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					                  V CONeGOV

e-citizens and the role of context in explaining e-
  governance implementation: Lessons from e-
        local governance research in Africa

              Florianopolis, Brazil
             17-19 November, 2009


          Prof. Timothy Mwololo Waema

                                                      1
                 Agenda
1. Introduction
2. LOG-IN Africa research approach
3. Research projects
4. e-Governance outcomes
5. Illustration of the role of context in
   explaining results
6. Conclusions/implications - research and
   practice



                                             2
                1. Introduction
• Local Governance and ICTs Research Network
  for Africa (LOG-IN Africa) is a Pan-African
  network of researchers and research institutions
  from 9 countries
• Overall question?
  – What progress has been made and what are the
    outcomes in the provision of e-local governance in
    Africa; what are the challenges and threats; and what
    are the good practice strategies and solutions that are
    emerging?

• Overall objective?
  – to inform, support and orientate African countries and
    other stakeholders in their policies and practices
    concerning the application of ICTs to local governance
                                                        3
• 9 countries
  – Egypt, Ethiopia, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique,
    Senegal, South Africa, Uganda and Ghana

• Scope for presentation
  – 3 countries: Mauritius, Kenya and Morocco
  – eServices: the electronic delivery of government
    information, knowledge and services to citizens
  – 3 good governance characteristics: Participation,
    Transparency, Effectiveness and Equity

• Aim?
  – Review specific examples of e-Local governance
    implementations and attempt to explain why specific
    good outcomes were realized and make
    recommendations for research and practice
                                                        4
2. LOG-IN Africa research
        approach
   Integrated conceptual framework
                         E-Administration        E-Services             E-Society
 Good governance      Outcome    Output     Outcome    Output     Outcome    Output
   constructs            Indicat    Indicat    Indicat    Indicat    Indicat    Indicat
                         ors        ors        ors        ors        ors        ors

1. Participation      1.1 xx     1.1.1 yy
                                 1.1.2 zz
2. Transparency
3. Responsiveness

4. Equity
5. Effectiveness &
    Efficiency
6. Accountability

7. Rule of Law
8. Consensus
    Orientation
9. Strategic Vision
      Methodological framework
a) Conduct an assessment of the context of the e-
   government project
b) Create “working definitions” of each of UNDP’s
   broad constructs of good governance
c) Develop outcome and output indicators
d) Collect the baseline data on the indicators to
   establish the status of the various indicators
   before the implementation of the e-government
   intervention
e) Evaluate the outcomes and outputs (case
   study and action research)
3. Research projects
                            Kenya
• Assess the effects on good governance of the
  implementation of an integrated financial management
  system (IFMS) in two municipal councils
• System aim is to improve the local authorities' financial
  management, including:
   – billing and collection of all local revenues
   – payroll
   – all expenditure controls including issuance of vouchers,
     procurement, payment of statutory debts and project
     expenditure management
• The financial administrative activities are linked through the
  budget monitoring system, generating a series of operational
  and management reports to assist in controlling, monitoring,
  and managing all financial activities within the LA
• IFMS is the only major e-government initiative for LGs in
  MoLG
• System implementation took more than 5 years
• IFMS effects on good governance studied via historical
  reconstruction
                                                                9
                  Mauritius
• Assess the effects of the implementation of
  revenue management system on e-
  administration and e-service delivery in 3 of 5
  municipal councils
• Legacy system whose aim is to process & keep
  citizens’ tax records. This system also records
  information about general, tenant tax, license
  fees and other taxes
• System effects on good governance studied via
  historical reconstruction



                                               10
                             Morocco
• Computerization of citizen-oriented services provided by
  “Bureau d’Etat Civil (BEC) in Larache city council
  (medium size city)
• BEC is a government office that is in charge of
  registering citizens’ life events, including birth, marriage,
  divorce, changing one’s name, and death
• Computerization involved:
   – Automating the back-office via computerizing/ digitizing the BEC
     citizens’ records
   – Enabling an electronic front-office by developing a portal and a
     related touch screen kiosk available for public use and adapted
     to illiterate end users to facilitate the request of Birth
     Certificates. Kiosks have:
      Clear Voice instructions guiding the user step by step in making his/her
       request in local language
      Culturally sensitive illustrative images
      Building on existing cultural conventions: red/green, presenting figures in
       a cell phone shape
• Studied the effects of this implementation on good
  governance through action research                                           11
Key national performance measures
• GNI per capita
   – WB’s classification of gross national income (GNI) per capita
• NRI
   – Measures the propensity of countries to leverage the
     opportunities offered by ICT for development and increased
     competitiveness. It also establishes a broad international
     framework mapping out the enabling factors of such capacity
     (by WEF + INSEAD)
• Global competitiveness ranking
   – Evaluates the potential for sustained ECONOMIC GROWTH of
     developed and emerging economies and ranks them accordingly
     (by WEF)
• UN eGovernment readiness ranking
   – A composite comprising of the web, telecoms infrastructure,
     human capital and e-participation indices
• ITU’s ICT opportunity index
   – A composite index of ten indicators that seek to measure access
     to and usage of ICT by individuals and households
                                                                     12
   Performance on key measures
     Measure          Kenya       Morocco      Mauritius
GNI per capita      Low         Lower middle Upper middle
classification      income      income       income
(WB 2007)
NRI ranking         92 (95)     74 (76)      54 (51)
2007/08 (2006/07)
ITU’s ICT           Low         Medium       Upper
Opportunity Index   average     average      average
(2007)
Global              99 (94)     64 (70)      60 (55)
competitiveness
ranking
2007/08 (2006/07)
UN eGovernment      122 (122)   140 (138)    63 (52)
readiness ranking
2008 (2005)                                            13
             Governance context
 Measure           Kenya               Morocco             Mauritius
National   • None                  • Exists              •?
governance • Governance                                  • Mandating
policy     addressed as part                             from Ministry
           of civil service/LG                           in charge of
           reform program                                civil service
                                                         reform
Devolution   • None – stuck with   • Great degree of     • Some degree
             constitution review   devolution but        of devolution
             • Power, resources    central ministries    implemented
             & decision making     exercise some
             centralized           control (financial,
                                   admin, …)
Local      • None                  • Exists but not      •?
governance • Governance            enforced
policy     enforced from
           central govt
                                                                   14
   ICT policy and strategy context
  Measure         Kenya         Morocco      Mauritius
National ICT • Exists         • Exists    • Exists,
policy                                    including UA
                                          policy
e-Govt       • Created after • Exists     • Exists
strategy     fin. system was
             operational
             • No ref. to LGs
Local govt   • None           • Exists?   • Exists
ICT strategy • One objective
             in MoLG SP
             refers to ICT
             (developed
             after system
             implemented)                            15
         Case study LGs’ context
  Measure         Kenya             Morocco              Mauritius
E-readiness of • Poor e-        • Low but created    • High e-readiness
LGs            readiness        as part of project   (although legacy
               • Average e-     (infra, training,    systems)
               readiness for    policy makers’       • Resistance to
               system created   awareness)           online payments
Champion-      • By MoLG        • None but e-      • LG management
ship           reform program   champions
               (KLGRP)          created as part of
                                project
ICT funding   • None but ad-    • Very low but       • High – ICT
              hoc budget        project provided     budgets exist
              allocated for     bulk of funding
              project
ICT structure • None            • Almost non-      • Exists – ICT unit
& HR capacity • System admin    existent but       with personnel
              provided by       created as part of
              accountant        the project                        16
4. e-Governance outcomes
                   Participation
• Kenya
  – No effect & not an objective
  – Observed increase in participation was due to the
    introduction of participative activity planning rather
    than due to the system
• Morocco
  – Increased active participation of citizens via
    kiosks/online service delivery
  – Increased citizens’ empowerment as they were not at
    the mercy of employees to get served
• Mauritius
  • Not measured

                                                             18
                    Effectiveness
• Kenya
  – Improved delivery of services to citizens
  – Reduced turnaround time from lodging payment request to
    citizens paying
• Morocco
  – Enhanced savings by citizens [less time (no waiting),
    money (one trip, no tip) and effort] in requesting and
    obtaining birth certificates
• Mauritius
  – Limited improvement of service delivery in terms of
    reduced average waiting time, reduced files
    complaints, increased innovative service provision
    and increased proactive communication
     • Poor system performance - old and slow system
     • Preference for visits to councils for service provision!!

                                                                   19
                       Transparency
• Kenya
  – Improved transparency in general and improved financial transparency of
    the councils
      • Payments were accompanied by receipts, there were clear procedures
        for issuance of business permits and there was modest increase in
        access to financial information
      • Made corruption very hard to get away with
• Morocco
  – Citizens have very easy access to procedures to follow in order to request
    and receive services; the procedures available online and conveyed in a
    language easy to read and understand by ordinary citizens
  – Easy for citizens to post comments, questions, and complaints with
    regard to service delivery; citizens need to receive feedback addressing
    their concerns
• Mauritius
  – Increased public access to information on revenue collection procedures
    and revenue rates
  – Increased transparency in handling money
  – Easier to trace records/payment details
                                                                           20
                        Equity
• Kenya
  – No effect since citizens could not interact with the
    system directly as focus was largely on e-admin.
• Morocco
  – System eliminated need for citizens to tip/bribe
  – All citizens were served on a timely and similar
    manner, regardless of their social class
• Mauritius
  – No disparity on access to information be it on a
    regional or gender basis
  – Increased disparity as the system discriminates
    between the educated and less-educated citizens,
    poor income earners and rich income earners and
    young and old citizens                                 21
5. Illustration of role of
         context
                                 Kenya
•  Financial system implementation was fairly successful even
   without an explicit e-government strategy at either the
   ministerial or local govt levels, without decentralization & with
   poor national readiness:
1. Multiple governance initiatives provided a favourable context
   for financial system project to succeed:
    – the policy initiatives contained in the budget speeches of 1997/1998 and
      1998/1999 - emphasized the importance of improving the performance
      of local govt sector
    – the report of the Commission of Inquiry of LGs in Kenya in 1995 and the
      concept paper on empowerment of LGs
    – the KLGRP focusing on improvements in financial accountability and
      transparency of LGs (via sys implementation)
    – the introduction of fiscal transfer through Local Authority Transfer Fund
      (LATF) to fund LGs
    – results-based management and associated performance contracting as
      part of public service reform
2. Conducive ICT context created by:
    – System implementation championship by KLGRP
    – Existence of funding from resource-endowed LGs                        23
                    Mauritius
• Despite the high level of readiness from global
  parameters, supportive national context and
  high state of local e-readiness, the effect of ICT
  on good governance was not as high as the
  other 2 countries because of:
  – a legacy system whose technical usefulness was in
    doubt
  – a legacy system which was out of alignment with the
    local context for impacts on good governance, e.g.
    system only available in English and via computers




                                                     24
                      Morocco
• Successful e-governance implementation
  because:
  – Enabling national context
  – Actively creating and sustaining a favourable
    local climate for e-governance
    implementation, including
    •   Sensitization of policy makers
    •   Creation of e-champions for the project
    •   Participation of key stakeholders
    •   Training of project stakeholders
    •   Implementation of appropriate ICTs

                                                  25
6. Conclusions/Implications
                             Practice
• E-governance implementation is complex and context is
  critical
   – Implementation can take long, e.g. in Kenya over 5 years
   – Technology is a very small component – context is critical
   – Implementers cannot be naïve – need multi-skilled managers
• Governance reform may not be a necessary condition or
  even a panacea for effective e-governance
  implementation, as many believe
   – What is important is to create an enabling national governance context,
     however that may be defined in the local environment
• High level of national readiness or the e-readiness of a
  govt institution may not be a pre-condition for an e-govt
  impacts on governance
   – Creating the e-readiness necessary for the project is more
     critical
• Creating an enabling governance and ICT context as an
  integral part of e-governance implementation increases
  successful implementation
   – Change management as a means of aligning e-governance
     context to an e-governance system is often hard                       27
                Research
• Need for multi-disciplinary research
  – Multi-disciplinary researchers teams
  – NOT one researcher borrowing concepts from
    many disciplines


• Need to develop integrated and context-
  rich conceptual and methodological
  frameworks for understanding/explaining
  the effects of ICTs on governance

                                            28
• E-governance (implementation) research is still
  “young” and needs to develop solid theoretical
  foundations, drawing on other disciplines, e.g.
  – Technology adoption (…. ICT adoption and use)
     • Technology adoption and use is influenced by factors
       at all levels from individual to national
  – Information systems, which itself borrows from other
    disciplines, esp. social sciences e.g.
     • Social informatics – IS as embedded in and inextricably linked to a
       rich local social-technical context  thus ICT effects on governance
       cannot be understood without this context
     • Structuration theory – applied in IS focuses on ICT
       interaction with existing structures (context) through human
       actions  these structures & human actions form a duality
     • Actor-network theory – deals with how actors shape ICT
       developments in a setting through their formation and
       reformation of networks based on common interests
  – Governance
  – Management, etc.
                                                                       29
Asante
 sana

				
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