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					Innovation Management
(ISMT 302)
Week # 2



    Instructor:   J. Christopher Westland, Professor, ISMT
    Time:
    Tue & Thu 1:30pm-2:50pmVenue: Rm. 4333Duration: 5 Sep – 7 Dec

    Text.
    McGrath & MacMillan, The Entrepreneurial Mindset, HBS Press 2000

    Contact:
    Office: 852 2358 7643          Fax: 852 2358 2421
    Email: westland@ust.hk         URL: http://teaching.ust.hk/~ismt302/
The Innovator’s Challenge
   A firm makes profits
           by offering products or services
           at a lower cost than is competitors
       Or
           by offering differentiated products
           at premium prices
           that more than compensate for the extra cost of
            differentiation
                                            Who?
                                   w?
                                 Ho
                                                          ?
                                                      What
Two Questions                              Why?




                                  W




                                                   W
                                   he




                                                    he
                                     re
                                       ?




                                                      n?
     How do low-cost and differentiated
      products come about?

     Why is it that some firms can offer
      them better than others?
  The Innovator’s Value Map
               Nature of innovation:               Competences:
               Incremental, radical                      Ability to design
                 architectural                          engines, integrate
               Complexity, tacitness               different functions, build
               Life cycle phase                      logistics, market new
                                                       ideas, manufacture
Environment:
 Competitive
 Macro                                                                          Value:

Internals:                                                                      from low-cost,
 Strategy                                                                       differentiated products
                                       Knowledge
Structure
Systems
People

               Nature of innovation:                 Assets:
               Incremental, radical                       Size, patents,
                 architectural                        copyrights, location,
               Complexity, tacitness                    skilled scientists,
               Life cycle phase                       reputation, sponsor,
                                                             licenses
Elements of Product Innovation
                                                       Innovation
                  New Product:

                Low cost                                                                                           Core Competences:
                Improved qualities                                                                                 Assessment & Investment
                New qualities




                                                              Commercial Opportunities
                                                      Ideas
                                         Inventi
                                                ons
                                                                                                       Adaptive
                  Competences                                                            Opportunity
                                                                                                       Execution
                                                                                          Register
                     and
                    Assets




                                                                                                                   Market Entrance &
                                                                                                                   Competitive Strategy

    New                              New Market
Technological                        Knowledge
 knowledge
Sources of Innovation
   How innovation arises
       Functional:
           Innovations arise from thinking about the functional relationships between
            groups and individuals
               e.g., customer or manufacturer
           Attribute Maps and Quizzing help identify Innovations arising functional
            relationships

       Circumstantial:
           Innovations arise from thinking about the circumstances in which a product
            (innovation) will be encountered
               e.g., a cooking innovation when it is consumed in a restaurant
           Consumption Chain Analysis helps identify circumstantial Innovations

   Where innovations arise
           Internal R&D
           External Markets (Customers)
           Competitors & related industries
           University, government & private labs
           Other nations / regions
The last two sources are strongly influenced by society and governments
What sort of people are Innovators?

    Idea Generators
          Can sift through large quantities of technological and market data to
           identify ‘innovations’
    Gatekeepers & Boundary Spanners
          Conduits for knowledge from other firms and labs
    Champions (Entrepreneurs, Evangelists)
          Sell the innovation to the firm
    Sponsors (Coach, Mentor)
          Senior level manager who provides behind the scenes support, access
           to resources, and protection from political foes
    Project Managers
          Planners with discipline; one-stop decision making shop
Science & Technology
What are they? How are they related?
                Influence / feedback




                                        Verbally Encoded
  Verbally                              Information
  Encoded               Science          *publications
  Information                            *patents




 Verbally                               Physically & Verbally Encoded
 Encoded             Technology         Information
 Information                             *products & services
                                         *documentatiom
                                         *publications
                                         *patents

                 Influence / feedback
An Example of a Successful Business Model

            Mad Catz, Inc.

          From Global Electronic Commerce
                         (Westland & Clark)
Mad Catz’s Products
   Controllers, Joysticks, memory chips, cables,
    power supplies, etc.
       Anything you could add onto a game console


   Question: How do you make money on this
    market?
                                                                                             cycle: 2 weeks
Mad Catz’ Value                             Packaging Mtl
                                                                                                    Package

Map                                                                                                 Design,
                                                                                                    Graphics


                                                                                             10% of Costs, in house




                                                                                                       50% of Demand Value
                                  60% of Cost, outsourced
       HW Vendors Specs
                                      Electronics
                                                                                                                                    Retailers
                                        Design
                                                                                                                                  (Toys 'R Us;
                                        (cycle:
                                                                                                                                   Wal-Mart)




                                                                                                                                    st
                                                                                                                                  co
                                                                                                                              0%
       Electronic Parts




                                                                                                                             10
                                       Electronics
                                          Build             25% of Demand
                                                                          Value                     Assembly,
                                                                                                  Packaging and
                                                                                                     Shipping
                                                                                                 10% of costs, in
                                cycle: 4-6 months                                                house for quality
                                                                                                      control
                                                                                         e
                                                                                       lu                        cycle: 1 week
                                                                                   d Va
        Plastic Parts                                                            an
                                                                              Dem
                                                                           of
                                                                       %
                                                                     25


                              Plastic Design:
                                   Main                       Plastics
                               component of                   Molding
                              human interface
      10% of Costs


                          cycle: 3:months                   20% of Costs, outsourced
Points to Note
about Mad Catz’s Business Model

   Sources of costs and revenues are different
   Cycle time influences revenue
   The product is 100% ‘human interface’
         Visual
         Mental
         Tactile
   Their market is driven by other vendors
     What does this imply about market and growth strategies

   Many components of this case are typical of Pearl River Delta
    companies
Worldwide video game
industry
Mad Catz’s Future Market Potential

     Revenues of $25 billion last year
       overtook movie box-office receipts

     Sales are expected to climb to $55 billion by 2008



     While broadcast TV audiences dwindle and moviegoing
      stagnates,
       gaming is emerging as the newest and perhaps strongest
         pillar of the media world.
    Videogame Economics
   Costs for developing games are going sky-high.
     Five years ago, it cost about $3 million to develop a high-end game;
     now it's $20 million as games become more complex and require more
      artists and programmers.

   Microsoft spent $40 million to create and market Halo 2;
     around $160 million for Halo 3
     Vs. $80 million average cost of a Hollywood movie,
         but it prices most small and midsize game makers out of the top of the
          market.
         The top five game developers last year accounted for 56% of the industry's
          more than $10.5 billion in U.S. sales (around $40 billion worldwide)
    Economics;
   Only 5% of all games reaching the 1 million "hit" mark,
   It's vital for game makers to build up a portfolio of winning
    franchises
   EA has Madden and Sims, NASCAR, James Bond, and the
    Medal of Honor shooter series
        totaling 27 game titles last year that sold more than 1 million
        copies.

       It found out early on that sports fans are willing to plunk down
        $50 every year for essentially the same game but with updated
        team rosters.
Deals
   EA on Jan. 18 spent $800 million
       to lock up ESPN content such as X-Game sports
        competition
       for use in games for the next 15 years

    Microsoft is producing the movie version of its Halo
    video games,
       which have raked in $1 billion since 2001,
       rather than handing the job to a studio

   Sony and Nintendo are racing to be out with new
    consoles by Christmas 2006
       Microsoft beat them by one year
Market Trends
   These days
     more adults play games than kids
     and 39% of gamers are women


   On Web sites such as Microsoft's Xbox Live
     2.4 million hard-core gamers match up their reflexes in multiplayer
      shoot-'em-up games

   China and South Korea are packing Internet cafés to play online
    games for as little as pennies per minute

   The tiny screen is grabbing attention,
     as cell-phone titles take gaming anytime, anywhere.
     By 2008, the markets for online and mobile-phone gaming are
      expected to top $15 billion and $13 billion, respectively
        Market Trends
        There's money to be made in new ways

   eBay runs multi million dollar markets in games weapons and characters

   Sony and Shanda (China) are introducing their own eBay style markets for
    game weapons, characters, and services
        Especially big in China are the rental of services for professional game players

   With game demographics trending older
        advertisers are getting their messages across through
            product placements,
            billboards within games, and
            sponsorships

   The ad angle is so promising that Nielsen Entertainment is setting up a new
    service for tracking gamers' likes and dislikes.
Games and the 18-34 Male
   Games are siphoning off TV and Hollywood’s best customers:
    18- to 34-year-old males.

   Madden is a game, not a football coach.

   Payoff goes straight to the game makers:
       These days, the studios' operating profit margins average just
        10%,
       while game makers average 15% and the best reap as much as
        25%.
       When studios license a movie to a game maker, they typically get
        $3 million to $5 million up front against about 9% of the take.
Payoffs and Threats
    The real payoff for Sony comes in game software sales.
        Microsoft, Nintendo and Sony sell their hardware for a loss
          they typically make $5 to $10 in royalties for every game
           sold on their platform.
          PS2 has had more than 2,000 software titles, with more
           than 775 million total game copies sold.

    Sony's game business has for years propped up its consumer-
     electronics division, which accounts for two-thirds of the company's
     profits.


    Market shares (subject to change):
        Sony ~50%
        Microsoft ~30%
        Nintendo ~20%
Back to Mad Catz
   By outsourcing much of its production, and coordinating the
    entire production process
     Mad Catz Controlled its profitability by being a Value Chain
       Integrator

   It was looking for new opportunities to
     Control costs

       Speed up time to market
       Improve quality

   By innovations in both logistics and information networks
Mad Catz: Take Aways
       Look for cost – revenue spreads in the Business
        Model
         Cut costs where revenues are small
         Spend more if you can influence revenues with small
          additional cost


       Cycle time influences revenue
         Look for possibilities for ‘Geographical Scaling’
         Through improvements in Information and Logistics
          networks
Mad Catz:
Take Aways



   Market is driven by other vendors (not by your
    decisions)
       Bet that Sony and Microsoft will be leaders, and
        pander to them
       Consider game specific software for powerful
        software companies like EA
         E.g., branded controllers
Mad Catz: Take Aways
   Because the product is 100% ‘human
    interface’
       Consider the costs and benefits of professional
        industrial design


   What is Industrial Design?
Why Business
Models Matter

   “During the dot-com boom, ‘Business
       Model’ was a buzzword routinely
    invoked to glorify all manner of half-
                             baked plans”
                         -- Michael Lewis
Why Business Models Matter

   Telling a good story
       Part of selling your strategy / investment
   Tying Narrative to Numbers
       Strategy becomes less philosophy
       More performance and outcome
   When business models don’t work
   It’s because the fail either
       The ‘Narrative’ test
       Or the ‘Story’ test
          A business model is not
          strategy                                                    a to
                                                                     F c ry




    It doesn’t describe external forces:




                                                             igns





                                                          Des

                                                                      Production
     Competition
                                            ao
                                           Lb r  Wrk
                                                  o     R D
                                                         &                                      u m rs
                                                                                               C sto e

     Environment
                                                                                        ting




                                                           Ne
     Scaling                                                                       arke




                                                             eds
                                                                                   M

   It only depicts the systems that will be put into place            u mr
                                                                     C sto e
                                                                     e tio sh
                                                                    R la n ip

    to achieve a strategic objective
                                                                     aae et
                                                                    Mn g m n




   A good model is not enough
     The boxes on the value map need to be
       understood in depth
     In order to develop a good strategy
Graphing the Value Map

                                                                    External competitive environment
               E n v ir o n m e n t
                                                                     (supply & demand curves)

                                                                    Internal strategies, competencies,
                                                                     knowledge, assets ‘owned’

      S tr a te g y - O w n e r
                                                                    Value flows between owners and/or
                                                        c.
                                                             )       the external environment
                                                   et
                                                e,
                                             nu
                                        e ve
                                     ,r
                              o   st
                         (c
                    ow
               Fl
          ue
     al
 V
  Mad Catz is an example of
  A Network Business Models
                                                                  Taxonomy of
Self-                                                              Network Business
Organizing
                   Agora                          Alliance         Models


                               Distributive
    Control                     Network



               Aggregation                       Value Chain

Hierarchical


             Low             value integration         High
                                                 Business Models
                                                 Value Chain Integrator
                                                 Uses both Electronic and Logistic Networks
Self-
Organizing
                   Agora                           Alliance



                               Distributive
    Control                     Network



               Aggregation                        Value Chain

Hierarchical


             Low             value integration          High




                                                                                   Integrator




                                                              Producers
                                                                                                Customers
                Business Models
                Aggregator (e-Tailor)
Self-
Organizing
                   Agora                          Alliance
                                                                                               Cust
                               Distributive
                                                               Producer                        omer
    Control                     Network



               Aggregation                       Value Chain

Hierarchical


             Low             value integration         High

                                                                           Aggregator
                                                                                               Cust
                                                                Producer                       omer




                                                                                        Cust
                                                                                        omer
                                                                Producer
Business Models                                                                Self-
                                                                               Organizing
                                                                                                  Agora                          Alliance



Distributive Net, Agora &                                                           Control
                                                                                                              Distributive
                                                                                                               Network




Alliance                                                                       Hierarchical
                                                                                              Aggregation                       Value Chain




                                                                                            Low             value integration         High




                       Seller
           Buyer

                                             Buyer
                                                                            Prosu
                                                                            mer                Prosu
                   Price Discovery                                                             mer
  Seller             Mechanism
                                                 Buyer


           Buyer                                                            Prosu
                                        Seller                              mer                                Prosu
                                     Customers
                        Seller                                  Producers                                      mer


                                                                              Value Space


                                         Distributive Network




                     Producers                          Customers
 What is the “Strategy” in
    Innovation Strategy?
Business Model vs. Strategies
Business Models

   Telling a good story
       Part of selling your strategy / investment
   Tying Narrative to Numbers
       Strategy becomes less philosophy
       More performance and outcome
   When business models don’t work
   It’s because the fail either
       The ‘Narrative’ test
       Or the ‘Story’ test
            Evolution of ‘Strategy’
                    Outcomes
                                                                    egy
                                                       ilitary Strat
                           Profit-maximizing
                                           Classical M

                                                       Evolutionary
              Classical



                               9 0s
                          19             19




                                                                      1980 s
rocesses
                                              70
                                                   s                           Emergent
eliberate




            Systemic                                    Processual




                                      Plural
     Outcomes and Processes
     Differing perspectives on Strategy


           Profit-maximizing

                               CLASSICAL          EVOLUTIONARY
Outcomes




                               SYSTEMIC            PROCESSUAL

              Pluralistic

                                Deliberate               Emergent
                                             Processes
Classical Perspective on Strategy
Inside the Firm (Operations)
 Information              Manager                Action                   Inputs   Outputs    Objectives




  Environmental
   Competitive                                                      Manpow er
                                                  Plan                             Quantity   Profitability
Internal Financial                                                    Money
                                                Organize                           Quality    Efficiency
     Internal                                                       Machines
                                                Actuate                             Cost       Grow th
  Non-financial                                                      Methods
                                                 Control                            Time       Survival
                                                                     Materials




                     Information System

                               Information Systems
                                          Information System

                                                     Information System
Porter Perspective on Strategy
Outside the Firm (Markets)
                                            Who?
                                   w?
                                 Ho
                                                          ?
                                                      What
Two Questions                              Why?




                                  W




                                                   W
                                   he




                                                    he
                                     re
                                       ?




                                                      n?
     How do low-cost and differentiated
      products come about?

     Why is it that some firms can offer
      them better than others?
Capabilities
   A firm’s assets and competences together
       Make up its capabilities

   For example,
       Intel
           Capabilities = integrated circuit design & semiconductor
            manufacturing
           Assets = patents, copyrights, installed base of PC’s (Intel
            inside), reputation, scientific expertise
           Competences = protection of intellectual property, fast
            product time to market, compatibility of new products with
            prior genrations
The Value Map
   Firms create that deliver low-cost or differentiated
    products
       By performing the activities
       Of their value configuration
               (i.e., value chain, value network, value shop, profit chain)


   To perform these activities
       A firm needs resources (assets):

           Manpower, money, machines, methods, materials

           Plants, equipment, patents, scientists, brand name
            recognition, geographic location, client relations, distribution
            channels, trade secrets
    Value Map = The Resource Based View of Strategy




                                                         Owner of
    Environment's                                        Strategy
                                                                                                         Environment's Demand
Resource Supply Curve         Value                   (R-P-V Source                       Value
                                                                                                          Curve & Constraints
    & Constraints             Flow                    of Competitive                      Flow
                        {valuet , volumet}              Advantage)                  {valuet , volumet}




                                                    Value Added by Strategy
                                             (difference between two value flows)
Definition: ‘Innovation’

   An ‘Innovation’ is:
       Invention + Commercialization
           Freeman, The Economics of Industrial Innovation
       A new way of doing things that is commecialized
           Porter
   The new knowledge in an innovation can be
    either
       Technological, or
       Market related
Elements
                               New Product:
of Product
                             Low cost
Innovation                   Improved qualities
                             New qualities




                               Competences
                                  and
                                 Assets




                 New                              New Market
             Technological                         Knowledge
              knowledge
Markets:
“The Purpose of a Business is to Create a Customer”
(Peter Drucker)

   Even if you create marvelous inventions
       Your customers won’t care
       Unless that is exactly what they need

   Business customers are especially impatient
       With any product that doesn’t help them gain competitive
        advantage

   Yet your firm wants to build products that take
    advantage
       Of their Core Competences
Framing the Challenge
   Task #1: Establish what your business needs
    to do to make innovation worthwhile

   What do we mean by ‘needs to do’?
   What do we mean by ‘worthwhile’?

   This is what will drive the Business Model
Facts of Life

   There is no checklist!

   Incremental improvement of existing products or
    business models is insufficient!
       You must really make a difference


   Will your efforts yield a good return for your
    shareholders?
       Exactly how?
    Targets and Goals
   If I were to do something in the next 3-5 years
       That I, my boss and my company’s investors would regard as a major win
       What would this performance record have to look like?

   If I were to do something in the next 3-5 years
       That my customers would regard as a major (disruptive) innovation
       How would I change their lives?

   How would my relation with customers affect my performance?


   Are the motivations in Hong Kong different than elsewhere?
What Drives your Strategy?
   What’s your Strategy Driver?
   What makes your proposed business perform?
   What makes your proposed innovation a commercial
    success?



                                    e o ne
                                    r m
                                  P f r ac
          n er er l
           t e i
          E r p nua
                        rvs
                         i
                        De     c so e , net r
                                      r     s
                               ( ut ms i vso ,
             cv
              t t
            Ai iy
                                      t )
                                       c
                                      e.
 Reality Check
      Your text suggests a simplistic (but revealing) reality check
             For any new business idea
                   (click for the spreadsheet)


                                                                            Projections                      Goals
                                     Innovation Year +1        +2       +3        +4        +5     +6
Profits                                            200 220.00 242.00 266.20 292.82 322.10 354.31 10% annual increase
Return on Sales                                   10%      10%      10%      10%        10%    10%      10%
Return on Assets                                  15%      15%      15%      15%        15%    15%      15%
Assets                                            1333 1466.667 1613.333 1774.667 1952.133 2147.347 2362.081
New asset investment at current utilization              133.67 280.33 441.67 619.13 814.35 1029.08
Sales                                             2000 2200 2420 2662 2928.2 3221.02 3543.122
New Sales                                                200.00 420.00 662.00 928.20 1221.02 1543.12
Lucent’s Performance Targets
   Carly Fiorina set the following targets prior to
    Lucent’s IPO:
       Sales from 1% growth to the high teens
       R&D from 8% to 11% if Sales
       Reduce SGA from 27% to 19%
       Reduce tax rate 4% points
       Lift
       ROA from 0% to 1%


   What are the Strategy Drivers?
Business
Models

Each of these
companies
looks at their
problems in a
new way
The Opportunity ‘Register’
   Concept: Always keep an inventory of possible
    opportunities so that you are unlikely to run out of
    ideas for making the next competitive move or
    capturing the next prospect for growth

   Fields:
     1.   Business concept
     2.   Relevant trends
     3.   Key industry data
     4.   Obstacles and barriers
     5.   Company position
     6.   Competition and Substitutes
     7.   Sources for your information
     8.   What type of opportunity is this?
     9.   Timing of proposed actions
                   Practicum:
          Slice and Dice

 Discovering the Attributes of a
            Product or Service

Innovation and Improvement by
Slicing and Dicing the Attributes
An Example of a Successful Business Model

          Mad Catz, Inc.
Mad Catz’s Products
   Controllers, Joysticks, memory chips, cables,
    power supplies, etc.
       Anything you could add onto a game console


   Question: How do you make money on this
    market?
                                                                                              cycle: 2 weeks
Mad Catz’ Value                              Packaging Mtl
                                                                                                     Package

Map                                                                                                  Design,
                                                                                                     Graphics


                                                                                              10% of Costs, in house




                                                                                                        50% of Demand Value
                                   60% of Cost, outsourced
        HW Vendors Specs
                                       Electronics
                                                                                                                                   Retailers
                                         Design
                                                                                                                                 (Toys 'R Us;
                                         (cycle:
                                                                                                                                  Wal-Mart)




                                                                                                                                   st
                                                                                                                                 co
                                                                                                                                0%
       Electronic Parts




                                                                                                                              10
                                        Electronics
                                           Build             25% of Demand V
                                                                            alue                     Assembly,
                                                                                                   Packaging and
                                                                                                      Shipping
                                                                                                  10% of costs, in
                                cycle: 4-6 months                                                 house for quality
                                                                                                       control
                                                                                        lue                      cycle: 1 week
                                                                                    d Va
         Plastic Parts                                                            an
                                                                               Dem
                                                                            of
                                                                        %
                                                                      25


                               Plastic Design:
                                    Main                       Plastics
                                component of                   Molding
                               human interface
       10% of Costs


                           cycle: 3:months                   20% of Costs, outsourced
Points to Note
about Mad Catz’s Business Model


   Sources of costs and revenues are different
   Cycle time influences revenue
   The product is 100% ‘human interface’
           Visual
           Mental
           Tactile
   Their market is driven by other vendors
       What does this imply about market and growth
        strategies
   Many components of this case are typical of
Worldwide video game
industry
Mad Catz’s Future Market Potential


     Revenues of $25 billion last year
         overtook movie box-office receipts
     Sales are expected to climb to $55 billion
      by 2008



     While broadcast TV audiences dwindle
      and moviegoing stagnates,
         gaming is emerging as the newest and
          perhaps strongest pillar of the media world.
Market Trends
There's money to be made in new ways

   In China, online leader Shanda Interactive Entertainment Ltd. is
    building an eBay-like marketplace
       to let players buy and sell game characters
       or new colors for that favorite Ferrari racing vehicle -- with Shanda taking a
        cut

   With game demographics trending older
       advertisers are getting their messages across through
           product placements,
           billboards within games, and
           sponsorships
   And even hiring developers to build "advergames“
        LG Electronics of Seoul has sponsored an online car-chase game in which
          players use an LG videophone as they zoom after bad guys modeled on
          Fox's 24 TV show

   The ad angle is so promising that Nielsen Entertainment is setting up a
    new service for tracking gamers' likes and dislikes.
Factors in Mad Catz’s markets
   By outsourcing much of its production, and
    coordinating the entire production process
       Mad Catz Controlled its profitability by being a Value
        Chain Integrator


   It was looking for new opportunities to
       Control costs
       Speed up time to market
       Improve quality

   By innovations in both logistics and information
    networks
Mad Catz




   Market is driven by other vendors (not by your
    decisions)
       Bet that Sony and Microsoft will be leaders, and
        pander to them
       Consider game specific software for powerful
        software companies like EA
Mad Catz
   Because the product is 100% ‘human
    interface’
       Consider the costs and benefits of professional
        industrial design


   What is Industrial Design?
                 Prac·ti·cum (prăk-tĭ-kəm) noun
                 Lessons in a specialized field of study designed to give
                 practical application of theory

Topic                                          Practicum

Business Needs: Framing the Challenge          False Faces (perceptual reversals)

Building Blockbuster Innovations               Slice and Dice (Attribute Maps pp. 24-35)

Redifferentiating: New Technology / New Uses   Think Bubbles (Quizzing; customers’ experiential context pp. 50-56)

Building Breakthrough Competences              The Idea Box (morphological box)

Selecting Your Competitive Terrain             Hall of Fame (forced connection)

Assembling Your Opportunity Portfolio          Cherry Split (fractionation)

Executing Your Entrance Strategy               Tug-of-War (force-field analysis)

Managing Under Uncertainty                     Future Fruit (rationalizing future uncertainty)
Assumption Reversals
(False Faces)

   Which line is longer, AB or CD?



   Which guy is taller?
Which way is up?
Think outside the box

   Connect all the dots with 3 lines
BLUEPRINT
   State your challenge.
   List your assumptions.
   Challenge your fundamental assumptions.
   Reverse each assumption. Write down the opposite
    of each one.
   Record differing viewpoints that might prove useful
    to you.
   Ask yourself how to accomplish each reversal. List
    as many useful viewpoints and ideas as you can.
Benefits / Objectives
        Assumption reversal enables you to:
    1.     Escape from looking at a challenge in the traditional way.

    2.     Free up information so that it can come together in new ways.

    3.     Think provocatively. You can take a novel position and then work
           out its implications.

    4.     Look for a breakthrough.

        Assumption reversal helps your imagination escape daily
         circumstance, as a bough that has been held down suddenly
         straightens itself out.

				
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