add fields to Express Search from tables that are not included in the Express Search
    Configuration dialog box. For example, if you want to include a field from a table other than
    CollectingEvent, CollectionObject, Localities, Taxonomy, Loan, Accessions, and Agents, you
    will need to add the field to an existing field in one of previously mentioned tables, via
    formatting, or add it as a new column.
Multi-Field Formatting




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 With Specify, you can format certain fields from a single related record so that those fields are
 displayed in a single field in the current form. In this usage, formatting means selecting and
 arranging fields to display in the desired order.
 Note: If you need to display more than one related record in the same field, refer to Multi-Record
 Formatting.
 This example uses the tutorial database (Fishdemo) and changes the format of the fields that
 comprise DeterminerID information in the Collection Objects form. The current format shows the
 determiner's last name followed by a comma and then the determiner's first name. No title or
 middle initial is included.




 The following procedure will change the current format of this field to
  (Title) (First Name) (Middle Initial) (Last Name)
 You can view the result by scrolling to the bottom of this page.


 Note: Changing the format of a field does not change the way you enter data. Although the
 following procedure changes the way an agent field appears in search results, you will still enter
 data using the Last Name (unformatted field) to find records.
 The DeterminerID field uses multi-field formatting because the information comes from several
 fields in a related record from the Agent table. The Agent record includes, among many others,
 Title, First Name, Middle Initial, and Last Name fields. These are the fields that you will be
 recombining in the Current Format box shown below.

 To create a multi-field format:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager window appears.
2. Click the form you want to customize. In the current example, it's the Collection Objects > Fish
   form.
3. Click the Edit Form button in the Forms Manager window to display the form in the Form
   Customizer window.
4. Click on the subform that contains the field you wish to edit. In this example, it is Determination.




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5. From the Specify menu bar choose Edit > Subform in order to select fields within the subform.
6. Click the DeterminerID field to select it.




7. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit >Field Properties. A shortcut is to double
   click on the field




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       The Field Properties dialog box is displayed:




8. Click the Format button. The Display Properties dialog box appears. The current format of the
   DeterminerID field is displayed in the upper-right box.




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    The Current Format box shows each field included in the format and any expressions that
    separate the fields. In the illustration above, two fields have been added to the Current Format
    box, along with a comma and space separating them. You will now replace this format with a
    new format.
9. Click the Clear button below the Current Format box.
10. Click Title in the Fields list. This places "Agent3.Title" in the Current Format box. (The "Agent3"
    part tells you that the related record comes from the Agent table.) Next, you'll add a space to
    the format.
11. Click the Add Expr button below the Current Format box.
12. In the Expression Editor dialog box, press the Space Bar to enter a space in the Text box, then
    check the Omit box below it.




    This tells Specify to omit whatever you typed in the Text box if the value of the following field is
    empty. In this case, Specify will not insert the space character if the field you insert in the
    following step contains no value.




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13. Click OK to dismiss the Express Editor. The Current Format box shows your progress:




14. Click First Name in the Fields list, then add another space, as you did in steps 10-11.
15. Repeat step 13 with Initial and Last Name in the Fields list, but don't add a space after the Last
    Name field in the Current Format box. When you're finished, the Current Format box should
    look like this:




       If you need to remove an item, select it and click the Delete button.

16. Click OK to dismiss the Display Properties dialog box.
17. Click OK again to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
18. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Stop Editing Subform.
19. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
20. Close the Form Customizer window.
21. Close the Forms Manager window.

 To view the formatted field:
1. Create a search of the Collection Objects table, using the Search & Edit Data heading in the
   navigation panel.
2. When the Grid view appears, click the Detail button at the bottom of the results window. The
   new formatting of DeterminerID appears in its subform:




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    Note that the name in the illustration contains no middle initial. More precisely, the Middle Initial
    field in the related record from the Agent table is blank. For that reason, Specify did not add an
    extra space between the first name and last name in the multi-field format.
(This topic is also discussed in Customizing the Display Format.)
Multi-Record Formatting
Specify lets you customize the format in which many of the fields on a form are displayed. Some of
these fields represent one-to-many relationships with a related table. That is, one record in the
main form is related to several records in the related table. Multi-record formatting lets you display,
in a single column of a search results window, a list of values that have been strung together from
several records (you set the number) in the related table.
Note: If you need to format several fields from a single related record, refer to Multi-Field
Formatting.
Without multi-record formatting, if you created a search with a one-to-many field, it would appear
that you had duplicate records in Browse and Custom views. That's because the results window
would display the second preparation, agent, or second anything else, on a second line. With multi-
record formatting, all the information is displayed in the same row as the primary record.
The following procedure references a fish database and formats a field called "prep and use info."
The format will show each type of preparation and the number of objects associated with that
preparation type. In addition, the format will include a count of the total number of preparations.
You can use this procedure as a sample when working with any other form that contains one-to-
many fields like "prep and use info".

To create a multi-record format:
1. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager
   window appears. For this example, you'll be formatting a field in the Fish Collection Objects
   form.
2. In the Forms Manager window, expand Collection Objects, select Fish under that heading, then
   click the Edit Form button. The Form Customizer window appears.
3. Select the PreparationMethod subform, which may also be called "Prep and use info" or simply
   "Preparation" in your form. It should have handles at each corner, as in the inset below.




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4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Properties.




5. When the Field Properties dialog box appears, click the Format button near the bottom of the
   dialog box. The Display Properties dialog box appears. It contains a view of available fields on
   the left side, the Current Format box on the upper right and an Aggregate Settings panel below
   that. You will be copying fields from the tree view into the format box and applying options to
   those fields from the Aggregate Settings panel.




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6. Go to the tree view of the table and click the Count field to copy it to the format box. You can
   use the formatting buttons to do the following:
      To enable the Tab button, check the Rich Text box.
      To add text between fields, click Add Expr.
      To separate fields with a line break, click New Line. This is different from checking New Line
       in Aggregate Settings, which separates records, not fields, with a new line. The line breaks
       are displayed only in Detail view when the control containing the field is not a grid.
      To _ _ _, click Edit.
      To remove the selected field or text, click Delete.
      To remove all fields and characters from the Current Format box, click Clear.
7. Click the Add Expr button to display the Expression Editor.




    The insertion bar is blinking in the Text box.




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8. Press the Space Bar to enter a space character, check the box next to "Omit if next expression
   is blank", and click OK.
9. Next, click "PreparationMethod" in the tree view to add it to the Current Format box.
10. Go to the Aggregate Settings panel and do the following:
       In the Separator box, enter the desired character to insert between the related records, or
        check New Line to display each related record on a new line within the same row of the Grid
        view. If New Line is checked, no separator character is inserted.
       In the Continuation Text box, enter the characters (normally, three periods) that indicate the
        existence of more related records that are not shown because you have set a maximum in
        the Display options below. If you choose All as the Display option, the Continuation Text is
        not inserted.
       From the Order By dropdown list, select CollectionObject2.PreparationMethod. This
        designates the PreparationMethod field as the sort key for the order in which the related
        records are lined up in the formatted field.
       In the Display options, select either All to include all related records in the formatted field, or
        select First and type the desired maximum number of related records to include in the
        formatted field. If you specify a maximum and Specify detects more related records than
        your maximum allows, it inserts the Continuation Text characters, described above, following
        the last related record.
       If you want to add a column to the Grid view containing the number of related records, check
        the Count box. You can change the default column heading, "Count", to something else if
        you wish. This column will appear to the right of the column that you are in the process of
        formatting.
       If you want to add a column to the Grid view containing the sum of the values in a number
        field that is part of the related record, check the Sum box and select the desired field to sum
        from the drop-down list. You can change the default column heading, "Sum", to something
        else if you wish. This column will appear to the right of the column that you are in the
        process of formatting. It will be to the right of the Count column, described above, if you
        include both count and sum columns.

        The completed format will look something like this:




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11. Click OK to dismiss the Display Properties dialog box.
12. Click OK to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
13. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
14. Close the Form Customizer window.
15. Close the Forms Manager window.
       When you run a search, the formatted field shows the counts as defined for the field.




Switching Off Automatic Updating




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 When automatic updating is switched on, Specify updates express search index tables whenever
 their base tables (Collection Object, Loan, etc.) have had changes made to their records. Before
 you apply batch editing to a table, it's a good idea to switch off automatic updating of that table's
 express search index table. It's not mandatory, but doing this will speed up performance of the
 batch editing task.
 When you are finished with batch editing and want to run an express search on this table, you'll
 need to manually update the index table and switch automatic updates back on.
 To switch off automatic updating:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Express Search Configuration. The Express Search Configuration
   dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the table for which you need to switch off automatic updating and click the Edit button at
   the bottom of the dialog box. The Express Search Customization dialog box appears.




3. Clear the check box next to Automatic Updates.
4. Click OK.
5. Click Close in the Express Search Configuration dialog box.
 Updating an Express Search Index Table




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If you have switched on automatic updating for an express search index table, you should not need
to manually update. However, if you have switched off automatic updating (to speed up batch
editing), you will need to update the index table before you run your next express search.
To update an express search index table:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Express Search Configuration. The Express Search Configuration
   dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the index table you need to update.




   If the index table needs updating, its status message is "Not Up to Date" and the Update button
   is enabled.

3. Click Update.
4. When the updating has completed, click Close.




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 Reports

 Overview
 You'll use the reports features of Specify to present the results of your Specify searches in an
 attractive and reader-friendly arrangement, either on paper or on screen as a report preview.
 Reports are generated by report definitions, which are in turn based on Specify searches.
 First of all, what's the difference between a report and a report definition?
      A report is the set of records that is displayed or printed or saved in a file when you run a
       report. It is the output from a Specify search that has been flowed into a Rave Reports definition
       for printing, previewing, or saving to a file.
      A report definition is a description of the components of a report. These include the search
       that the report is based on, the names of the columns that will be in the report, and the
       "cosmetics" -- the pagination, graphics, headers, and other formatting that is not available
       through the Grid view or the Custom view of searches. A report definition does not contain any
       records from a Specify table.
 First Things First
 If you have not opened or created a search, you cannot print a report or create a report definition.
 For more information on searches, refer to Creating and Saving a Search.
 Grid Columns and Custom Columns
 Because the choice of columns in a report definition is linked to the view of a search's results, it's a
 good idea to understand the two kinds of reports that Specify can create, along with the full setup
 and simplified setup options available for any report.
 Printing Existing Reports
 If your Specify system already contains searches for which report definitions have been created,
 you can continue immediately to either of the following pages:
 Printing a Report from the Navigation Panel, which starts from the Specify main window.
 Printing a Report from the Results Window, which starts after you have run a search and are
 viewing the results in Grid view or Custom view.
 If you don't yet have the report definitions you need, continue with the following sections.
 The Short Road to Creating a Report Definition
 The fastest way to convert your search results into a report is to use the reports wizard. This takes
 you through five simple pages in which you'll set up the report's data view and fields, arrange the
 order of the columns, enter a title and change margins, and format the title, caption and body text.
 Your report is usually ready to run in 15-30 seconds. The report wizard approach should work for
 most users most of the time.
 Creating a Report Definition Using the Rave Wizard
 A Longer Road to Creating a Report Definition
 As an alternative to the Rave Reports wizard, you can create a report manually by selecting a data
 view and dragging regions, bands, and other components into the report window. Manually
 constructed reports require more knowledge and time, but they also allow more precise control
 over a report's appearance. To get started with the Rave Reports user interface, click the following
 link, which takes you to the Specify web server. Then browse the Specify Forum for the section on
 creating manual reports.
 Creating Report Definitions Manually




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Getting Help with Reports
The Specify Project provides free report-writing services for all registered Specify users. If you want
help with designing, formatting, and configuring Specify reports, contact the Specify Project.
What is Rave Reports?
Specify 5.2 includes Rave Reports 6.0 for creating report definitions based on Specify searches.
Report format information is stored in a RAVE file (.rav), which must be located in the same folder
as your Specify database. The report writer is closely tied to the Specify database. If you want to
study the report-making process beyond the documentation found in this section, refer to the Rave
Reports documentation or open www.nevrona.com/rave.




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 Two Kinds of Reports
 Report definitions are associated either with a Specify table or with a specific saved search.
      If the report definition was created from the Grid view of search results, the report uses the
       columns from that grid (or, equivalently, the fields from the form). These are the fields that are
       switched on in the Available Fields list in the Form Customizer. You can use fewer columns in
       such a report if you want to, but you cannot add any columns that were not already in the Grid
       view. The report will work with any search that is created for the corresponding table
       (Collection Object, Loan, Agent, Locality, etc.)

       A report definition by itself contains no data records. Data records are generated at the time
       the report is run. Which records and how many records are part of the report is determined by
       the user when the setup dialog box is displayed prior to running the report.
      If the report definition was created from the Custom view of search results, the report uses
       only the columns (or fields) selected during the search setup phase. These columns could be
       the same as the grid columns, they could be the same as some of the grid columns, or they
       could be completely different from the grid columns. It depends on which fields you have add
       to or removed from the search setup window. This kind of report definition will only work with
       the one saved search that you opened when you created the report.
 Determining which kind of report you are creating
 You make the choice between Custom view columns or Grid view columns in the Confirm dialog
 box that appears as one of the steps in creating a report.




 Following this step, the report definition's columns are set. You can further restrict the number of
 columns, but you cannot add any.
 Full Setup Reports and Simplified Setup Reports
 In addition to providing the two kinds of reports described above, Specify also lets you control the
 amount of input from the person who is running either kind of report. This option is selected in an
 early step in creating a simplified setup report.




      Selecting Full Setup Report gives the user the full set of condition rows that appear in the
       setup window for the original search. The user can modify any or all of these to refine the
       output that will go into the report.



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   Select Simplified Setup Report gives the user a subset of condition rows, which you (as report
    designer) will designate while creating the report. The user can then modify the condition row
    you have selected, but the remaining condition rows will remain hidden to the user and will
    retain the criteria of the original search.




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 Creating a Report Using the Rave Wizard
 This page describes how to use Rave Reports' wizard to create a report definition. It assumes you
 have already saved the Specify search that will generate the output for the report.
 If you are also creating simplified search reports, you will need to use this procedure at least once
 to define a report from which the simplified report(s) can be derived.
 In the first procedure, you'll select a Specify search and convert it to a data view, which is a link or
 bridge between Specify and the Rave Reports program. In the second procedure, you'll format the
 default components of the report definition, edit the column headings, and display a preview of the
 report.

 To define a data view for your report:
1. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > Report Designer.




2. The Available Reports dialog box appears.




3. Click Add to create a new report. You're asked to choose a report type.




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4. Select the desired report type and click OK. The Searches dialog box appears.




5. Select the desired search and click OK. You'll need to choose a different table in the Search
   Table drop-down list at the top of the window if your search was not created from the Collection
   Objects table.
6. Select the set of output columns to use in the report, then click OK.




7. The search setup window is displayed so that you can make changes to condition rows if
   necessary.




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8. Choose the number of times you want each record to be printed.




9. Specify tells you that the search results have been converted to a data view for your report.
   This tells you the name of the Dataview you will use in the report for step 2. Remember the
   name it gives you.




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   The data view name depends on the choice you made in step 4.
      If you opted for Custom view columns, the name will be the name of the search + DV; for
       example, LocalityAllFieldsDV
      If you opted for Grid view columns, the name will be the name of the table + DV; for
       example, LocalityDV
The Rave Reports window appears in front of the Specify window. You are ready to begin the
second phase of the report definition process.

To work through the report wizard:
Important: Do not delete another report while editing or creating another report in Rave. If you
delete another report while editing or creating a report, the new report will not be added to the list
and changes will not be saved.
1. From the Rave Reports menu bar, choose Tools > Report Wizards > Simple Table.




   The wizard displays its first page.




   Only one data view is valid when creating a Specify report. It must be the one created in step 6
   of the previous procedure.
2. Select the name of the data view you created in the previous procedure (it is CatalogObjectDV
   in our example, but in your case, it may be lower in the list).
3. Click Next. The second page appears.




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       If these fields don't look right, you have selected the wrong data view. In that case, click the
       Back button and repeat step2 with the correct data view.
4. Select the fields you want in the report, or select all fields by clicking the All button, and then
   click Next. (Later you'll need to edit the column headings created for these fields so that they
   don't overlap in the report.)

       The third page appears.




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5. Reorder the fields if you need to by selecting a field and clicking the Up or Down arrow. (You
   can also reorder them later.)
6. Click Next to move to the Report Layout Options page of the wizard.




7. Change the Report Title to whatever you want. You can also change the page margins. Note
   that the report title differs from the report name, which you can change later in the properties
   panel.
8. Click Next to move to font options.




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9. In the fifth wizard panel, you can click the Change Font buttons to change the fonts for the
   report's title, captions, and body text. You can also change these later.
10. Click Generate. RAVE generates the report definition you created.




       This is not the report itself because it contains no data. You'll want to inspect and possibly
       change the column headings before you execute the report.
11. Select the first column heading in the white row between the blue triangle and the blue
    diamond.




12. If the text is too long, edit it in the properties panel on the left side of the report window to make
    the heading shorter. Make sure you edit the Text property and not the Name property. Click in
    the right column and replace or modify the text.




13. Repeat steps 11-12 for any other column headings that are too wide.

       Note that you don't need to save the report definition, as that is done automatically by Rave
       Reports.
14. From the Rave Reports menu bar, choose File > Execute Report.



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15. In the Output Options dialog box, select Preview, then click OK to view the report preview.




16. If necessary, return to the report definition to reposition columns or change the attributes of any
    component by clicking it, then typing new values in the properties panel.
17. Close the Preview window and close the Rave Reports window. Specify resumes control and
    asks you if you want to save the report:




18. Click Yes. You'll see your new report added to the list.




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       If you'd like to give your report a more meaningful or memorable name, refer to Renaming Your
       Report.




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Renaming Your Report
It's a good idea to change your report's name to distinguish it from the blank reports that are
created during the wizard procedure. You can remove these unused reports to keep the Report
Library free of clutter. See the last section on this page.
This page assumes you have created a new report definition and are viewing it in the Rave Reports
window.

To rename your report:
1. Go to the Rave Project tree on the right side of the window and expand the Report Library
   heading.
2. Under the Report Library heading, click your report's current name to display its properties in
   the property panel. A green check mark appears next to it.
3. Go to the properties pane (on the left side) and edit the Name property to whatever you want.
   You can't use spaces or punctuation in the name.




4. Close the Rave Reports window and click Yes when Specify prompts you to save changes. The
   new report name won't appear in the Available Reports window until you close it and choose
   Tools > Report Designer again.
Note: If the report and the Main Page are given the same name, the report cannot print. To be able
to print the report, delete it out of Rave Reports. To delete the report, left-click the report and select
delete. Exit Rave and save changes. Exit the Report Wizard window. Then recreate the report
using the same steps listed in Creating a Report Using the Wizard.
Removing Unused Reports
This is a good time to get rid of the extra reports that Rave creates when you use the wizard.

To remove unused reports:
1. Go to the Rave Project tree on the right side of the window and expand the Report Library
   heading.



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2. Under the Report Library heading, double-click any of the Report1, Report2, etc. names.
3. If the report is blank, you can delete it by right-clicking the name and choosing Delete Report
   from the shortcut menu. (A blank report is created each time Specify first launches Rave, but
   the Rave wizard creates a second report definition for your Specify data, so the original report
   definition is never used. Thus, they can build up after a while.)




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Creating a Simplified Search Report
A simplified search report is created from an existing Rave report. Its output has the same
appearance as the parent report. The difference is in the setup phase of the report. Whereas in a
Rave Report, you can edit all the condition rows of the original search, in a simplified report, you
are prompted to fill in a single condition row, whichever row was designated by the person who
created the report. Here's an example.




This dialog box is an abbreviated view of the search setup window. You're free to change any of
the settings for this one condition row, but all other condition rows will remain fixed at the values
defined for the parent search. After you click OK, the report is generated based on your input and
on the fixed condition rows.

To create a simplified search report:
1. Create a Rave report on which you can base the simplified report.
2. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > Report Designer.




3. The Available Reports dialog box appears.




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4. Click Add. You're asked to choose the report type.




5. Select Simplified Search Report and click OK. The available reports list appears a second time
   in a smaller dialog box. Note that these are Rave reports, not simplified search reports.




6. Select the report on which you will base the simplified report and click OK. You'll see the fields
   from the setup window of the search to which the Rave report is linked. You'll be choosing just
   one of these fields to be displayed as the condition row shown above this procedure.




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    For example, if you selected Country from the list above, the person running the report would be
    prompted to type the name of one or more countries in the Criteria box. He or she could also
    modify the Display box, the Sort button, the Not box, and the selected operator.

7. Select the desired field and click OK. You're then asked to type a name for the report.
8. Type the desired name and click OK.




    The new report is displayed in the Available Reports dialog box.




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9. Click Close to finish the procedure. You can create any number of simplified search reports
   based on the same Rave report.




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Printing a Report from the Navigation Panel
The following instructions assume that someone has already created a Specify search and a Rave
report that will work with it on your computer. It also assumes you know the names of the report
and search, as you will be asked to select both during the procedure. At the point where the
instructions begin, neither the search nor the report has been opened.
If you don't see the report you need in the Report dialog box shown below, you'll need to spend a
few minutes with the Rave Reports wizard to create the report and then return to this topic.

To print a report from the navigation panel:
1. Go to the navigation panel and click the Print heading. The Reports dialog box shows you which
   reports are available for each table displayed in the Report Table box. (If the report's name is
   visible under the Print heading, you can also click the name right away, then skip to step 3.)




2. If you choose a formatted report, it will ask you for the search you want to put in that format.
   Choose a report and click OK. If you choose a regular search, skip to #3.




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3. In the resulting search setup window, modify the criteria for the search if desired. Click OK




4. Select the number of times you want the records repeated. Select 1 if you don't want
   duplicates.




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5. The Print dialog box appears.




6. Do one of the following:
      To send the report to the printer, click Printer.
      To preview the report on the screen, click Preview.
      To save the report as a file, click File, then choose the desire file format in the Format box.




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6. If you chose the Preview option, the Report Preview window appears. The following example
   shows an excerpt of the Catalog Print Out report.




7. To review the options for navigating the preview window, refer to Print Preview Menu Bar.




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Printing a Report from the Results Window
The following instructions assume you have already created a Rave report that will work with the
search that you have opened and run. At the point where the instructions begin, you have already
run the search and are now viewing the results in Grid view or in Custom View.
When you click Print from the Grid or Detail view, you can choose any report defined for the table
you are viewing. You can also print any report from any search. In Custom view, only the reports
defined for the search that has been opened and run are available.

To print a report from the results window:
1. Click the Print button at the bottom of the results window.
2. If no reports have been created for this search, Specify displays the No Reports Available
   message. You'll need to create a report before you can continue.
3. If exactly one report has been created for this search, Specify skips to the Print Duplicates
   dialog box, and you can skip to step 5.
4. If more than one report has been created for this search, Specify displays the list.




5. Select the report you want and click OK to dismiss the dialog box. The Print Duplicates dialog
   box appears.




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       The first option let you designate how many times to print a label. The second option tells
       Specify to get the repeat number from a field that you select in the Field box. This option
       assumes that the number was previously entered in the appropriate table.
6. Choose the desired repeat option and click OK. The Print dialog box appears.




7. Do one of the following:
         To send the report to the printer, click Printer.
         To preview the report on the screen, click Preview.
         To save the report as a file, click File, then choose the desire file format in the Format box.
8. If you chose the Preview option, the Report Preview window appears.
9. To review the options for navigating the preview window, refer to Print Preview Menu Bar.




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Forms

Customizing Your Specify Forms
Specify's Form Customizer lets you adapt Specify forms by adding, removing, formatting, and
repositioning fields. Combined with Specify's new form set feature, the Form Customizer makes
different sets of customized forms available to individual users. Form sets offer great flexibility in
the look and functionality that Specify can have for different members of your collection
management team.
Moreover, if you are setting up a new collection, you can use the Form Customizer to create the
most efficient and logical forms. If you already have a working collection, you may occasionally use
the Form Customizer to add usage notes, change field security settings, or simplify the data entry
process.


Important: Customizing forms may render existing searches and reports unusable. After altering
forms you must rebuild the related express search. The related table may be unable to save data
on the changed form without a search rebuild. To see how to rebuild an express search, refer to
Building an Express Search Index Table.

To access the Specify Form Customizer:
1. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools >Admin> Customize Forms.




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2. The Forms Manager window appears.




3. If you don't see the form you need, click the Other button at the bottom of the window, then
   choose from the alternate list of forms.
4. Select the form you want and click Edit. The Form Customizer window appears with a palette of
   alignment tools and a list of the fields that can be shown on the form.




5. Make any desired changes to the form. Some of the potential changes that can be made to the
   form are listed below.
 Important: After altering forms you must rebuild the related express search. The related table may
 be unable to save data on the changed form without a search rebuild. To see how to rebuild an
 express search, refer to Building an Express Search Index Table.


 You can use the Form Customizer for the following tasks:


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   Hide fields you don't need
   Add fields you do need
   Resize a field
   Move the fields in a data form
   Change the way a form references embedded fields
   Change field properties
   Change the items in a list box
   Setting security for a data field
   Setting security for individual records
If you need to change back
If you make a change to your forms that you do not like, the Form Customizer includes a Load
Default Settings feature that lets you restore the default form design. Specify also lets you save
your customized forms as the new default settings. Once you save your customized form as the
new default, however, you cannot recover the original form.
The Specify Project provides free form customization services for registered Specify users. To use
these services, contact the Specify Project.
See also: Opening the Form Customizer




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 Opening the Form Customizer
 You'll use the Form Customer to add fields to or remove fields from a Specify form. You can also
 change the caption of a field and several other properties, including the formatting of embedded
 fields.

 To open the Form Customizer:
1. Choose Tools > Admin >Customize Forms.




2. The Forms Manager dialog box appears.




3. Click the plus (+) sign beside a topic to display form names for the forms within that topic.

       If you do not see the form you are looking for in the list, click the Other Forms button at the
       bottom of the dialog box to display an alternate list of forms.




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4. Click the form name to select it, and then click Edit Form (or double-click the name).

    The Form Customizer window is displayed, along with a palette of alignment tools and a list of
    the fields that can be shown on the form.




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 Forms Manager Window
 With Specify's new form set feature, you can make modified copies of any of the standard forms
 and save them in a separate location. Special team members can use the customized or simplified
 forms to speed the task of data entry or updating existing specimen information.
 Form sets and the Form Customizer are both accessed via the new Forms Manager window. It's
 displayed when you choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms from the Specify menu bar.




 This window leads to two Specify functions: customizing forms and the creating and editing of form
 sets. The illustration above includes two user-added form sets, which can be deleted, in addition to
 the <Standard> form set, which cannot be deleted.
 Forms Manager Buttons

 Edit Form             (Enabled when you have clicked a form in the Forms list. If the form
                       has a plus sign next to it, you have to expand it and click one of the
                       subtypes, like Fish or Fish Preparation under CollectionObject).
                       Clicking this button displays the Form Customizer window, Available
                       Fields list, and Alignment palette for the form you have selected.
 New Form Set          Creates a new form set, which you must name and populate using
                       the Add Form button.
 Add Form              (Enabled when you've created and selected a form set. For example,
                       if you clicked Simple Data Entry in the illustration above, the Add
                       Form button would be enabled.)
                       Clicking this button displays a list of forms from which you can select
                       the ones you want in your form set. When you select a form, Specify
                       displays the Form Customizer window so that you can simplify the
                       form for the convenience of the persons using the form set.
 Delete Form           (Enabled when a custom form set is highlighted.)
 Set                   Clicking this button removes the highlighted form set. All the forms
                       remain available in the <Standard> form set.
 Delete Form           (Enabled when a form is highlighted within a custom form set.)
                       Clicking this button removes the highlighted form from a form set. All
                       the forms remain available in the <Standard> form set.



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Other Forms   Clicking this button displays a list of all the less commonly edited
              forms in Specify. You can use this for both the Form Customizer and
              for creating form sets.




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 Creating Form Sets
 Specify 5.2 allows the creation of any number of custom screen data forms. A new data form, or a
 set of new forms is saved as a Form Set. Now you have a choice of data forms to best fit the task
 at hand — complex, full, robust forms for heavy-duty editing, and svelte, less-is-more forms for
 rapid data entry.
 When Specify is installed, it includes a standard set of forms that you use to enter and update the
 database records. Specify 5.2 allows you to reduce the complexity of the forms that are displayed
 for an individual user. You can access this new feature with these Specify functions:
      Create Form Set, which is part of the Form Customizer window. This allows you to create
       separate copies of frequently used forms, modify them for greater simplicity or convenience,
       and store them in a form set. You'll need to be cleared at the Administrator security level in
       Specify to use this feature.
      Choose Form Set, which is in the Tools > User Preferences menu. This allows a user to choose
       the form set they prefer.

 To create a form set:
1. From the Specify menu bar choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager
   window appears. The built-in form set, called <Standard>, is displayed in the Form Sets list.
   You will be adding a new row to this list.
2. Click the New Form Set button.




3. In the resulting dialog box, type the name of the new form set and click OK.




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   A new row appears in the Form Sets list.

4. Select the new form set, then click the Add Form button:




   You're asked to choose a form.




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5. Select the desired form and click Add.

       The Form Customizer window for the selected form is displayed automatically.
       You must make a change to the form or else it will not be added to the form set. Furthermore, if
       you don't have at least one form in a form set, Specify will remove the form set when you close
       the Forms Manager window.
6. Edit the form to make it more convenient or friendly to the persons who will be using the form
   set. You cannot add fields that are not enabled in the standard form. You can, however, make
   the following kinds of changes:
         Remove fields. Some fields cannot be removed because they are embedded in other forms.
          You are alerted if the field you are trying to remove is used in an express search index table.
          You can still remove the field, but it will no longer be included in express searches.
         Move or resize fields in the form.
         Change a field type, for example, from subform to grid or from button to list button.
7. Choose File > Save from Form Customizer menu bar.
8. Repeat steps 4-7 as many times as necessary until you've added all the desired forms to your
   new form set.

 Now you can run searches on the tables included in your custom form set and view the changes
 you have made to each form. First, you'll need to change from the standard forms to the new form
 set.

 To change your default forms to a created form set:




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1. Choose Tools > User Preferences > Choose Form Sets.




    A list of form sets appears.




2. If necessary, click Other Forms to display the desired form set.
3. Select the desired row in the Form Sets list and click OK.
The forms included in this form set are now displayed instead of their counterparts in the
<Standard> form set.




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 Form Operations
 Changing the Colors of a Form
 You'll use tools inside and outside of Specify to change the color scheme of your Specify forms.

 To change the Focus Color:

 Focus Color is the color used to highlight any selected field in the form. In the example below, blue
 is highlighting the field.




1. In the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > User Preferences > Focus Color.




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2. The Focus Color window will appear.




3. If desired, select a different color. Click Save or Cancel to continue. You may have to redisplay
   the form to see the change.

To change the Color Scheme:
1. In the Computer's Start Menu, choose Start > Settings > Control Panel.




2. Double-click the Display control panel and click the Appearance tab.




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3. Use the Scheme drop-down list to select a different color scheme, then click Apply to see if you
   are satisfied with the result. Because you are using Windows to make this change, it will affect
   the color and fonts of all of your other Windows applications.
 Changing the Title of a Form

 To change the title of a form:




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1. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms.




2. The Forms Manager window appears.




3. In the Forms Manager window, select the form you want to customize. You may need to expand
   a heading, such as Agents or CollectingEvent, to see the desired form.
4. Click the Edit Form button. The Form Customizer window appears.
5. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Form Title.




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       A text edit box displays with the current form title selected.




6. Type the new title, and click OK. The new form title also appears in the Collection Data or
   Transactions menu if the form was in either of those menus to begin with.
    7. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
    8. Close the Form Customizer window.
    9. Close the Forms Manager window.
 Modifying a Subform
 Making changes to a subform is not the same as making changes directly to that form as a main
 form in the Form Customizer.
      Any changes you make to the properties of the fields — such as the field name and default
       value — while in the subform are also changed in the main form (that is, the home form of the
       subform).
      Rearranging the fields, resizing them, and hiding them while you are editing the subform does
       not affect its home (main) form. These changes must be done to the form directly to the main
       form in the Form Customizer.

 To modify a subform:
1. Open the Form Customizer and select the form you want to customize.
2. Click in the subform to select it. Handles appear at the corners of the frame.
3. Resize the frame so you can see all elements.
         To make the field shorter, press Shift+Up Arrow.
         To make the field taller, press Shift+Down Arrow.
         To make the field wider, press Shift+Right Arrow.
         To make the field narrower, press Shift+Left Arrow.



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4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Subform.
5. You can now click any of the controls (boxes, lookup tables, etc.) in the subform to modify them.
   If Specify tells you the field cannot be added, see the note at the bottom of this page.

    (In rare cases, there may be another subform embedded in the first one. To access fields in that
    subform, repeat step 4. When you are backing out after making your changes, you'll need to
    choose Edit > Stop Editing Subform twice.)
6. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Stop Editing Subform.
7. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
8. Close the Form Customizer window.
9. Close the Forms Manager window.
Note: You will sometimes see the message, "This field is not on the main version of the form and
cannot be added. It is displayed when you try to add a field to a subform that is not on a main form.
You must first edit the main form to make the field available to the subform. For example, suppose
you are modifying the Collection Object form and select Edit Subform to edit the Determination
subform. You then try to add the Number1 field to the Determination subform. If the error message
appears, you'll need to go to that primary form (in this case, Collection Object) and select the field
there to add it. You can also change the caption if desired.
Importing a Form
Caution: If you import a form with the same name as a form already in your database and then
save the imported form, you will replace the existing form.

To import a form:
1. Open the Form Customizer and select any form in the Forms Manager dialog box. The import
   procedure does not affect the form you select in this dialog box.
2. In the Forms Manager dialog box, click Edit Form.
3. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Import.




4. In the Import From dialog box, select the export file that contains the form you want to import.
   The export file must be a Microsoft Access MDB file that was created through the Specify export
   process. For more information, refer to Exporting a Form.




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5. Click Open.
6. If the export file contains multiple collections, select a collection name. A dialog box appears
   with a list of forms stored in the file.
7. Select the form you want to import, and click OK.
8. The imported form appears in the Form Customizer window. After the form is imported, you can
   make additional changes to the form as desired.
  9. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save. Note the caution at the beginning of
     this page about replacing existing forms.
  10. Close the Form Customizer window.
  11. Close the Forms Manager window.
 Exporting a Form
 To share a data form that you have modified with another Specify user, you'll need to export it to a
 new or existing disk file that has an .mdb extension. The other user will then import the form to
 Specify on his or her computer from the .mdb file.

 To export a form:
1. Open the Form Customizer, select the form you want to export, and click Edit Form.
2. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Export..




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3. In the Export To dialog box, do one of the following:
      Enter a new name in the File Name box or use the default new name, which is NewDB.mdb.
       Specify will create a new export file with the name you have entered.
      Select an existing .mdb file, which must have been previously created by Specify. (It cannot
       be a "generic" mdb file.)




4. Click Open. If you are creating a new export file, Specify prompts you for the name of a
   collection associated with the file.




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       The form will be listed under the collection name in the export file.
5. Type a collection name and click OK. Specify exports the form to the file you selected in step 3.
   You can export additional forms to that file.




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Customizing Fields
Changing a Field's Caption and Usage Notes
This procedure shows you how to edit the caption of any field and make sure that it is displayed.
You can also add nondisplaying comments to the Usage Notes property of a field.

To change a field's caption and usage notes:
1. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager
   window appears.
2. In the Forms Manager window, select the form you want to customize. You may need to expand
   a heading, such as Agents or CollectingEvent, to see the desired form.
3. Click the Edit Form button. The Form Customizer window appears; it includes the Available
   Fields list along with the Alignment Tools palette.
4. When you click the field you are seeking, if Specify selects the larger area around it, the field is
   part of a subform.




    In this case, continue with steps 6 - 7.

    If just the field itself is selected (with handles on its corners), skip to step 9.
5. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Subform.




    The contents of the Available Lists dialog box change to display the fields of the table
    represented by the subform. For more information, refer to Change the Way a Form
    References Embedded Fields.
6. Click the field you want to edit. You may need to scroll the subform.
7. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Properties. (A shortcut is to double-
   click the field name in the Available Fields list.)


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       The Field Properties dialog box appears.




8. Edit the text in the Caption or Usage Notes box or both.
9. If you don't want the caption to be visible, clear the Show Caption check box.
10. You can also change other field properties, such as the field security and the date display
    format.
11. Click OK to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
12. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
13. Close the Form Customizer window.
14. Close the Forms Manager window.


 Adding a Field to a Form
 This procedure shows you how to add a generic number, text, or Yes/No field to a form. You can
 give a caption to the field that indicates its purpose. Note that when you add a field to a form, the
 new field will also be added as a condition row to the search setup window and as a column in the
 Grid view.

 To add a field to a form:



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1. Log in to Specify as an administrator.
2. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager
   window appears.
3. In the Forms Manager window, select the form you want to customize. You may need to expand
   a heading, such as Agents or CollectingEvent, to see the desired form.
4. Click the Edit Form button. The Form Customizer window appears; it includes the Available
   Fields list along with the Alignment Tools palette.
5. In the Available Fields list, scroll to an unchecked field with a name such as Text1, Text2,
   Number1, Number2, YesNo1, or YesNo2, depending on the type of field you need to add, as
   explained below the following illustration.




      Number1 and Number2 can hold only numbers, and you can place restrictions on the size of
       that number if you want.
      Text1 and Text2 can hold words or individual letters or characters.
      YesNo1 and YesNo2 are check boxes that indicate whether some feature or condition is
       present.
6. Change the field's caption as desired (see Change a Field's Caption and Usage Notes).
7. Check the box next to the field you have chosen. The field is inserted in the upper-left corner of
   the form and on top of the existing field in that position. You may have to scroll up to see the
   new field.
8. Drag the field to the desired position in the form.




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9. From the Form Customizer menu bar, Choose File > Save.




 Hiding a Field
 If you notice fields in a data entry form that you never use, you can remove them to simplify the
 form's appearance and make more room for other fields. You can reinstate the field later if
 necessary. When you hide a field on a form, the field's condition row is removed from the search
 setup window, and its column is removed from the Grid view.
 Note: Some fields cannot be hidden because they are embedded in other forms. Specify will advise
 you of this situation. To hide such a field, you would first have to hide it in all of the forms where it is
 embedded.

 To hide a field in a form:
1. Log in to Specify as an administrator.
2. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager
   window appears.
3. In the Forms Manager window, select the form you want to customize. You may need to expand
   a heading, such as Agents or CollectingEvent, to see the desired form.
4. Click the Edit Form button. The Form Customizer window appears; it includes the Available
   Fields list along with the Alignment Tools palette.
5. In the Form Customizer window, click the field you want to hide. Handles appear around the
   perimeter of the field, and the field's name is highlighted in the Available Fields list. (You can
   also select the name directly in the Available Fields list.)




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    You may need to scroll the Form Customizer window to find the field. If you try to click the field
    and end up selecting the panel around the field instead, your field is in a subform. To make the
    field selectable, refer to Editing a Field in a Subform.
6. In the Available Fields list, clear the check box next to the field you want to hide. The field
   disappears from the form.
7. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
Moving a Field
This page takes you through the steps required to reposition a field on a form.
Note: It's possible to rearrange the fields in the Geography form so that the lists no longer function
correctly. For example, you must enter the state before the program can generate the counties that
are in that state. Please check with the Specify Project team before altering the Geography form.

To move a field:
1. Open the Form Customizer, and select the form you want to customize.
2. Click anywhere in the field to select it. If the field is in a subform, refer to Editing a Field in a
   Subform.

    To move several fields at once, click the first field you want to move. Then hold down the Shift
    key and click the other fields you want to move.
3. Drag the field or fields to a new location. Note that the box containing the field covers up other
   fields if it is positioned on top of the other fields.

    To place the fields more precisely, you can use the keyboard method. Select the field or fields,
    then hold down the Ctrl key and press the appropriate arrow key.

    To move the field in larger increments, hold down the Shift key and the Ctrl key and press the
    appropriate arrow key. You can also use Specify's alignment tools to align the field with
    surrounding fields.
4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.



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5. Close the Form Customizer window.
6. Close the Forms Manager window.
 Aligning Fields
 Specify's alignment tools simplify the tax of arranging controls precisely on a form.

 To align fields:
1. Open the Form Customizer, and select the form you want to customize.
2. Select all the fields you want to align. Use Shift+click to select multiple fields.

       If you try to click a field and end up selecting the panel around the field instead, your field is in a
       subform. To make the field selectable, refer to Editing a Field in a Subform.
3. Select one of the following alignment tool buttons to align the fields:

                             Aligns the Left Edges                      Aligns the Top Edges

                             Aligns the Vertical                        Aligns the Horizontal
                             Centers                                    Centers

                             Centers Horizontally                       Centers Vertically

                             Spaces Equally                             Spaces Equally
                             Horizontally                               Vertically
                             Aligns the Right                           Aligns the Bottom
                             Edges                                      Edges
                             Reduces to
                                                                        Reduces to Shortest
                             Narrowest

                             Expands to Widest                          Expands to Tallest



4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
5. Close the Form Customizer window.
6. Close the Forms Manager window.
 Resizing a Field
 You may need to change the size and shape of a field in one of your forms to make room for other
 fields or to improve the usability of the form in some other way.

 To resize a field:
1. Open the Form Customizer and select the form you want to customize.
2. Click the field to select it. If the field is in a subform, refer to Editing a Field in a Subform.
3. Use the Shift key and the arrow keys to resize the field.
         To make the field shorter, press Shift+Up Arrow.
         To make the field taller, press Shift+Down Arrow.
         To make the field wider, press Shift+Right Arrow.
         To make the field narrower, press Shift+Left Arrow.
4. To save your changes, from the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
5. Close the Form Customizer window.


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6. Close the Forms Manager window.
Changing Field Properties
Every field in a Specify data form is associated with a set of field properties. You can assign
different values to a field's properties using the Form Customizer.

To change a field's properties:
1. Open the Form Customizer and select the form you want to customize. If the field is in a
   subform,
       Click the subform that contains the field.
       From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Subform. The contents of the
        Available Lists dialog box changes to reflect the subform contents.

        For more information, see Changing the Way a Form References Embedded Fields.
2. In the Available Fields list, click the field you want to edit.
3. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Properties. The Field Properties
   dialog box appears. (A shortcut is to double-click the field name in the Available Fields list.)
4. Place the cursor in the text box next to the setting you wish to modify and edit the text as
   desired. See below for descriptions of the most common settings. Other settings may appear for
   some fields. For example, some fields may let you enter a list of items that will appear in a list
   box. Refer to Changing the Items in a List Box.
To review descriptors, refer to Descriptors Common to All Data Fields.
Caption: Captions are the labels that accompany every field or control in the Detail view. Make
sure captions are meaningful to the persons who are entering data.
Usage Notes: Every field can have usage notes. You can change and add usage notes for each
field whenever you want. To do so, see Change a Field's Caption and Usage Notes. To access the
usage notes, right-click the field. A small box displays a description of the field's purpose. Though
not required, usage notes can provide more detailed explanations than captions.
Field Definitions: Field definitions differ from usage notes in that they are pulled directly from the
database. Field definitions cannot be edited in the Form Customizer. Currently, Specify does not
display field definitions. When a user creates a new record, some fields are already filled in with
default values. Default values are values presented in the Field Properties List. They are intended
to speed up data entry. When a default value is not appropriate, the user can always type a
different value or choose another item from a list box.
Read Security: Read security (required) designates the security privilege that a user must have to
view this field in the Detail view. If a person logs in with a security privilege that is lower than the
value specified here, the field does not appear in the Detail view. The Read Security setting can be
modified only by a person with Administrator or Manager security level.
Write Security: Write security (required) designates the security privilege that a user must have to
change or delete the contents of the associated field. If a person logs in with a security privilege
that is lower than the value specified here, the field may appear in the Detail view, but the user
cannot change its contents. The Write Security setting can be modified only by a person with
Administrator or Manager security level.
Control Type: The control type designates how the control functions. For example, if a field’s
control type is Text Box, then text can be typed in as the value of the field. Control types are as
follows:


Related Table Data Form             Date Mask                        Modification Time Stamp
Related Table List Box              Modified By Stamp                Yes/No Button
Related Table Field                 Menu Item Control                Latitude/Longitude Mask



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 Text Box                          Number Mask                          Check Box
 List Box                          Memo Control                         Disclosure Triangle
 Primary Key                       Creation Time Stamp


 List Boxes
 List boxes are those fields which have an arrow       next to them. These boxes have values which
 will appear when you click on the arrow. To get the values to appear, either enter the first few
 letters of the value you want to enter, or in some types, you may be able to simply click on the
 arrow without entering anything and the list of potential values will appear.
 There are four types of List boxes; List Button Boxes, Drop-Down List Boxes, Semi-Static List
 Boxes, and Static List Boxes.


 List Button                                              Drop-Down List




 Box


                                                          Box
 Semi-Static List Box                                     Static List




                                                          Box




 List Button Boxes
 The third type of list box is the List Button Box. Almost all text fields can be changed to or from the
 List Button box type. This box is identified by an ellipses button next to the field. Clicking on the
 ellipses button will allow you to view more data on the option selected, edit the option selected, or
 add a new record of the field type, for example an agent field will create a new, independent agent
 record. To see how to change a field to a list button box, refer to Changing a Field Type.
 Drop-Down List Box
 The second type of list boxes are Drop-down list boxes. These fields are always list boxes and
 cannot be changed to another type. The values in these boxes can be altered by anyone with write
 permission for that field. To see how to change write permissions for a field, refer to Set Securtiy for
 Data Fields later in the Customizing fields section. To add value options to the field (assuming write
 security is met), enter any value in the field. That option will be available for that field in any record
 in which the field appears, newly created or already created, from then on.
 Semi-Static List Box




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The first type of list box is the List Box. These fields are always list boxes and cannot be changed
to another type. The values in a list box can only be changed by an administrator. To see how to
change the options in a list box, refer to Changing the Values in a Drop-Down List Box later in this
section.
Static List Box
The last type of list box is the constant list box. These fields are always list boxes and cannot be
changed to another type, nor can their content be altered. These boxes are rare.

Changing the Values in a List Box
The following five procedures show you how to modify the values that appear in a drop-down list
box control. You can distinguish this control from a list button box by the absence of an ellipsis
button.
PreparationMethod, Habitat Type, and Collector Number are fields that use the drop-down list box
control.




The set of values that can appear in the list box is called a pick list. In addition to designating a
default value, you can add values to, delete values from, or change the spelling of values in the
pick list, as explained later on this page.

To set or change the default value in a list box:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager window appears.
2. Select the form you want to work with and click Edit at the bottom of the window.




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3. This brings up the Form Customizer window, Available Fields list and Alignment Tools palette.
4. In the Available Fields list, double-click the field that corresponds to the list box you want to
   modify, as in the example shown below. (If you can't find the right field in this list, the field
   resides in a subform of the form you are editing. In that case, refer to Editing a Field in a
   Subform.)




       The Field Properties dialog box appears in front of the Form Customizer window.



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    You'll be returning to the Form Customer window to save your work.

5. Go to the Pick List field near the bottom of the dialog box and click the value that should appear
   in the list box when the box is displayed. Note that if the Control Type setting (second from top)
   is set to Fixed-Content Drop-Down List or Related Table List Box, you cannot edit the drop-
   down list.
6. In the menu bar of the Field Properties dialog box, choose Edit Pick List > Select as default.




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7. Click OK to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
8. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
 To clear a default value from the list box:
1. Follow steps 1 to 4 above.
2. In the menu bar of the Field Properties dialog box choose Edit Pick List > Clear default.
3. Click OK to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
 To add another value to the pick list:
1. Follow steps 1 to 5 at the top of this page.
2. In step 6, choose Edit Pick List > Add. You are prompted for the new value.
3. Type the new value, click OK, then click Yes when asked to confirm the new value.
4. Click OK to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
5. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
 To delete a value from the pick list:
 Note: Specify will not let you delete a pick list value if it is already part of a record.
1. Follow steps 1 to 5 at the top of this page, but in step 5, click the item you want to delete in the
   Pick List field.
2. Choose Edit Pick List > Delete, then click Yes when asked to confirm the deletion.
3. Click OK to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
 Note: The following procedure changes the selected pick list value in every record in which the
 value appears.
 To change a value's spelling:
1. Follow steps 1 to 5 at the top of this page, but in step 5, click the item in the Pick List field that
   you need to change.
2. Choose Edit Pick List > Edit.
3. When prompted for the new spelling, enter it, click OK, then click Yes when asked if you want to
   replace every occurrence of the old value with the new one.
4. Click OK to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
5. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
 Adding a Field that will Accept a Media Link
 This page explains how to add a field that will accept a URL or a file name (typically, an image file).
 This allows the person who is entering or editing a specimen record to use that field to enter the
 link to be associated with that specimen.
 When someone views that object, clicking the ellipsis button to the right of the field displays the file
 or URL. For example, if a GIF image file on a network drive has been linked, clicking the ellipsis
 button displays the GIF. If a URL is associated with an object, clicking the button opens your
 browser to that URL.
 You can associate only one link or file per specimen directly. However, you can also use media link
 fields with preparation types, then add as many preparation types as you have links for that
 specimen.
 Media link fields can contain up to 300 characters. Don't use a defined text field for media links.
 Use a spare text field (such as Text1 or Text2). If you convert a defined text field, that field can
 contain only 60 characters, so you won't have enough length for files with long path names.



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Caution: Media files must be saved on the database server computer. If the files aren't on that
computer, the linked fields will not work.

To add a field that will accept a media link:
1. Open the Form Customizer, and add a spare text field, such as Text1 or Text2, to the form. For
   a step-by-step procedure, refer to Adding a Field to a Form.
2. Keep the field selected.
3. From the Form Customer's menu bar, choose Edit > Field Type > URL/File Viewer.




4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
5. Close the Form Customizer window.
6. Close the Forms Manager window.
Setting Security for a Data Field
You can configure specific fields to be hidden from users who don't have a high enough security
level to view them in a form. In the following steps you will select the form first, then the desired
field within the form, and finally edit the Read Security and Write Security properties of the field.

To set security for a data field:
1. Choose Tools > Admin >Customize Forms. The Forms Manager dialog box appears.
2. Select the data form that contains the field for which you want to configure security and click the
   desired field.




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3. Click Edit to display the properties of the form, along with its list of available fields.




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4. In the Available Fields list, scroll to the desired field and double-click it. The field's properties are
   displayed in front of the Form Customizer window.




5. Click the triangle in the Read Security box, then select the name of the least-secure group that
   will have read access to the data field. (Any user in a group below the one you choose will not
   be able to view the field.)
6. Click the triangle in the Write Security box, then select the name of the least-secure group that
   will have write access to the data field. (Any user in a group below the one you choose will not
   be able to edit the field.)
7. Click OK to dismiss the field properties dialog box.
8. Back in the Form Customizer window, choose File > Save.
9. Close the Forms Manager dialog box.
 Setting Security for Individual Records
 Sometimes you need to temporarily protect the confidentiality of certain records in your Specify
 database, possibly for the protection of a rare species or because research is still pending
 publication. Specify lets you hide a specific specimen, locality, collecting event, or taxon name
 record at any time that it would normally be displayed, either as primary fields on a form or as fields



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in a subform. The record is hidden (displays as an empty field) to any viewer whose security level is
lower than the security level you assign to the record.
To enable record security, Specify provides a special field called GroupPermittedToView (or
Security in some forms). To activate record security, you'll be editing the desired record and
assigning a security level (Administrator, Manager, Full Access user, etc.) to this field. The value
you choose will affect the display of all the fields in the same record.


Record           Effect of Changing Read Security in the GroupPermittedToView field
Type
Collecting       If a user's security level doesn't grant access to the collecting event
Event            record, none of the related time and place information is displayed in
                 search results of a collecting event form or in any form in which that
                 record's data appears in a subform.
Taxonomy         If a user's security level doesn't grant access to the taxonomy record, none
                 of the related taxon and taxon-related information is displayed in search
                 results: no full taxon name, no parent taxon, no date, no determiner, and
                 no common name of a taxonomy form or in any form in which that record's
                 data appears in a subform.
Locality         If a user's security level doesn't grant access to the locality record, the
                 user won't see latitudes and longitudes, verbatim locality, elevation, or
                 geography information in search results of a locality form or in any form in
                 which that record's data appears in a subform.
Specimen         If a user's security level doesn't grant access to the collection object
                 record, the user won't see any data in the browse or detail view of the
                 hidden specimen.

To hide a specimen, collecting event, locality, or taxon record in all forms:
1. (The purpose of steps 1-8 is to make sure the security field is switched on for this form.)

    Choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager window appears




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2. Select one of the following: an event under Collecting Event, an object under Collection Object,
   Locality, or a name under TaxonName, depending on which type of record you want to hide.
3. Click Edit to display the three Form Customizer windows. If you see a field called
   GroupPermittedToView or Security already on the form, skip to step 8.
4. To add the field, first inspect the Available Fields list.




5. Click the GroupPermittedToView field to add it to the form. (This field is sometimes called
   Security).
6. Drag the field to a convenient and visible position in the form.
7. In the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
8. Close the Form Customizer and the Forms Manager windows.
9. In the navigation panel, expand the Search & Edit Data heading and choose the table that
   contains the record you want to hide -- the same table that you worked with in the earlier steps.
10. Perform a search that returns the record you want to hide. To review this task, refer to
    Conventional Field Searches or Creating and Saving a New Search. The example in the
    illustration returns a couple of locality records:




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11. Click the row whose data you want to hide, then click Detail at the bottom of the screen. You
    should see the GroupPermittedToView or Security field on the form.




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       If you don't see it, return to the Form Customizer steps and make sure that the field is switched
       on and visible.
12. Click Edit at the bottom of the screen to enable editing of this record.
13. Click the triangle in the GroupPermittedToView field to display the drop-down list.
14. Choose the security level required to show the record. In the illustration, the security level is
    being changed from Guest to Full Access User.




       Any user whose security level is below the one you choose in this step won't see the data in this
       record.
15. Click Save at the bottom of the screen to save your change. You're done.
16. Click Specify at the top of the navigation panel if you want to clear the window.




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Embedded fields and subforms
Embedded Fields
Several of the fields that appear in a data entry or edit form don't contain values from the main
table. Instead, they are links to one or more fields in a related table. Specify uses several controls
(user interface elements) to depict embedded fields.
For several embedded fields to be displayed as a single field in a form, they must be formatted with
the Form Customizer. For more information, refer to Formatting Overview.
To learn more about a particular control, refer to its topic below.


button list box                   modified-by stamp                   related table button
grid                              navigation bar                      related table properties
list box                          primary key                         subform


Changing the Way a Form References Embedded Fields
Because Specify's data tables are interrelated, Specify's data forms are also interrelated. Parts of a
Specify data form are often fields copied from a related table and are referred to as embedded
fields.
Displaying embedded fields lets you view and modify all the information related to a data record
without having to open three or four forms to access all the necessary fields. For example, because
some fields from the Collecting Events table are embedded in the Collection Objects form, you can
view the locality and collection date along with other data related to the specimen. Locality and
collection date information is "native" to the Collecting Events table and appears in the Collecting
Events form. When they appear in the Collection Objects form, they are embedded fields.
Embedded fields can be represented by several controls (user interface elements) on a Specify
form:
   subform — appears as a form within the parent form. Unlike other embedded form options, a
    subform does not require you to open a new form to access the embedded form. You can view,
    enter, and edit subform fields just as you would any other fields on the form.
   grid — appears as a tabular display. Each row of the grid is associated with the current record
    in the primary form.
   button (sometimes called a related table button) — appears as a single button on the parent
    form. Clicking the button displays a full view of the embedded form.
   button list box — looks like a list box but is actually a link to an embedded form. When you
    choose an entry in a button list box, you are actually linking the current record with a record in
    another table. This feature lets you conveniently select a Specify record directly rather than
    having to type in your choice. Type the first few characters in the box and click the disclosure
    triangle or press the Tab key to view entries associated with the starting characters. The ellipsis
    button on the right side of a button list box opens the data form associated with the list.
Four controls — subform, grid, button list box, and related table button — have the additional
classification as field types. You can change the field type associated with embedded fields in the
Form Customizer.
For more on editing embedded fields, see:
Editing a Field in a Subform
Modifying a Subform
Editing a Grid
Editing a Button List Box or Related Table Button



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 Changing a Field Type
 A field type is a button, a grid, a list button, or a subform, that represents embedded fields in a form
 (fields from related tables). Not every form allows you to use all four field types. You can tell which
 are available when you choose Edit > Field Type in the procedure below. You may decide that a
 different field type is needed to display a particular set of embedded fields. This procedure shows
 you how to switch from one form type to another.

 To change a field type:
1. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms.




2. The Forms Manager window appears.




3. In the Forms Manager window, select the form you want to customize. You may need to expand
   a heading, such as Agents or CollectingEvent, to see the desired form.
4. Click the Edit Form button. The Form Customizer window appears.


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5. In the Form Customizer window, select the subform, grid, button list box, or related table button
   that you want to change.
6. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Type.




7. Choose the field type that you want from the submenu (Button, Grid, List Button, or Subform).
   Changing the field type may cause other inadvertent changes such as field captions being lost.
   To put the caption back, refer to Changing a Field's Caption and Usage Notes.

    Any options that are disabled in the Field Type menu are not available for the embedded fields
    you are currently editing.
Note: Not all field types are available for all fields. Some field types that are available may not be
immediately available. You may need to change to another field type to get the option available.
For example, if you want the URL field type and it is not available, you may need to change the
field to subform first, then URL will be listed as an option.
8. Resize the item as desired. You may also need to move, resize, or realign other fields in the
   form to adjust for the change.
      To make the field shorter, press Shift+Up Arrow.
      To make the field taller, press Shift+Down Arrow.
      To make the field wider, press Shift+Right Arrow.
      To make the field narrower, press Shift+Left Arrow.
9. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
10. Close the Form Customizer window.
11. Close the Forms Manager window.
Editing a Field in a Subform
This page shows you how to "drill down" to an embedded field that is part of a subform control
within the main form. In order to single out such a field, you have to use the Edit Subform command
in the Form Customizer menu bar.

To edit a field in a subform:
1. Open the Form Customizer and select the form you want to modify.
2. In the Form Customizer window, select the subform that contains the field you want to edit. It
   will display handles (tiny black squares) on its corners when it is selected.




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3. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Subform. In this example, the Preparation
   subform is selected. The subform becomes active, which means that you can click each of its
   fields individually (but see the note at the end of this page). The fields are shown checked in the
   Available Fields list.
  4. Make your changes to the fields.

 Note: You will sometimes see the message, "This field is not on the main version of the form and
 cannot be added." It is displayed when you try to add a field to a subform that is not on a main
 form. You must first edit the main form to make the field available to the subform. For example,
 suppose you are modifying the Collection Object form and select Edit Subform to edit the
 Determination subform. You then try to add the Number1 field to the Determination subform. If the
 error message appears, you'll need to go to that primary form (in this case, Determination) and
 select the field there to add it. In order to modify that form, you will need to click the Other Forms
 button on the Forms Manager panel. You can also change the caption if desired.

5. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Stop Editing Subform to return to the
   base form.
6. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
7. Close the Form Customizer window.
8. Close the Forms Manager window.
 Note: In rare cases, a subform may contain another subform. If you need to edit a field in a nested
 subform, select the nested subform as explained above, then from the Form Customizer menu bar,
 choose Edit > Subform (a second time). To return to the base form, choose Edit > Stop Editing
 Subform twice.
 Editing a Grid Field Type
 Specify lets you change the column headings of a grid field type. You can also add or remove
 columns. However, you can't edit a grid directly. You have to convert it temporarily to a subform,
 edit the embedded fields, then reconvert the subform back to a grid.
 Note: If you arrived at this page expecting to edit the Grid view of the results window, you should
 proceed instead to Adding an embedded Field as a Column, Adding a count Column or Sum
 Column, Adding a Field to a Form, or Hiding a Field.

 To edit a grid:
1. Open the Form Customizer and select the form you want to customize.
2. In the Form Customizer window, select the grid that contains the field you want to edit.
3. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Type> Subform.




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    Specify turns the Grid into a subform. Each column of the grid is converted to a separate field in
    the subform, and you can edit the fields in this state.
4. Select the subform if it's not still selected.
5. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Subform.
6. Select the desired field in the subform and make your changes. You can add or remove fields or
   change captions. For an example of how to rearrange the elements of a form, see Changing a
   Field Type. For information on adding fields, see Adding a Field.
7. To make further changes to the field, double-click its name in the Available Fields list to display
   the Field Properties dialog box.




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8. Make the desired changes to the field's properties.

       Some of the changes you make to a subform may not be preserved when you change the
       subform back to a grid. For instance, a grid field takes its length from the length of the caption. If
       a grid field is too short, add trailing spaces to the caption. Also, the order of the fields in a grid
       comes from the position of fields in the subform. If you want to change the order of the items in
       a grid, move the fields in the subform accordingly. Grid fields appear in the tab order of the
       subform.

       Now it's time to back out of the editing environment and convert the subform back to a grid.

9. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Stop Editing Subform. The subform
   should remain selected.
10. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit >Field Type>Grid. This changes the
    subform back to a grid.
11. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
12. Close the Form Customizer window.
13. Close the Forms Manager window.
 Editing a Button List Box or a Related Table Button



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To refresh your memory:
Button List Box                                         Related Table Button




To edit a button list box or a related table button:
1. Open the Form Customizer and select the form you want to customize.
2. In the Specify Form Customizer window, select the control (button list box or related table
   button) that contains the field you want to edit.
3. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Properties.
4. If you only need to edit the caption and other settings of the control, make your changes in the
   Field Properties dialog box. Skip to step...

    If you want to change the contents of the form invoked by the related table or list box button,
    continue with the following steps.
5. In the Field Properties dialog box, look for the Related Table field.




    This field contains the name of the table invoked by the button list box or related table button.


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6. Close the Field Properties dialog box.
7. Close the Form Customizer.
8. In the Forms Manager window, select the form referenced in the Related Table field in step 5.
9. Click the Edit Form button and edit the form. If you need a review, refer to Customizing Your
   Specify Forms.
 Adding a More Button to a Subform
 Subforms don't always display all the fields that are included in the related record of their home
 table. For example, records in the Geography table record include a Remarks field:




 However, the Remarks field does not appear when that record is displayed as a subform in the
 Localities form.




 Specify gives you a way to view the entire form by adding a More button:




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When the user clicks More, the full GeographyID form is displayed in front of the Localities form.




The following procedure stays with the Localities form example, but it can be applied to any form
that contains abbreviated subforms.

To add a More button to a subform:

1. Open the Form Customizer, select the Localities form, and click the Edit Form button.

2. Click the Geography subform to select it. (It has fields for Continent, Country, and so forth).

3. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Properties:




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        The Field Properties dialog box appears.

    4. Check the Show Caption box to switch on the More button.




    5. Click OK to close the Field Properties dialog box.

    6. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.

    7. Close the Form Customizer window.

    8. Close the Forms Manager window.
 Working with the Count Field
 Certain tables include a Count field that can be used to tell Specify how many times to print a
 specific record's information, typically when printing labels. The following example shows a Count
 field in the preparation grid in the Collection Objects form.




 The value of 12 shown for the selected specimen record can be used to tell Specify to print this
 record's information twelve times before continuing to the next record. A common use of the count
 field (which may have a caption different from Count), is to control printing of labels for containers.


 The three procedures on this page will help you:
      Insert a count field on a form if it's not already there.
      Set the value contained by a count field for a specific record.
      Print duplicate records in a report based on the count field's value.



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Inserting a Count Field in a Form
Follow these steps if your form does not contain the count field you need.

To insert a Count field in a form:
1. Open the Form Customizer and select the form you want to customize. This example uses the
   Collection Objects form for Fish. If your Collection Objects form already includes a Count field,
   you can pretend it doesn't if you still want to work through the procedure.
2. In the Form Customizer window, click the Preparation grid so that it will be selected for the
   following step.
3. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Field Type > Subform. (You do this to make the
   embedded fields accessible to the Edit Subform command below.)
4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Subform. (The list of Available Fields
   changes to show the fields for the FishPreparation collection object table instead of the fields for
   the Fish collection object table.)
5. Select the Count check box to include it in the Preparation subform.




6. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Stop Editing Subform.
7. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Field Type > Grid. (You do this to return the
   embedded fields to their original grid display.)
8. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
9. Close the Form Customizer window.
10. Close the Forms Manager window.
Setting the Count Value
This procedure shows you how to edit individual specimen records to insert a number in their Count
fields. Make sure the Count field has been added to the form, as described in the previous section.

To set the Count value:


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1. Open or create a search of the Collection Objects table that will display the record (or records)
   for which you want to set the Count value. Or use the default search setup to display all records.
2. Click the Search button to run the search, then click the Detail button to view the form.
3. At the bottom of the Detail (form) view, click Edit.
4. Click the Count field within the Preparation grid to highlight the field.
5. In the Count field, enter the number of printing repetitions you want to associate with this item.
6. Click Save at the bottom of the form.

 Printing Duplicate Records Based on the Count Filed
 Use this procedure if you need to print extra copies of each record in a set of labels according to
 the number entered in the Count field of the record, as described in the preceding procedure.

 To print duplicate records using the Count field:
1. Open or create the search on which to base the report.
2. Make any needed changes to the search setup window, then click the Search button.
3. When the results are displayed, click the Print button at the bottom of the window. You're
   prompted to choose a report.
4. Select the desired report and click OK. You can now choose to print duplicates.




5. Select Repeat Each Record According to This Value. This allows you to use the drop-down lists
   below.
6. Choose the desired table, which can be either the main table that was searched or one of the
   related tables if that is the source of the Count field.
7. Choose the desired count field from the Field drop-down list. It could be called Count,
   LabelNumber, NumberToBePrinted, or something similar to one of those.
8. Click OK.
9. In the resulting dialog box, select your print option and click OK.




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Formatting
Formatting Overview
Formatting has several meanings in Specify. You can, for example, format the way dates, latitudes,
longitudes, and numeric series are displayed, using Tools > User Preferences > Set Field
Masks/Series. However, on this page you'll be introduced to the formatting feature that is part of the
Form Customizer. It lets you perform three important tasks:
   Consolidate some or all of the fields already defined for a subform into a single column in Grid
    view and reports. This is called multi-field formatting. To learn more, refer to Multi-Field
    Formatting.
   Consolidate one-to-many fields into a single column in Grid view and reports. This is called
    multi-record formatting. To learn more, refer to Multi-Record Formatting.
   Add fields to Express Search from tables that are not included in the Express Search
    Configuration dialog box. For example, if you want to include a field from a table other than
    CollectingEvent, CollectionObject, Localities, Taxonomy, Loan, Accessions, and Agents, you
    will need to add the field to an existing field in one of previously mentioned tables, via
    formatting, or add it as a new column.
Customizing the Display Format
Some fields in the Specify data form are links to other forms. Specify lets you customize the
appearance of this kind of field so that it combines the values of several related fields, or even
values from several related records, into a single text string. With formatting you determine which
fields will be in this string and in what order. (This topic is also described in MultiField Formatting.)
Example
The CollectingEventID field in the Collection Objects form is a link to the Localities table, which
contains several fields with locality-related information:
Continent, Country, State, County, and Locality




You can use formatting to change the concatenated string to
Locality, Country, State, County




Two Ways to Format
Specify gives you two ways to format information from related records: globally and for individual
searches:
   Customizing the field format globally in the Form Customizer. With this option, the new format
    becomes a permanent feature of your database and applies to the Grid view, Custom view,
    button list boxes, and reports.




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      Customizing the field format for a single search. This is done from the search setup window.
       This kind of formatting affects only the Custom view and any reports invoked through Custom
       view. it does not affect the Browse or Detail view.




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More examples of customizable fields
The Specify database contains more than 70 tables—many of which appear somewhere in the
database as an embedded form—so you will find numerous opportunities for customizing the field
format. Some important examples of customizable fields in the default database are as follows:
   Locality field in Collection Objects form—The Locality field is one of the most common
    customization options. You can change the order of the fields for LocalityID, continent, country,
    state, county, legal description, latitude, longitude, or elevation. One reason for customizing the
    Locality field is so that the field matches the locality format for specimen labels used by your
    institution.
   Taxon Name field in Collection Objects form—You can modify the Taxon Name field to include
    additional settings such as the common name and the author of the taxon.
   Collection Objects Grid view—Most of the data fields in the Collection Objects form are actually
    embedded in subforms. All active fields are visible in the Collection Objects base form;
    however, Grid view does not display all fields shown in the data form. You may want to add
    fields or rearrange fields in the Collection Objects Grid view for more efficient browsing.
   Localities grid view—Some of the fields in the Localities data form (such as Lat/Long, Method or
    Elevation Method) may not be necessary for the quick-reference Grid view. Also, you may want
    to use the field formatting feature to customize the geopolitical fields (Continent, Country, State,
    County) in the GeographyID subform.
   Agents grid view—Format the Agent Address field to customize the appearance of agent
    address.
   One-to-Many—Count, sum, and sort the list of things that pertain to a given record.
Step-By-Step Instructions
The following pages show you how to format fields using the Form Customizer. When formatting
from the search setup window instead of the Form Customizer, you would follow the same steps
after clicking the Format button.


To review the general process of customizing a form, refer to Customizing Your Specify Forms.
Opening the Display Properties Dialog Box
You'll follow these preliminary steps when you are formatting a field that represents multiple fields
or multiple records from a related table. For more information, refer to Multi-Field Formatting and
Multi-Record Formatting.



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 To open the Display Properties dialog box:
1. Important: Make sure no one else is accessing the Specify database file.
2. From the Specify menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager
   window appears.
3. In the Forms Manager window, select the form you want to customize. You may need to expand
   a heading, such as Agents or CollectingEvent, to see the desired form.
4. Click the Edit Form button. The Form Customizer window appears; it includes the Available
   Fields list along with the Alignment Tools palette.
5. Select the field you want to customize (a grid, subform, button, or button list box) either in the
   form or in the fields list.
6. From the Form Customer's menu bar choose Edit > Field Properties.




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7. Click the Format button to open the Display Properties dialog box.




Multi-Field Formatting
With Specify, you can format certain fields from a single related record so that those fields are
displayed in a single field in the current form. In this usage, formatting means selecting and
arranging fields to display in the desired order.
Note: If you need to display more than one related record in the same field, refer to Multi-Record
Formatting.
This example uses the tutorial database (Fishdemo) and changes the format of the fields that
comprise DeterminerID information in the Collection Objects form. The current format shows the
determiner's last name followed by a comma and then the determiner's first name. No title or
middle initial is included.




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 The following procedure will change the current format of this field to
  (Title) (First Name) (Middle Initial) (Last Name)
 You can view the result by scrolling to the bottom of this page.


 Note: Changing the format of a field does not change the way you enter data. Although the
 following procedure changes the way an agent field appears in search results, you will still enter
 data using the Last Name (unformatted field) to find records.
 The DeterminerID field uses multi-field formatting because the information comes from several
 fields in a related record from the Agent table. The Agent record includes, among many others,
 Title, First Name, Middle Initial, and Last Name fields. These are the fields that you will be
 recombining in the Current Format box shown below.

 To create a multi-field format:
1. Choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager window appears.
2. Click the form you want to customize. In the current example, it's the Collection Objects > Fish
   form.
3. Click the Edit Form button in the Forms Manager window to display the form in the Form
   Customizer window.
4. Click on the subform that contains the field you wish to edit. In this example, it is Determination.




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5. From the Specify menu bar choose Edit > Subform in order to select fields within the subform.
6. Click the DeterminerID field to select it.




7. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit >Field Properties. A shortcut is to double
   click on the field




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       The Field Properties dialog box is displayed:




8. Click the Format button. The Display Properties dialog box appears. The current format of the
   DeterminerID field is displayed in the upper-right box.




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    The Current Format box shows each field included in the format and any expressions that
    separate the fields. In the illustration above, two fields have been added to the Current Format
    box, along with a comma and space separating them. You will now replace this format with a
    new format.
9. Click the Clear button below the Current Format box.
10. Click Title in the Fields list. This places "Agent3.Title" in the Current Format box. (The "Agent3"
    part tells you that the related record comes from the Agent table.) Next, you'll add a space to
    the format.
11. Click the Add Expr button below the Current Format box.
12. In the Expression Editor dialog box, press the Space Bar to enter a space in the Text box, then
    check the Omit box below it.




    This tells Specify to omit whatever you typed in the Text box if the value of the following field is
    empty. In this case, Specify will not insert the space character if the field you insert in the
    following step contains no value.




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13. Click OK to dismiss the Express Editor. The Current Format box shows your progress:




14. Click First Name in the Fields list, then add another space, as you did in steps 10-11.
15. Repeat step 13 with Initial and Last Name in the Fields list, but don't add a space after the Last
    Name field in the Current Format box. When you're finished, the Current Format box should
    look like this:




       If you need to remove an item, select it and click the Delete button.

16. Click OK to dismiss the Display Properties dialog box.
17. Click OK again to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
18. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Stop Editing Subform.
19. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
20. Close the Form Customizer window.
21. Close the Forms Manager window.

 To view the formatted field:
1. Create a search of the Collection Objects table, using the Search & Edit Data heading in the
   navigation panel.
2. When the Grid view appears, click the Detail button at the bottom of the results window. The
   new formatting of DeterminerID appears in its subform:




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    Note that the name in the illustration contains no middle initial. More precisely, the Middle Initial
    field in the related record from the Agent table is blank. For that reason, Specify did not add an
    extra space between the first name and last name in the multi-field format.
(This topic is also discussed in Customizing the Display Format.)
Multi-Record Formatting
Specify lets you customize the format in which many of the fields on a form are displayed. Some of
these fields represent one-to-many relationships with a related table. That is, one record in the
main form is related to several records in the related table. Multi-record formatting lets you display,
in a single column of a search results window, a list of values that have been strung together from
several records (you set the number) in the related table.
Note: If you need to format several fields from a single related record, refer to Multi-Field
Formatting.
Without multi-record formatting, if you created a search with a one-to-many field, it would appear
that you had duplicate records in Browse and Custom views. That's because the results window
would display the second preparation, agent, or second anything else, on a second line. With multi-
record formatting, all the information is displayed in the same row as the primary record.
The following procedure references a fish database and formats a field called "prep and use info."
The format will show each type of preparation and the number of objects associated with that
preparation type. In addition, the format will include a count of the total number of preparations.
You can use this procedure as a sample when working with any other form that contains one-to-
many fields like "prep and use info".

To create a multi-record format:
1. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager
   window appears. For this example, you'll be formatting a field in the Fish Collection Objects
   form.
2. In the Forms Manager window, expand Collection Objects, select Fish under that heading, then
   click the Edit Form button. The Form Customizer window appears.
3. Select the PreparationMethod subform, which may also be called "Prep and use info" or simply
   "Preparation" in your form. It should have handles at each corner, as in the inset below.




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4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Properties.




5. When the Field Properties dialog box appears, click the Format button near the bottom of the
   dialog box. The Display Properties dialog box appears. It contains a view of available fields on
   the left side, the Current Format box on the upper right and an Aggregate Settings panel below
   that. You will be copying fields from the tree view into the format box and applying options to
   those fields from the Aggregate Settings panel.




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6. Go to the tree view of the table and click the Count field to copy it to the format box. You can
   use the formatting buttons to do the following:
      To enable the Tab button, check the Rich Text box.
      To add text between fields, click Add Expr.
      To separate fields with a line break, click New Line. This is different from checking New Line
       in Aggregate Settings, which separates records, not fields, with a new line. The line breaks
       are displayed only in Detail view when the control containing the field is not a grid.
      To _ _ _, click Edit.
      To remove the selected field or text, click Delete.
      To remove all fields and characters from the Current Format box, click Clear.
7. Click the Add Expr button to display the Expression Editor.




    The insertion bar is blinking in the Text box.




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8. Press the Space Bar to enter a space character, check the box next to "Omit if next expression
   is blank", and click OK.
9. Next, click "PreparationMethod" in the tree view to add it to the Current Format box.
10. Go to the Aggregate Settings panel and do the following:
       In the Separator box, enter the desired character to insert between the related records, or
        check New Line to display each related record on a new line within the same row of the Grid
        view. If New Line is checked, no separator character is inserted.
       In the Continuation Text box, enter the characters (normally, three periods) that indicate the
        existence of more related records that are not shown because you have set a maximum in
        the Display options below. If you choose All as the Display option, the Continuation Text is
        not inserted.
       From the Order By dropdown list, select CollectionObject2.PreparationMethod. This
        designates the PreparationMethod field as the sort key for the order in which the related
        records are lined up in the formatted field.
       In the Display options, select either All to include all related records in the formatted field, or
        select First and type the desired maximum number of related records to include in the
        formatted field. If you specify a maximum and Specify detects more related records than
        your maximum allows, it inserts the Continuation Text characters, described above, following
        the last related record.
       If you want to add a column to the Grid view containing the number of related records, check
        the Count box. You can change the default column heading, "Count", to something else if
        you wish. This column will appear to the right of the column that you are in the process of
        formatting.
       If you want to add a column to the Grid view containing the sum of the values in a number
        field that is part of the related record, check the Sum box and select the desired field to sum
        from the drop-down list. You can change the default column heading, "Sum", to something
        else if you wish. This column will appear to the right of the column that you are in the
        process of formatting. It will be to the right of the Count column, described above, if you
        include both count and sum columns.

        The completed format will look something like this:




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11. Click OK to dismiss the Display Properties dialog box.
12. Click OK to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
13. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File > Save.
14. Close the Form Customizer window.
15. Close the Forms Manager window.
       When you run a search, the formatted field shows the counts as defined for the field.




Customizing One-to-Many Fields with Different Types




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 When a field has more than one type, such as Agents (Group, Person, Organization, Other), null
 values cause problems in SQL. To remedy this, you must first select default values for every type in
 the field. For example, in Agents, you would need to set default values for Group, Person,
 Organization, and Other.
 Because the Agents field is located in the Collectors subform, you'll need to edit the Collectors
 table.

 To set default values for all agent types:
  1. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager
     window appears.
  2. Click the Other Forms button and select Collectors.
  3. Click Edit Form. The Form Customizer opens.
  4. Select the Agent field, in this case Collectors. Black handles appear on each corner.




  5. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Properties.




       The Field Properties dialog box appears.
6. Click the Format button. The Display Properties dialog box appears. Notice the four tabs in the
   Current Format pane. In the following steps, you'll select each tab and select one or more fields
   from the Fields Tree as the default field for the tab.




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7. Click the Person tab and set a default value for it, such as last name, first name, and middle
   initial, as shown in the illustration. Click each field in the tree view to insert it and use the Add
   Expr button to insert spaces and a comma.




8. Click the Other tab, then expand the Other heading in the Fields tree. Under Other, click Name
   to add it to the Current Format box.




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9. Click the Organization tab, then expand the Organization heading in the Fields tree. Under
   Organization, click Name to add it to the Current Format box.
10. Click the Group tab, then expand the Group heading in the Fields tree. Under Group , click
    Group Name to add it to the Current Format box.
11. Click OK to close the Display Properties dialog box.
12. Click OK to close the Field Properties dialog box.
13. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
14. Close the Form Customizer window, but leave the Forms Manager window open.

 Editing the CollectingEvent form:
1. At the bottom of the Forms Manager window, click the Basic Forms button.
2. Click the plus (+) sign next to Collecting Events, and select your collection type.




3. Click Edit Form. The Form Customizer opens. Select the Collectors subform.




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4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Properties.




5. In the Field Properties dialog box, click the Format button. The Display Properties dialog box
   appears.
6. Select Collectors from the tree on the left. This sets the default value of the field




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7. Click OK to close the Display Properties dialog box.
8. Click OK to close the Field Properties dialog box.
9. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
10. Close the Form Customizer window.
11. Close the Forms Manager window.




 Adding Columns to the Grid View

 There are three situations in which you may want to add more columns to the grid view.

      You can always add columns to the Custom view by checking the desired boxes in the Display
       column of the search setup window:

       When you clear a Display check box in the search setup window, the corresponding column is
       removed from the Custom view

      Whenever you go into the Form Customizer and add a field to one of the forms, the same field
       shows up as a column in Grid view. For more information, refer to Adding a Field to a Form.

      When you are formatting embedded fields from a single record in a related table, you can add
       an embedded field as a new column instead of including it in the formatted string.



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    When you are formatting multiple records from a related table, you can add columns that
     contain count or sum values or both.
Adding an Embedded Field as a Column
This procedure shows you how to add one or more columns from a related table to the Grid view of
the results window without adding new fields to the corresponding Detail (form) view. It assumes
your form has an embedded field that provides access to the related table, as shown in the
schematic diagram below:



                                                            Many-to-one relation


                                                            One-to-one relation


The diagram shows that only certain kinds of fields will work with this procedure: many-to-one fields
and one-to-one fields. The column you'll be adding could come from Related Table A (many
records in the primary table to one record in Table A) or from Related Table B (one record in the
primary table to one record in Table B).

To add an embedded field as a column in Grid view:
1. Open the Form Customizer to the form you want to modify. (Your change will be affecting just
   the Grid view of that form.) The example in this procedure modifies the Deaccession form.
2. In the Available Fields list, double-click the embedded field that is linked to the related table that
   contains the columns you want to add. The example in this procedure uses CollectionID field, a
   many-to-one relation between the Deaccession (primary) table and the Collections (related)
   table.




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3. Click Format. If the Current Format box is empty, you'll need to add a field to it before Specify
   will let you add extra columns.
4. In the Fields list, click CollectionName to insert it in the Current Format panel. (In point of fact,
   Specify is already using the CollectionName field as the default format, so adding it here doesn't
   do anything except pave the way for the remaining steps in this procedure.)




       Now you can add extra columns.
5. In the Additional Columns panel, click Add. You are prompted to select a field.




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6. Click OK, then go to the Fields list and click the desired field, such as CollectionIdentifier in the
   following illustration.




7. Repeat steps 5-6 for any other columns you want to add.
8. Click OK to dismiss the Display Properties window.
9. Click OK to dismiss the Field Properties window.
10. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
11. Close the Form Customizer window.
12. Close the Forms Manager window.
When you run a search of the Deaccession table, the Grid view will show the added column(s) to
the right of the original embedded field.




Adding a Count Column or Sum Column




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 This procedure assumes your form has a one-to-many field, as illustrated below. It focuses on just
 the count and sum features of a longer procedure that you can review at Multi-Record Formatting.



                                                          One-to-many
                                                          relation between the
                                                          primary table and
                                                          Table C


 The count and sum columns you'll be adding can come from Related Table C (one record in the
 primary table to many records in Table C). The Count feature adds up the number of related
 records found for each record in the primary table. If you use the Sum feature, you must have a
 numeric field in the related table that can be summed. The example below uses a generic field,
 Number1.

 To add a count or a sum column to the Grid view:
1. Open the Form Customizer to the desired form. This example uses the Collection Object form
   from the Fishdemo database.
2. With Fish selected in the Forms Manager window, click the Edit Form button. The Form
   Customizer window appears.
3. In the Available Fields list, double-click Determination to display its field properties.
   Determination is a one-to-many field that is a set of records (could be just one) from the
   Determination table:




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4. Click the Format button to bring up the Display Properties dialog box.




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5. At this point, you can go to the Summary panel and check Count or Sum or both.
       Checking Count will add up the number of records in the Determination table that are linked
        to each record in the Fish table. In most cases there is only one.
       Checking Sum will select a numeric field in the related record -- in the example, it is
        Number1 -- and add the values of that field from each record it finds in the related table that
        is linked to a record in the primary table.




6. Click OK to dismiss the Display Properties dialog box.
7. Click OK to dismiss the Field Properties dialog box.
8. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
9. Close the Form Customizer window.
10. Close the Forms Manager window.
 When you run a search on the Collection Objects (Fish) table, you'll see the one or two new
 columns in Grid view:




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Adding Taxon Data for Display
You can designate the field(s) that will be displayed in additional Taxon Level columns for the
Collection Object Catalog subform formatting in Grid view. These additional columns can be
displayed in Grid view and reports, as shown in the Before and After illustrations.


Before                                               After




To add taxon data for display:
1. From Specify's menu bar, choose Tools > Admin > Customize Forms. The Forms Manager
   window appears.
2. In the Forms Manager window, expand Collection Objects by clicking the plus (+) sign next to it.
   Select your collection type, and click Edit Form.
3. Select the Collection Object Catalog subform by clicking it once. (This is the subform that
   contains the catalog or specimen number.)




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4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Edit > Field Properties.
5. In the Field Properties dialog box, click the Format button.
6. The Display Properties dialog box appears. In the Fields column on the left, select the field to
   which you want to add a column by clicking it once. The field then appears in the Current
   Format pane.
7. Under Additional Columns, click the Taxon button. A dialog box appears asking you to pick a
   taxonomic level. Select the level you want to add a column for, and click OK.




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8. Another dialog box appears asking you to pick a field for that level. Select the field you want to
   display, and click OK. The field then appears in the Additional Columns section.




9. Repeat steps 6–7 to add all the fields you want to display.
10. When you are finished adding fields, click OK in the Display Properties dialog box, and then
    click OK in the Field Properties dialog box.
11. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
12. Close the Form Customizer window.
13. Close the Forms Manager window.




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 Customizing the Related Records Submenu
 Editing Commands in the Related Records Submenu
 The Related Records command, in the View menu in the Specify menu bar, is enabled when the
 results of a search are displayed in Detail view. Choosing View > Related Records displays a
 submenu showing the names of all the tables for which Specify has defined relationships to the
 table whose data is shown in the Detail view.
 You can change or hide the names of the items in the related records list, as explained in the
 following two procedures.

 To edit commands in the Related Records submenu:
1. Display the desired form in the Form Customizer.
2. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose Related Records > command name, where
   command name is a placeholder for the command you want to change.




       The Field Properties dialog box appears.




3. In the Caption box, retype the caption as desired.




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    To assign a keyboard shortcut (hot key) to a letter in the menu item, type the ampersand (&)
    symbol before that letter; for example, Loan&Agents. The ampersand is not displayed in the
    menu, but the letter you selected will have an underscore.
4. Click OK.
5. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
6. Close the Form Customizer window.
7. Close the Forms Manager window.
You may want to simplify Specify to hide any unused menu commands. You can use the following
procedure to do this.

To hide a command on the Related Records submenu
1. Display the desired form in the Form Customizer.
2. In the Available Fields list, select the field whose caption matches the menu item that you want
   to hide.




3. Clear the check box for this field by clicking it. The menu item is removed immediately.
4. From the Form Customizer menu bar, choose File> Save.
5. Close the Form Customizer window.
6. Close the Forms Manager window.
Fields That Appear in the Related Records Submenu
The following table show you which fields in commonly accessed tables are configured to appear
as menu items in the View > Related Records submenu. When viewed in the Form Properties
dialog box, they are identified as menu item controls.



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 Example
 When you view a Reference book (or other kind of reference) record, you can choose View >
 Related Records to see if any of four kinds of related records have been linked to it:
 CollectionObjectCitation, DeterminationCitation, LocalityCitation, or TaxonNameCitation. Each of
 these related records would be in a many-to-one relationship to the ReferenceWorkID field of the
 References table.


 Table                          Menu item control             [Specify Control Name or
                                name                          'foreign key name']
 Geography                      Locality                      [GeographyID]
 Locality                       CollectingEvent               [LocalityID]
 CollectingEvent                CollectionObject              [CollectingEventID]
 TaxonName                      Determination                 [TaxonNameID]
 TaxonName                      TaxonName                     [TaxonNameID]
 References                     CollectionObjectCitation      [ReferenceWorkID]
 References                     DeterminationCitation         [ReferenceWorkID]
 References                     LocalityCitation              [ReferenceWorkID]
 References                     TaxonNameCitation             [ReferenceWorkID]
 BiologicalObjectAttributes     CollectionObject              [BiologicalObjectAttributesID]
 Agent                          Preparation                   [AgentID]
 Agent                          Determination                 [AgentID]
 Agent                          CollectionObjectCatalog       [AgentID]
 Agent                          Collectors                    [AgentID]
 Agent                          Author                        [AgentID]




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Appendix

Keyboard Shortcuts
In Specify, the hot keys available for the search setup window allow copy, cut, and paste
operations. The hot key to view query results is Ctrl+R; to view SQL the hot key is Ctrl+Q.
Here is complete list of the shortcuts available in Specify 5.2:


In the Search Setup Window

Action                          Keyboard Shortcut
New Search                      Ctrl+N
Open Search                     Ctrl+O
Save Search                     Ctrl+S
Save As                         Ctrl+A
Delete Search                   Ctrl+D
Custom View                     Ctrl+R
View SQL                        Ctrl+Q
Exit                            Ctrl+E
Export                          Ctrl+X


On the Form Tab
(Many of these shortcuts are available only during data entry)
        Alt+e: edit
        Alt+n: new
        Alt+d: delete
        Alt+c: cancel
        Alt+s: save
        Alt+a: batch add (items to loan only)
        Alt+r: batch return (loan only)
        Alt+>: next
        Alt+<: prev
        Alt+[: first
        Alt+]: last
For Grid Fields
        Up and Down arrows: select rows in grid
        Enter: display related form (if it is not already open) and display selected row in form
For Text, Number, Date, and URL Fields
        Ctrl+Up Arrow, Ctrl+Left Arrow: move back through list of previous entries in the field
        Ctrl+Down Arrow, Ctrl+Right Arrow: move forward through list of previous entries


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       Ctrl+Alt+T: will set the date to the current date during the editing of a date field
 For List Button Fields
       Esc: selects last value saved to the field (original value when editing, value of previous
        records when adding)
 For Pick List Fields
       Alt+Down Arrow: drops the list
       Up, Left, Right, Down Arrow: select items in the list
       Any alphanumeric char x: selects next item in list that starts with x
 For Yes/No/Maybe? Buttons
       Spacebar: cycles yes, no, don't know
 For Buttons
       Spacebar, Enter: displays or selects related form
 Mouse Shortcuts
       Right-click a field: displays usage notes for field
       Ctrl+right-click field: displays properties of field
 On the Grid Tab
       Del: delete highlighted record
       Enter: switch to form tab with highlighted record displayed




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Specify Logical Data Model
The Specify data model is closely related to the University of California-Berkeley Museum of
Vertebrate Zoology data model, the Natural Science Collections Alliance (then known as the
“Association of Systematics Collections”) collections data model, and the Invertebrate Paleontology
data model of Dr. P. Morris of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
Specify stores the information about your collection in a large number of database tables. The data
tables are related to one another in a single database in ways that reflect the natural order of the
information. These logical relationships among tables have a primary function of ensuring
consistency and security for your collection’s data. Specify divides up the storage tasks into
primary and related tables. For example, the main table that stores your specimen information is
called the Collection Object table. There are several data fields in the Collection Object data table
that describe specimen or lot features, but there is also an additional class of field that represents
links to other related data tables s such as Agent, Localities, and Collecting Event. These
secondary tables, in turn, have data fields that link to still more specialized related data tables.
The logical data model below is a simplified representation of an underlying and more complex
physical data model or implementation schema. The model portrays the various major tables and
fields and the essential relationships among them.
Specify has a detailed (“normalized”) database design that focuses on data in three broad
categories: (a) people (or “agents”) who do things such as collect, annotate, and publish; (b) places
(collecting sites, geography, georeferences, etc.); and (C) things (specimens, lots, preparations,
tissues, DNA samples). The Specify database also captures information about “events,” which are
actions taken by agents on objects, such as “collection events.” Finally, Specify’s database also
tracks collection management information associated with loans, gifts, accessions, permitting, and
other kinds of specimen transactions.
The following pages depict these three logical data model categories. The legend explains the
different typefaces used in the diagrams. All items (and sub-items) marked with an asterisk (*) are
part of the physical model but have yet to be implemented in the program.
      People (or "Agents") — all individuals, groups, and organizations involved with the collection
      Places — collecting locality information
      Things — collection objects: specimens or lots and any objects (preparations) derived from
       or related to them
The legend below explains the different typefaces used in the diagrams.




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Data Model — People
In Specify, personal information is stored in various kinds of Agent records. There are separate
tables for Agent, Agent Address, and Address.




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 Data Model — Places
 In Specify, location information is stored in various kinds of locality, habitat, geography, and
 stratigraphy records.




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Data Model — Things
In Specify, a thing (usually a specimen but it can also be a container, image, etc.) is stored in
various kinds of collection object records.




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 Form Elements
 Descriptors Common to All Fields
 Every field on the Detail View has the following properties, which can be defined in the Field
 Properties dialog box:


 Caption           Captions are the labels that accompany every field or control on a form.
                   Make sure captions are meaningful to the persons who are entering data
 Usage             Every field can have usage notes. You can change and add usage notes
 Notes             for each field whenever you want. To do so, see Changing a Field's
                   Caption and Usage Notes. To access the usage notes, right-click the field.
                   A small box displays a description of the field's purpose. Though not
                   required, usage notes can provide more detailed explanations than
                   captions.
 Field             Field definitions differ from usage notes in that they are read directly from
 Definition        the database. Field definitions cannot be edited in the Form Customizer.
                   Currently, Specify does not display field definitions. When a user creates a
                   new record, some fields are already filled in with default values. Default
                   values are values presented in the Field Properties List. They are
                   intended to speed up data entry. When a default value is not appropriate,
                   the user can always type a different value or choose another item from a
                   list box.
 Read              Read security (required) designates the security privilege that a user must
 Security          have to view this field in the Detail view. If a person logs in with a security
                   privilege that is lower than the value specified here, the field does not
                   appear on the Detail view. The Read Security setting can be modified only
                   by a person with Administrator or Manager privileges.
 Write             Write security (required) designates the security privilege that a user must
 Security          have to change or delete the contents of the associated field. If a person
                   logs in with a security privilege that is lower than the value specified here,
                   the field may appear on the Data Form tab, but the user cannot change its
                   contents. The Write Security setting can be modified only by a person with
                   Administrator or Manager privileges.
 Control           The control type designates how the control functions. For example, if a
 Type              field’s control type is Text Box, then text can be typed in as the value of
                   the field.


 Control types are:
 Related Table Data Form            Date Mask                        Modification Time Stamp
 Related Table List Box             Modified By Stamp                Yes/No Button
 Related Table Field                Menu Item Control                Latitude/Longitude Mask
 Text Box                           Number Mask                      Check Box
 List Box                           Memo Control                     Disclosure Triangle
 Primary Key                        Creation Time Stamp


 Button List Box




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A button list box displays an embedded field. It resembles a drop-down list box, but it includes an
ellipsis button.




When you choose an entry in this form of list box, you are actually linking the current record with a
record in a related table. You can thus select a Specify record directly rather than having to type in
your choice.
To operate a button list box, type the first few characters in the box and click the disclosure triangle
or press the Tab key. You have to type at least one character to see the drop-down list. If you type
more than one character, you refine the list. For instance, typing G in a taxon table button list box
gives you a list of all taxon entries starting with G; typing Glyp lists all entries that start with Glyp.

Clicking the ellipsis button    , on the right side of a button drop-down list, opens the data form
associated with the list. For example, if the button drop-down list displays taxon entries, the ellipsis
button invokes the Taxon Name form. You can use the ellipsis button to enter new background
records (such as accessions and agents) from the Collection Objects form. For more information on
button list boxes, see Using a Button List Box.
List of Lookup Fields Used in List Button Boxes
The following table shows you which lookup fields Specify searches in the related tables that are
defined for button list controls.
The first column is the name of table that the button list control is linked to. The second column is
the name of the field in the related table that is searched for matches. If two fields are shown, both
fields are searched and matches in either one are returned.


Related Table                         Lookup Fields in Related Table
Accession                             Number
Address                               Address
Agent (Organization)                  Abbreviation and Name
Agent (Person)                        LastName
Agent (Other)                         Name
Agent (Group)                         Name
AgentAddress (Organization)           Agent.Abbreviation*
AgentAddress (Person)                 Agent.LastName*
CatalogSeries                         SeriesName
CollectingEvent                         If StationFieldNumber is used on the
                                         CollectingEvent form, the lookup field is
                                         StationFieldNumber
                                        Otherwise, the lookup field is Locality.LocalityName*
Collection                            CollectionName
CollectionObject                      CollectionobjectCatalog.CatalogNumber (user



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                                        customizable)*
 CollectionObjectCatalog                CatalogNumber (user customizable)
 Deaccession                            DeaccessionNumber
 DeaccessionCollectionObject            Deaccession.DeaccessionNumber*
 Geography                              Concatenation of ContinentOrOcean, Country, State,
                                        and County
 GeologicTimePeriod                     Name
 Journal                                JournalAbbreviation and JournalName
 Locality                               LocalityName
 Permit                                 PermitNumber
 ReferenceWork                          Title
 Shipment                               ShipmentNumber
 TaxonName                              FullTaxonName
 * When a table name is prefixed to the field name, records in the table in the first column are
 related to a single record in the prefix table. Records in the first column table linked to matching
 records in the prefix table are returned.
 Check Box


 A check box can be either on or off.
      The "on" state may also be Yes, selected, or checked.
      The "off" state may also be No, cleared, or not checked.
 Creation Time Stamp and Modification Time Stamp
 The contents of these two date fields are maintained exclusively by Specify.


                                                    The Create Time Stamp tells you the date
                                                    the record was created,

                                                    The Modification Time Stamp tells you the
                                                    date the record was last changed.


 Date Box
 Date boxes accept only date-formatted information.



 Specify accepts seven date formats. You can specify the data format for a date box through the
 Field Properties dialog box in the Form Customizer. For more information, refer to Setting the Date
 Format.


 Disclosure Triangle




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Clicking the disclosure triangle displays all values in a list box. You can then click the desired value
to enter it in the current record.
Grid
A grid displays embedded fields in columns and row.




Each column represents a field from the related table, and each row represents a record from the
related table that is associated with the current object (specimen, loan, etc.) The grid represents a
one-to-many relationship between the current object, such as a collection event, and a set of
related records, such as collectors.
Double-clicking an entry in a grid displays the related data form. For example, if the grid displays
preparations, double-clicking one of its rows opens the Preparation form. If you are adding or
editing an object and you want to add a new entry to a grid, double-click an empty line in the grid.
Note: When a grid contains embedded fields from a related table, you'll need to convert it
temporarily to a subform in order to change column headings or add or remove columns. Refer to
Editing a Grid.
Latitude/Longitude Mask
A Lat/Long mask field requires you to enter a latitude or longitude value according to a fixed format.




Specify provides a variety of latitude and longitude formats from which you can choose. See
Setting Date and Latitude/Longitude Format. To take advantage of the advanced Lat/Long controls
available in Specify, see Changing Latitude Longitude Controls.
If you use Specify's older (before version 3) latitude and longitude options, use a minus (–) sign to
signify a South or West value. A plus (+) sign for a North or East value is optional. The value must
be numeric. Do not use N, S, E, or W in a latitude or longitude setting.
Drop-Down List Box
A drop-down list box lets you choose from a predefined set of options that is displayed when you
click the disclosure triangle.




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 This reduces the amount of typing you have to do during data entry, and it ensures that the option
 you select is spelled correctly. One item in the list is always selected by default. You can add items
 to a drop-down list or change the default selection through the Field Properties dialog box in the
 Form Customizer.
 Changing the Items in a Drop-Down List Box
 Memo Box
 A memo box is another kind of text field. Memo fields are appropriate for longer entries because
 they have no length restrictions.




 A memo box is displayed with scroll bars so you can scroll through a memo that is too long to fit in
 the box. Memo fields cannot be indexed, but you can search them for text strings.
 Menu Item Control and Related Records Submenu
 Most forms have a Related Records item that appears in the View menu when those forms are
 displayed.




 The items that appear in the Related Records submenu are also shown in the Field Properties list,
 and their type is Menu Item Control. By changing the caption of this item in the property list, you
 change its appearance in the Related Records menu.
 Modified by Stamp
 The Modified by Stamp tells you the login name of the user who last modified any of the fields in
 the record.



 The contents of this field are maintained exclusively by Specify.
 Navigation Bar



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                                                                                           Specify 5.2 Help




If the subform holds records that are in a one-to-many relationship with the parent (e.g., several
determinations for a single specimen), a set of navigation buttons (resembling VCR controls) is
displayed so that you can page through the various entries:


              Displays the first record in the
              search
              Displays the previous record in
              the search
              Displays the next record in the
              search
              Displays the last record in the
              search


A subform may also have scroll bars if the subform is larger than the space provided in the parent
form.
Number Box
Number boxes can contain only numbers.



Specify ignores any letters or non-numeric symbols in a number box. You can use the Form
Customizer to impose limits on the size and precision of the number associated with a number box.
The Min property causes the field to reject any entries below a specified number. The Max property
causes the field to ignore any entries above a specified number. The Precision property lets you
designate how long and wide the decimal portion of a number entered in the associated field can
be.
Primary Key
The Primary Key field is an integer that acts as the unique identification number for a given object
(specimen, observation, sound recording, etc.) Every record in a table has a unique number in its
Primary Key field. The content of this field is maintained exclusively by Specify.
Related Table Button
A related table button reduces a set of embedded fields to a single button on the parent form. It
minimizes the clutter on a form but requires the user to open a separate form to view or edit the
embedded fields.




Clicking a related table button displays a full view of the related table's form.
Related Table Properties
Information that is copied to the Detail view from a separate table can be displayed in several field
types: as a related table list box, a related table data form, a related table button, or a related table
grid.
For more information, refer to Changing a Field Type.



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 Subform
 A subform shows some or all of the fields from a related table just as they would appear in the main
 form for that table. Unlike the other embedded field options, a subform does not require you to
 open a new form to access the embedded fields. The subform may not contain the full set of fields
 that you would see if you opened the form directly from its table.




 You can view, enter, and edit subform fields just as you would any other fields on the form.
 How to Distinguish a Subform from an Ordinary Field
 The subform section is surrounded with a thin gray box within the main form. In some cases, the
 subform also might have its own title, which looks like a section title within the parent form. For
 more information, refer to Modifying Subforms.
 Text Box
 Text Box fields can contain any characters, including letters, numbers, and symbols, but Specify
 regards them strictly as characters.



 No numerical or date operations can be performed on the contents of a text box. Text boxes are
 usually restricted to fifty characters.
 Yes/No Button
 A Yes/No button field can be set to Yes, No, or empty.



 The button displays Yes or No to show the current setting. When the field is set to empty, the
 button is blank.




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Troubleshooting
The following sections may help you in determining the cause and solution of a problem you are
having with Specify.
Specify Searches Take a Lot of Time
The slowness may be related to your database engine. MSDE, the free desktop version of SQL
Server, can at times be much slower at times than the SQL Server (full version), but not always.
Performance is also closely related to the hardware on which the database is installed. If you need
to be getting faster performance, contact the Specify Project to describe your configuration and
obtain recommendations for software and/or hardware upgrades.
Or go directly to the Microsoft website.
Can't Attach a Database
Task: Tried to attach a database
  Error           "Invalid connection string attribute"
  Message
  Cause           My SQL Server sa password contained an invalid character, such as
                  single or double quote, parenthesis, semi-colon, or plus sign.
  Solution        Changed my sa password to include only valid characters.


  Error           "Login failed for use 'sa' Reason not associated with a trusted SQL Server
  Message         connection"
  Cause           My SQL Server set to Windows Authentication only.
  Solution        Changed SQL Server set to Mixed-Mode Authentication.


  Error           "Device deactivation error. The physical file name
  Message         "e:\sqldata\mssql\data\KUI_fish_log.ldf"
  Cause           I was trying to attach a database ("mdf" and "ldf" files) that existed in a
                  directory other than the official SQL Server DATA directory.
  Solution        Copied my files to the designated SQL Server data directory.


  Error           "Device activation error. The physical file name
  Message         'E:\SQLdata\MSSQL\Data\KANULichenDatabase_log.LDF' may be
                  incorrect."
  Cause           I had a log file (databasename_log.LDF) in the same folder that contained
                  the .mdf file I was trying to attach. This may have happened when I copied
                  the contents of a Specify database folder from another user's computer.
  Solution        Deleted the databasename_log.LDF file. This file is recreated by Specify
                  after attaching. If I later detach and reattach the database (.MDF file), the
                  error does not occur.


Troubleshooting Rave reports
Rave is a third party product. It was chosen due to its flexibility and no cost to our clients. It is
generally stable. We have found a few procedures that help produce reliable results.
1. Changing default printers



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 We have found that it is better to open the Rave Designer and change printers there and not in the
 preview screen.
 2. Importing reports
 If there are duplicate reports and data views (also known as data objects), the reports often do not
 work. Duplicate reports are added by appending a number to them. The solution is to delete all the
 extraneous reports and any extra data views. Double-check the name of the data view being used
 by the report. Make sure it is active and is the current report, particularly if using Search results for
 this report. Refresh the data view. Check the report within the Designer prior to trying to using the
 preview screen.
 3. Adding or Deleting Fields from a Search
 When you add or delete a field in a search, the change may prevent the associated report from
 displaying or printing properly.
 If you delete a field that is used in a report, the report shows invalid data. To get rid of the invalid
 sections of the report text, go to RAVE and remove the Data Text or Data Memo component.
 4. Refreshing Your Data View
 If adding a field changes another field name — for example, adding a determiner last name after
 previously having a collector last name — the change will modify the collector's last name field title
 and add a new one. You will need to refresh your data view. To do this:
1. Open RAVE.
2. In the Project Tree, click the plus (+) sign to expand the Data View Dictionary.




3. Right-click the data view you want to update and choose Refresh from the shortcut menu.

       You'll now need to select the Data Text/Data Memo component with the field name that was
       changed and have it select the correct field. Or simply delete the old component and add a new
       one.




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                                                                                         Specify 5.2 Help



Copyright and End User License Agreement
Documentation License
Copyright (c) 2006, The Center for Research, University of Kansas, 2385 Irving Hill Road,
Lawrence, KS 66044-4755, USA.
All brands and their products referenced herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective holders and should be noted as such.


Software License
General Public License
Based on: The GNU General Public License (GPL)
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (c) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
1. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the
copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The
"Program," below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means
either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the
Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term "modification.") Each
licensee is addressed as "you."
Activities other than copying, distribution, and modification are not covered by this License; they are
outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been
made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
2. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in
any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an
appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this
License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of
this License along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer
warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
3. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work
based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of
Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
       a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the
       files and the date of any change.
       b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or
       is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all
       third parties under the terms of this License.
       c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause
       it, when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display
       an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no
       warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the
       program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.
       (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an
       announcement, your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement).
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are
not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works



                                                                                                    381
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 in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute
 them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a
 work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License,
 whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part
 regardless of who wrote it.
 Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely
 by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective
 works based on the Program.
 In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with
 a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the
 other work under the scope of this License.
 4. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code
 or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the
 following:
        a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which
        must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily
        used for software interchange; or,
        b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for
        a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
        machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms
        of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
        c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding
        source code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
        received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with
        Subsection b above.)
 The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For
 an executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains,
 plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and
 installation of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need
 not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major
 components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs,
 unless that component itself accompanies the executable.
 If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated
 place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
 distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source
 along with the object code.
 5. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided
 under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program is
 void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have
 received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so
 long as such parties remain in full compliance.
 6. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else
 grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
 prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the
 Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do
 so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing, or modifying the Program or works
 based on it.
 7. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient
 automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute, or modify the Program
 subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the
 recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance
 by third parties to this License.



 382
                                                                                          Specify 5.2 Help


8. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement, or for any other
reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order,
agreement, or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from
the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your
obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free
redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution
of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the
balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right
claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices.
Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through
that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to
decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system, and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest
of this License.
9. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or
by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that
distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License
incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
10. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public
License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of
this License which applies to it and "any later version," you have the option of following the terms
and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any
version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
11. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution
conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software that is copyrighted
by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make
exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all
derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
NO WARRANTY
12. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO
THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
13. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR



                                                                                                      383
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 DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
 DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING
 BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR
 LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO
 OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS
 BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS




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                                                                                      Specify 5.2 Help



Acknowledgements
The Specify Software Project has been funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation through
grants 96-96182, 96-32288, 98-08806, 99-87445, 02-2149, and 04-46544, and by the University of
Kansas, which has provided salary and logistics support. Many individuals have contributed
significantly to the Specify Software Project and its predecessors, including Julian Humphries, Stan
Blum, Tim Noble, Glenn Garneau, Jean Burgess, Kathy Coggins, Jennifer Leopold, Scott Downie,
Meg Kumin, Jim Beach, Laura Green, Nicole Berkovich, Kerry Monthey, Hugo Alamillo, CJ Grady,
Andy Bentley, Donna Eades, Chris Meacham, Dan Hembree, Scott Heath, Sheila Walker, Joe
Casad, John Brewer, Tracy Hicks (for use of images of artistic work), Garold Sneegas (images
used for Demofish) and Joseph Trumpey (for the Specify logo chameleon image). We gratefully
acknowledge the assistance we have received from our beta testers and clients with whom we
have collaborated through the years. Specify is available in German thanks to the translation
provided by staff of the Botanical Garden and Museum, Berlin-Dahlem, with funding from the
Federal Ministry of Research.




                                                                                                 385
 Glossary
                                                 A
Accession: Also called an acquisition. A consignment of specimens acquired either by field
      collecting of staff members, gifts, purchases, or exchange with another institution.
Accession Number: Usually an integer or alphanumeric value that is assigned to material
      when it enters the collection. The format of accession numbers varies among
      collections, but all refer to the acquisition of specimens, observations, or other collection
      objects into the collection. For example, in some collections the accession number is
      basically the date (Accession # 11:X:1996, for a specimen accessioned on 11 October
      1996). Accession number is displayed on the Collection Object form.
Administrator: In Specify, a security level that grants the maximal number of privileges to a
      user account.
Agent: A Specify database table that contains information about people, groups, and
       organizations. Some roles for an agent include collector, determiner, preparer,
       cataloger, donor, issuer of permits, and so forth.


                                                 B
Biological Object Type: A biological object type is a taxonomic type (fish, reptile, mammal,
       plant, etc.) that is associated with a catalog series.
Borrow: A Specify database table that contains information about loans from another institution.
      When one institution borrows a group of objects from another institution, all objects in
      the borrowed group share a common set of attributes--agents, dates, and so forth--that
      are defined for the loan. Those attributes are entered and updated in the Borrow
      transaction window. This function is used for record keeping only: external loans do not
      become part of your collection.


                                                 C
Catalog: As a noun, a catalog is physical card file, ledger, or electronic database of collection
       objects. As a verb, to catalog means to enter specimen information into a catalog.
Catalog Number: The number that identifies an individual specimen, a lot of specimens, or an
       observation as a part of a museum collection. Depending on historical practices and
       taxonomic discipline, the format of a catalog number can vary, but for most collections,
       catalog numbers are integer values (such as 1390) that refer to a specimen or lot.
       Variations in format include decimals (such as 1390.1), alphanumeric (such as 1390a),
       ranges (such as 1390–1400), and any other format suitable to a collection practice.
       Catalog numbers are used when lending specimens, converting specimens, and
       printing labels.
Catalog Series: A unique series of catalog numbers. Most Specify users need only a single
       catalog--series for example, MAIN. Within this catalog series, Specify issues a unique
       catalog number to each of your specimens. If you have two or three catalog series for
       example, MAIN and TEACHING there will be multiple sets of catalog numbers and
       duplicate catalog numbers among the sets.
Cataloger: In Specify, the person who recorded the specimen data in the catalog. Cataloger
       records are stored in the Agent table.




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Collecting Abbreviation: Abbreviation for the institution or collection where the specimen is
        catalogued.
Collecting Event: A collecting event is the place and time that a collection (or observation) is
        made. In some disciplines a field number (Field #) is used as the primary designation
        for place and time information, while in others, locality name and date are used to link
        specimens with a unique collecting event. In Specify, you can use either convention.
Collecting Method: A method, such as net or trap, which is used to acquire a specimen.
Collection Object: A general term for anything that can be a part of your collection: a
        specimen, a specimen lot, a sound recording, a slide, a tissue, an extract, or a
        spectrogram.
Collector: In Specify, the person or persons who collected a specimen. Collector records are
       stored in the Agent table.
Collector Number: A unique number a collector assigns to each specimen at the time of
       collection. For example, botanists often keep a running count of the individual
       specimens they have collected (LKK1023, LKK1024, etc.).
Condition Row: Formerly called a filter, a condition row is part of the search setup that defines
       a property or a range of values for a specific field that must be satisfied for the record to
       be included in the results of a search.
Confidence: The level of accuracy of a determination.
Control: Any of the graphic devices used to display different kinds of fields. Examples are
       number boxes, list boxes, check boxes, and date boxes.
Coordinate: The designation of a location by a line or plane (includes latitude and longitude).
Country: The name of the country where the collecting event occurred.
County: This field is not restricted to "county" in the strict sense. In the hierarchy of geographic
       places, County is the next level down from State. Valid entries for county can include a
       county name, county line name, island, parish, or judicial district where the collecting
       event occurred.
Custom View: One of the options of viewing search results. The Custom view shows the same
      fields (as columns) that were selected in the Display column of the search setup
      window.


                                                  D
Date: The time period that describes the collecting event for the specimen or observation.
Deaccession: Removal of a biological object--in the form of a specimen, observation, or
      preparation type--from the collection. Deaccessions may include loans to other
      collections that are subsequently given to the borrower, lost specimens, and specimens
      that are destroyed. Specify maintains a record of deaccessions and the history of each
      deaccession.
Detail View: One of the options of viewing search results. The Detail view shows you only one
        record at a time, and it uses the data entry form that Specify has defined for its parent
        table. Thus, the fields that appear as columns in the Browse and Custom views, are
        represented by different kinds of controls (text boxes, buttons, list boxes, etc.) in Detail
        view.
Determination Date: Date when taxonomic determination was assigned to specimen. Date
       formats can be changed only by a user with Manager permissions or above.




 388
                                                                                               Glossary


Determination Method: Taxonomic tools and information on which a determination is based.
       These include professional expertise, published taxonomic keys, molecular DNA, or
       comparisons with previously cataloged specimens.
Determiner: Individual who assigned or made the decision regarding the taxonomic name of
       specimen. In some instances, determiner may be an organization or institute. In
       Specify, determiner information is stored in the Agent table.
Discipline: The general taxonomic level (category) to which a specimen or specimens belong.
        The contents of this field (for example, fish or mammal) determine a discipline-specific
        view for the forms and subforms. This field does not use the standard scientific naming
        convention. Scientific names and hierarchy structure are determined in the taxonomic
        dictionary.


                                                  E
Embedded Field: A field from a related table that is displayed in the form of the primary table.
     For example, First Name, Middle Initial, and Last Name are fields in the Agent table that
     are embedded in the data entry form of the Collection Object table.
Express Search: A search that uses the express search panel instead of the search setup
       window. It lets you search for one or more words throughout all the fields of your
       Specify database. In this way, an express search is faster and more powerful than a
       conventional search. It requires that you first build index tables on which the search will
       be performed.
Express Search Index Table: For each table that you want your express searches to work on,
       you must have Specify build an index table. Index tables must then be updated
       whenever you make changes to their base tables (These can be any or all of the
       following tables: Collection Object, Collecting Event, Locality, Agent, and Taxon).


                                                  F
Field: A field contains one or more values that describe a specimen, agent, locality, etc.
        (depending on which table the field is in). If a field has a single value (text, number,
        date, etc.) it does not require formatting. If a field has more than one value, it is a
        container for embedded fields from a related table and must be formatted. Several fields
        make up a record, and several records make up a database table. When displayed in a
        report, or in Browse view, or in Custom view, fields are represented by columns, and
        records are represented by rows.
Field Number: A unique identifier assigned to a specimen by the collector in the field. This is a
       different concept from the Station Field Number (see Station Field Number) yet may still
       have connotations for time, location, or both.
Field Type: One of four controls that can represent embedded fields in a form. Field Types are
        subform, grid, button list box, and related table button. When editing a form in the Field
        Customizer, you can usually switch from one field type to another.
Filter: (Called condition row in Specify) a constraint on a specific field that is used to restrict a
         Specify search to just those records that satisfy the constraint. For example, the
         condition row Collector IN "Scott, Erikson, Buchmann" would force the search to return
         only records in which the Collector field contained either "Scott", "Erikson", or
         "Buchmann".
Form: A window in which you can inspect, create new, or edit Specify data records. This term
       comes from the underlying programming structure used in Specify, where controls for
       entering, displaying, and editing data are placed on objects called forms, and the values
       (text, numbers, dates etc.) are stored in database tables.


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Form Customizer: A dialog box within which you can modify data entry forms. You'll use the
      Form Customizer to hide unneeded fields, move controls (buttons, text boxes, etc.) to
      an optimal arrangement, and format embedded fields.
Format: A way of combining embedded fields into a single field in a form. You can arrange the
       fields in any desired sequence and add separation characters such as spaces or
       commas. Formatting can be multi-field or multi-record. In Specify, formatting differs from
       masking, which determines how single values as dates and numbers are displayed.
Full Access User: In Specify, a security level that is one step below Manager.


                                                G
Grid View: One of the options of viewing search results. The Grid view shows the same fields
        (as columns) that, when displayed in the Detail view, appear as different kinds of
        controls (text boxes, buttons, list boxes, etc.)
Guest: In Specify, a security level that grants the minimal number of privileges to a user
        account.


                                                L
Limited Access User: In Specify, a security level that is one step above Guest.
Loan: A group of specimens that another institution borrows from your collection. Specify lets
       you manage all aspects of loans electronically, so that you always have an up-to-date
       record of which specimens (and how many of each) have been loaned and which have
       been returned.
Loan Number: A field that contains a record of the loan number and which is automatically
      incremented when a loan is made.
Locality: The name of the location where a specimen was collected or observed. Some
        taxonomic disciplines or collectors may use a locality name instead of a field number to
        associate a collecting event with a specimen.
Localization: The process of converting a software application for a different language area, for
       example, French, German, or Japanese.
Lot: A grouping of one or more individuals of the same taxon from a single collecting event.
        Subsequent study or future knowledge may demonstrate that what had been
        considered a lot is a grouping of mixed taxa that would then be subdivided into
        appropriate single taxon groupings, each forming a new lot. A lot can be sorted into one
        or more specimens should any individuals acquire a special status and consequently
        need to be referenced separately.


                                                M
Manager: In Specify, a security level that is one step below Administrator.
Many to One: A relation between the records of a primary table and those of a related table in
       which many records in the primary table can be linked to the same record in the related
       table. For example, many specimen (Collection Object) records might be linked to the
       same Locality record because they were all found at the same location.
Multi-Field Formatting: The combining (technically, concatenation) of several embedded fields
        from a single record in a related table into a single field on a form. For example, Title,
        First Name, Middle Initial, and Last Name from the Agent table could be combined into
        one field in the Collection Object form using multi-field formatting.



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                                                                                             Glossary


Multi-Record Formatting: The combining of several records in a related table into a single field
       on a form. For example, a single collection event record might be linked to several
       records in the Agent table because several people participated in the event. Multi-
       record formatting lets you include all of the persons in a single text field.


                                                 O
One to Many: A relationship between the records of a primary table and those of a related table
       in which several records in the primary table are linked to a single record in the related
       table. For example, several specimen (collection object) records would be linked to a
       single record in the Collection Event table because all those specimens were collected
       during the same event.
One to One: A relationship between the records of a primary table and those of a related table
       in which one record in the primary table is always linked to one and only one record in
       the related table. One-to-one relations are less common that many-to-one and one-to-
       many relations. An example is the one-to-one relation between the Localities and
       GeoCoordinates table. For each Locality record, there is exactly one record in the
       GeoCoordinates table, and vice versa.
Organizations: In Specify, information about organizations is stored in the Agent table).
Original Locality: Enter historical collecting information in this field. For example, if a country
       has been renamed (for example, the former British Honduras is now called Belize), you
       may want to enter the former name in this field. This field may also contain information
       about site names when a valid Site Name is unknown for a specimen.


                                                 P
People: In Specify, information about people is stored in the Agent table.
Permit: The permit transaction window is designed to hold information linked to legal paperwork
        for permission from a government agency to collect a specimen or specimens.
Physical Object: A subdivision of a collection object that refers to the preparation methods
       used with the corresponding biological object (specimen). All preparation methods are
       physical objects.
Preparation: Preparation information describes the physical status of a specimen and its
       storage media. Specify provides an extensive array of utilities for curatorial
       management of specimen preparations.


                                                 Q
Query: See Search.


                                                 R
Record: The basic unit of a table. A record normally contains several data fields representing
       information about a specimen, collecting event, citation, or loan. Records are displayed
       as rows in Grid and Custom views. The Detail view displays one record at a time in a
       form.
Related Records: Many of the Specify data-entry forms are linked to more than one table.
       These links are sometimes displayed in the Related Records submenu of the View
       menu when the results window is open. Choosing one of these links automatically




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        performs a search on the related table and then displays a list of the records, if any, that
        are related to the record currently selected in the results window.
Remarks: General remarks relevant to any aspect of the specimen.
Report: The set of records that is displayed, printed, or saved in a file when you run a report. It
       is the output from a Specify search that has been flowed into a Rave Reports definition
       for printing, previewing, or saving to a file.
Report Definition: A description of the components of a report. These include the search that
       the report is based on, the names of the columns that will be in the report, and the
       "cosmetics" -- the pagination, graphics, headers, and other formatting that is not
       available through the Grid view or the Custom view of searches.
Results Window: The area occupied by the Browse view, Custom view, or Detail view after you
       click the Search button to run a search. It displays the records, if any, returned by the
       search. It also displays the results of an express search.


                                                  S
Search: A search ("query" in earlier versions of Specify) returns a subset of the records in one
       of your Specify tables, based on the condition rows you have defined in the search
       setup window. The returned records are displayed in the results window. Specify also
       features an express search feature, described elsewhere in the glossary.
Security Level: The set of access privileges that has been assigned to a user account. The five
       security levels are Administrator, Manager, Full-Access User, Limited Access User, and
       Guest.
Series: When understood as part of Specify's series processing feature, a series is a set of
        specimens whose catalog numbers are consecutive and which have been entered
        explicitly as a series rather than as individual records.
Specimen: In the Specify data model, information on specimens is stored in the Collection
      Object table.
State: Like county, this field is not restricted to "State" in the strict sense. A State name should
        refer to the next geographic division within a country. State names may include but are
        not limited to U.S. state, province, territory, division, or region where the collecting event
        took place.
Station Field Number: Station field number (or locality number, field number, or site number) is
        the identifier for a place and time at which a collection or observation is made. In many
        taxonomic disciplines, a collector assigns a unique number or code to each place and
        time where specimens are collected. Station number refers to a collecting event that
        can include one or many specimens of many different types. This is a different concept
        from the field number.


                                                  T
Table: The basic unit of a database, a table is a set or sequence of records, each of which
        contains values in a common set of fields. Tables can be easily visualized as a grid of
        rows and columns, but their information can be displayed in a variety of ways. In
        Specify many tables are related to each other according to such relations as one-to-
        one, one-to-many, and many-to-one. These relations are also described in the glossary.
Taxon Name: Name of the specimen or observed organism. Although a taxon name is typically
       a Latin scientific name under control of a code of nomenclature, in Specify informal
       names can also be entered, including manuscript names, name surrogates such as



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                                                                                            Glossary


        "Species A," and published non-Latin "names," for example, "Node 14 [in Fig. 2,
        Reference 999]."
Taxonomic Type: Any of the nine types recognized by Specify: Amphibian, Bird, Fish, Fossil
      Invertebrate, Fossil Plant, Insect, Invertebrate, Mammal, Plant, or Reptile. Taxonomic
      type is a subcategory of biological type and is identical to the "parent" biological type in
      every case but Fossil Vertebrate, which must have a vertebrate (Amphibian, Bird, Fish,
      Mammal, or Reptile) as its taxonomic type.
Transaction: A formal procedure carried out on parts of a collection, such as a loan, accession
       (acquisition), deaccession, external loan (borrowing), and recording of permits.


                                                 U
User Account: In Specify, a set of two values, user name and password, and the security level
       that has been defined for it by an administrator.


                                                 V
Verbatim Date: The date as originally recorded, even if incomplete. Examples: Spring 1930,
       1940s, 1940–1955, and so forth.




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