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									University of Florida Police
       Department
      Chief Linda J. Stump
         Lt. Stacy Ettel
                     UFPD - 2007
   41,094     calls for service
   3,326      generated reports
   892        arrests
   58,500     point-to-point SNAP Escorts (approximately)
   705        RAD (Rape Aggression Defense Training)

   Personnel/Divisions
        - Criminal Investigations Division
        - Community Services Division
        - Training Division
        - Patrol Division
            -   11 CIT Officers (Crisis Intervention Team)
            - 12 CIRT Officers (Critical Incident Response Team)
    This Presentation Will Review
   Overview and Mission of UFPD
   Use of force guidelines for law
    enforcement officers in Florida
   Less than lethal response options available
    to officers at UFPD
   Application of guidelines
   Revisions to policy regarding Taser use
   Review/Enhancement of Protocol for event
    management
    Mission
   The mission of the University of Florida Police
    Department is to preserve a safe, secure campus
    environment where diverse social, cultural and
    academic values are allowed to develop and
    prosper through a combination of reactive,
    proactive and education law enforcement
    services.

    Vision
   The vision of the University of Florida Police
    Department is to be the national model in the
    field of campus law enforcement through the
    selection and development of the highest caliber
    personnel and by providing innovative police
    services.
                              Values
   Justice: All department members are committed to the
    administration of law and order based on the constitutional idea of
    justice for all where every citizen will be treated with dignity,
    fairness and respect.

   Professionalism: All department members will display attitudes,
    actions and behaviors that result in serving the highest interests of
    the campus community above their own.

   Trust: All department members will conduct themselves in a
    manner worthy of the confidence of the university community by
    exercising wisdom, compassion and commitment to honesty and
    justice.

   Service: As members of a law enforcement agency, we recognize
    that we are servants of the public. As such, we are duty bound to
    the highest level of community service in the protection of life and
    property.

   Integrity: All department members are expected to espouse the
    highest moral standards, always conducting themselves in a
    manner that is fair, ethical, legal and that portrays a sense of duty
    and honor.
     Statutory Guidelines
UFPD adheres to guidelines set forth by
       Florida State Statutes

Fla. Stat. § 776.05 Use of force to effect
              a lawful arrest

Fla. Stat. § 943.1717 Use of dart-firing
               stun guns
     UFPD Use of Force Training

   Police Academy Training           140 hours

   UFPD Training for New Hires        20 hours

   UFPD Annual In-Service Training    23 hours
   Florida Statute § 776.05
Law enforcement officers; use
 of force in making an arrest
A law enforcement officer . . . need not retreat or
desist from efforts to make a lawful arrest
because of resistance or threatened resistance to
the arrest. The officer is justified in the use of any
force:

(1) Which he or she reasonably believes to be
necessary to defend himself or herself or another
from bodily harm while making the arrest; …
  Florida Statute § 943.1717
  Use of dart-firing stun guns
1) A decision by a law enforcement officer .
. . to use a dart-firing stun gun must involve
an arrest or a custodial situation during
which the person who is the subject of the
arrest or custody escalates resistance to the
officer from passive physical resistance to
active physical resistance and the person:
(a) Has the apparent ability to physically
threaten the officer or others; or
(b) Is preparing or attempting to flee or
escape.
    FDLE                                               RECOMMENDED                                                                                                                            CJSTC

                          RESPONSE TO RESISTANCE MATRIX
R
     6 Aggravated Physical       √√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √                                                                                                                       √                    √
E
S
     5 Aggressive Physical       √           √         √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √                                                                                                    √
I
S
     4 Active Physical           √           √         √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √
T
A
     3 Passive Physical          √           √         √ √ √ √ √ √ √
N    2 Verbal                    √           √         √ √ √ √
C
E    1 Presence                  √√ √ √ √ √
                                 Arrival
                                           Stance
                                           Interview

                                                       Dialogue

                                                                  Direction
                                                                  Verbal

                                                                              Touch

                                                                                      Devices
                                                                                      Restraint

                                                                                                  Transporters


                                                                                                                 Take Downs

                                                                                                                              Compliance
                                                                                                                              Pain

                                                                                                                                           Counter Moves

                                                                                                                                                             Weapons
                                                                                                                                                             Intermediate



                                                                                                                                                                             Incapacitation




                                                                                                                                                                                                 Deadly Force
      Checked areas
L     represent authorized,
      acceptable, beginning
E     response levels. Any
      response in an
V     unchecked area
      requires explanation.
E     Refer to definitions for                                                                                                                             Intermediate Incapacitating Deadly Force
                                     Officer               Communication                          Physical Control
      each level of resistance
L     and response.
                                    Presence                                                                                                                 Weapons
                                                                                                                                                                           Control


                                           1                       2                                             3                                             4            5                    6
S

                                                                  RESPONSE LEVELS
          Resistance Definitions
1.   Presence - A subject is on the scene.

2.   Verbal - A subject verbally refuses to comply with your
     requests or tries to control the situation.

3.   Passive Physical – A subject makes no attempt to
     physically defeat your actions but forces you to use
     physical maneuvers to establish control.

4.   Active Physical - The subject may brace or tense himself or
     herself, try to push or pull away, or not let you come
     close.

5.   Aggressive Physical - A subject makes overt, hostile,
     attacking movements that may cause injury. However,
     they are not likely to cause death or great bodily harm to
     you or others.

6.   Aggravated Physical - A subject makes overt, hostile,
     attacking movements, with or without a weapon. The
     person has the intent and apparent ability to cause death
     or great bodily harm to you or others.
           Response Definitions
1.   Officer presence - Officer adopts a stance at a
     safe distance from the subject.

2.   Communication - Officer conducts a two-way,
     controlled, unemotional communication with the
     subject using verbal direction, and if necessary, a
     soft assisting touch to comfort, console, or gain a
     subject’s attention.

3.   Physical Control – Officer uses restraint devices
     (handcuffs), physical techniques used by the
     officer to control, move, and or take-down a
     subject, the infliction of controlled pain upon
     specific points of the subject’s body such as
     pressure points, and countermoves that impede a
     subject’s movement toward the officer or another
     person.
          Response Definitions
4.   Intermediate Weapons – Officer uses less
     than lethal weapons to control a subject.

5.   Incapacitating Control – Officer uses that
     level of force necessary to stun or render a
     subject temporarily unconscious or unable
     to continue to resist.

6.   Deadly Force – Officer uses a level of force
     that may result in death, great bodily harm,
     or permanent disfigurement, including
     strikes to the head with an impact weapon
     or use of a firearm.
      Resistance vs. Response
1.   Presence           1.   Officer Presence
2.   Verbal             2.   Communication
3.   Passive Physical   3.   Physical Control
4.   Active Physical    4.   Intermediate
                             Weapons
5.   Aggressive         5.   Incapacitating
     Physical                Control
6.   Aggravated         6.   Deadly Force
     Physical
   Historical Intermediate
  Response to aggression
  Prior to the Taser, intermediate tools
functioned by causing pain or temporary
  destructive injury (ie. Baton, Pepper
 Spray, etc.). The intention was that the
  pain or the bodily injury will dissuade
     the subject from continuing an
      unwanted behavior and elicit
               cooperation.
         UFPD Less than Lethal
           Response Options

   Hand to Hand Defensive Tactics

   Intermediate tools:
    • Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Spray
    • Expandable Baton
    • X26 and M26 TASER
Hand to Hand Defensive Tactics
   Officer and subject must be in close
    proximity.
   Tactics rely on pain compliance, joint
    manipulation, and stunning strikes.
   Effectiveness of tactics are dependent on
    officer and subject size comparison and
    physical ability and training of both.
   Officers and subjects have increased
    likelihood to injury during struggle.
Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Spray

 • Effective range 3-10 feet.
 • Must get into subject’s eyes to be
   effective.
 • Relies on pain compliance and
   temporary blinding of the subject.
 • Pain lasts 45 minutes or more.
 • Likelihood of unintentional
   contamination of others.
 • Can be defeated by subject mindset.
          Expandable Baton
   UFPD deploys a 25 inch Monadnock
    Steel Expandable Baton.
   Must be in close proximity of subject.
   Relies on pain compliance or
    incapacitation.
   Will cause soft tissue injury.
   Can cause broken bones and can be
    used as a lethal force option.
          TASER – Dart Firing
   Relies on Neuromuscular Incapacitation (NMI)
    of a subject’s sensory and motor nerves.
   Effective range is 0 to 21 feet.
   Cannot be defeated by subject pain tolerance
    or mindset.
   Cycle lasts 5 seconds per deployment and can
    be deployed multiple times if necessary.
   Subject recovery is almost instantaneous.
   Most common injuries include abrasions or
    bruises from falling after incapacitation.
TASER - Drive Stun/Pain Compliance
   Utilized in close proximity with suspect.
   Can be done with or without the dart firing
    cartridge (in a secondary capacity).
   Often used in struggle to secure suspect in
    handcuffs or to stop an attack.
   Injuries can include small superficial burns
    from contact points.
   UFPD Taser Policy
  The Taser may be used to control a
   dangerous or violent subject when
deadly physical force does not appear to
  be justified and/or necessary and to
prevent a subject from harming himself
                or herself.
       History of Taser Use by UFPD
            Officers Past 6 years
   Total times deployed – 20 (7 students/13 non-students)
    Using darts – 6/20 (2 students (suicide attempts/both w/weapons))
    Using Drive Stun – 14/20 (5 students/9 non-students)
   Subject Actively Resisting – 15/20
   Subject Fighting – 8/20
   Weapons – 3/20 (3 students)
   Subject Suicidal – 2/20 (with knife, both students)
   Subject under influence of drugs/alcohol – 12/20 (3 students)
   Subject exhibited signs of Excited Delirium – 1/20
   Injuries - 0/20
UFPD Taser Incidents Synopsis
  There have been 20 Taser discharges by UFPD officers since Tasers
                were first issued in 2001 until now.

                                                                  UF Students
                                 METHOD                  MONTH, DAY, AND YEAR OF TASER INCIDENT                                       TOTALS
                             Drive Stun                                          8/27/05       6/21/07   8/11/07   9/17/07 10/21/07       5
                             Darts Fired             11/7/01         2/22/04                                                              2
                                                FACTORS DOCUMENTED FOR TASER INCIDENT
                             Active Restance                                       X             X           X       X         X          5
                             Fighting                                                            X           X                            2
                             Suicidal                  X                 X                                                                2
                             Drugs                                                                                                        0
                             Alcohol                                                             X           X                 X          3
                             Exited Delerium                                                                                              0
                             Weapon                    X                 X                                                     X          3
                             Injuries                                                                                                     0



                                                            Non-Students
    METHOD                                          MONTH, DAY, AND YEAR OF TASER INCIDENT                                                                                  TOTALS
Drive Stun        11/17/01              10/10/04   2/4/05      6/12/05   4/9/06        5/30/06       10/17/06                                 12/3/06   1/18/07                9

Darts Fired                    8/2/04                                                                               10/21/06       10/29/06                       8/18/07     4
                                           FACTORS DOCUMENTED FOR TASER INCIDENT
Active Restance      X                      X           X           X       X                                            X            X         X         X         X         10
Fighting             X           X                X           X             X                                                         X                                        6
Suicidal                                                                                                                                                                       0
Drugs                                                                                      X                                                    X                              2
Alcohol              X                      X                    X           X             X                             X                      X                              7
Exited Delerium                                                                                          X                                                                     1
Weapon                                                                                                                                                                         0
Injuries                                                                                                                                                                       0
    12,000 Departments
   Including 256 Campus
Law Enforcement Departments
   Deploy 287,000 Tasers
         Nationwide
       Major University Police Departments
              that Deploy the Taser
   Arizona State Univ. (1997)                 Univ. of California, Irvine
   Ball State Univ.                           Univ. of California, LA
   California State Univ. (2001)              Univ. of California, San Diego
   Colorado State Univ.                       Univ. of Colorado
   Duke Univ.                                 Univ. of Florida (1996)
   Indiana Univ.                              Univ. of Illinois, Champaign
   Iowa State Univ. (1998)                    Univ. of Iowa
   Michigan State Univ.                       Univ. of Minnesota
   New Mexico Univ.                           Univ. of North Carolina (1995)
   North Carolina State                       Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas
    Univ.(2004)                                Univ. of Oklahoma
   Ohio State Univ.                           Univ. of South Carolina (1996)
   Purdue Univ. (Process)                     Univ. of Tennessee
   San Diego State Univ.                      Univ. of Texas, Austin (2007)
   Southern Illinois Univ.                    Univ. of Washington (2005)
   Univ. of Arizona (1993)                    Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison
   Univ. of California, Davis

                     *Association of American Universities
    Florida University Police Departments
            that deploy the Taser
   Florida Atlantic University
   Florida Gulf Coast University
   Florida State University (CFA 2002)
   University of Central Florida
   University of Florida (CALEA 1996;CFA 1997)
   University of Miami
   University of West Florida
 UFPD position on the viability of
            Tasers

 The Taser, when used according to
FDLE guidelines, Florida Statutes and
 UFPD policy, is a safe and effective
 option that minimizes the possibility
   of injury or death to all involved
    when the use of intermediate
         weapons is warranted.
       Pre-Event Planning
Established formal training for:
• UFPD employees
• Event staff
• Sponsoring organizations staff
• Dean’s office staff

Emphasis on planning meetings:
- All groups involved must meet prior to events

On-site roll call training:
- Staff assignments
- Building logistics
- Direct communication with facility staff
           Review/Enhancement of Protocol
                for event management
                          Arrest for disruption

    UFPD                  Escort out
                          Remind Event leader of opportunities to end event
                          Request leave
                          Give warning
                          Request compliance with event rules



UF Administration         Request Law Enforcement intervention
(Office of the Dean of    End presentation
Students, Moderator)      Give warning
                          Request compliance



Ushers/Supervisors        Request compliance with established rules
(students, event staff)   Remind/warn of rules



                                             options

								
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