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Pediatric Hematologic Disorders and Cancer (PowerPoint)

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Pediatric Hematologic Disorders and Cancer (PowerPoint) Powered By Docstoc
					                 Presented by
Marlene Meador RN, MSN, CNE
Hematologic System
Adult                            Pedi
 Life cycle of RBC- 120 days     Life cycle of RBC- 100 days
 Cell production- marrow and        (neonate)
  spleen                            Cell production- red bone
 RBC’s= 4.1 to 4.9 million/ml       marrow (infant)
 Hemoglobin=                       #RBC’s= 5million/ml at birth
 Hematocrit=                       Hemoglobin= 17-18 g
                                    Hematocrit= 45-50%
Iron Deficiency Anemia
 Cause
 Signs and symptoms
 Diagnostic tests
 Nursing interventions
   Oral supplements- What significant side
    effects does the nurse need to remember?
   Dietary teaching- what specific foods?
What Parents Want to Know:                                    (p 1281)

 Specific foods: (based on age of child)
    Cream of wheat or iron fortified cereal
    Apricots, prunes, raisins and other dried fruits
    Egg yolks
    Dark green leafy vegetables
 Administration of Iron Supplements:
    Give with vitamin C –rich fluids
    Prevent staining from liquid iron supplements
    Changes in stool patterns
    Avoid mixing supplement with food/drink containing calcium
Sickle Cell disease
 Sickle cell trait- genetic disorders characterized
 by production of elongated, crescent shaped
 erythrocyte in the place of normal Hbg p 1282-
 1283

   Precipitating factors (p 1284)
   Signs and symptoms
Three Forms of Sickle Cell Crisis
Vaso-occlusive
Acute sequestration
Aplastic
Types of Sickle Cell Crisis
 Vaso-occlusive- most common effects
    Pain
    Hand and foot syndrome (dactylitis)
    CVA- hemiplegia, aphasia, seizures, LOC changes, vision
     changes, and headache
    Acute chest syndrome- chest pain, fever cough (leading
     cause of death in SCD)
    Priapism
    Hepatomegaly
    Hematuria
Types of Sickle Cell Crisis
 Aplastic Crisis:
    Decreased RBC production- S&S malaise,
     headache, pallor, lethargy, and fainting
     (precipitated by infection)
 Splenic sequestration- life threatening S&S pallor,
  irritability, tachycardia, hypovolemic shock
 Hyperhemolytic crisis- (not in text)- RBC’s destroyed
  more rapidly than usual (immature cells)
Quick Review:
 What is most common reason for admission to
  the ED for a child with SCD?
 What precipitates a sickle cell crisis?
 How does sickling effect the life span of an
  RBC?
 what organs experience complications as a
  result of chronic sickling crisis?
Diagnosis & Treatment
Cord blood testing if one parent is
 known to carry trait
Blood transfusions
  Complications
  Nursing interventions before/during/after
Treatment
Patient/family teaching
Medications
Immunizations- why
 important?
Clinical Judgment:
 Why are blood transfusions ordered for
  the patient in sickle cell crisis?
 Can a neonate have a diagnosis of sickle
  cell disease?
 What ethical issues relate to this
  diagnosis?
Hemophilia (p 1291)
 X-linked trait
What factor is missing or defective?
                   Factor VIII
 Who is the carrier, and who is effected by
 this disorder?
Diagnosis & Treatment
When does diagnosis most
 commonly occur?
  What specific laboratory tests and
   values?
What are signs & symptoms?
Nursing Care:
 Factor VIII- when should the patient
  receive this medication?
 What does the family need to know
  about factor VIII?
 Human plasma
 Vasopressin (DDAVP)
Nursing Care cont…
 What is the primary nursing goal for a patient
  with hemophilia?
    Prevent or stop bleeding
 What are specific interventions to achieve this
  goal?
    Administer Factor VIII
    Apply local pressure for 10-15 minutes
    Elevate the joint and immobilize
    Apply cold compresses
Complications of hemophilia
 Hemarthrosis- assess child for joint pain,
 edema, or permanent deformity. Where
 most common?

 At risk for hemorrhage
     Death
Childhood Cancers
“…communication
promotes understanding
and clarity;
with understanding, fear
diminishes;
in the absence of fear,
hope emerges; and in the
presence of hope, anything
is possible” (Stovall, 1995)
Childhood Cancer
 C- continual unexplained weight loss, fatigue malaise
 H- headaches with vomiting (early morning)
 I- increased edema or pain in joints
 L- lump or mass, persistent lymphadenopathy
 D- development of whitish appearance in pupil of the eye
 R- recurrent or persistent fevers, night sweats
 E- excessive bruising or bleeding
 N- noticeable pallor
What signs and symptoms would lead to the
diagnosis of leukemia?
 Fever
 Pallor
 Overt signs of bleeding
 Lethargy or malaise
 Anrexia
 Large joint or bone pain
 Petechiae, frank bleeding
 Enlarged liver or spleen, changes in lymph nodes
 Neurologic changes
Lab values for a diagnosis of
leukemia: examination of CBC with at
least 25% blasts confirm the diagnosis
Normal                  Leukemia
 Leukocytes < 10,000    Leukocytes> 10,000
                         Platelets 20-100,000
                         Hemoglobin 7-11
Further diagnostic findings:
 Bone marrow aspiration- iliac crest (why this
 site?)
   How does the nurse prepare the child/family
    for this procedure?
   What are the nurse responsibilities for this
    procedure?
Treatment and Plan of Care: (p 1313/1321)
  Chemotherapy: three phases
    Induction phase
    Consolidation
      Delayed   intensification
    Remission and maintenance
Nursing Plan of Care for a Child
Undergoing Chemotherapy:
 Myelosupression- protect from injury
 Infection/sepsis (neutropenia)- protect
  from infection
 Renal damage
 GI disturbances
 Metabolic emergencies
Intrathecal Medication
 Chemotherapy instilled
 into spinal canal
Assess and monitor for
 placement of
 intrathecal catheter
 and assess neuro
 checks
Cranial Radiation
Head and neck tumors are more
 sensitive to radiation than
 chemotherapy.
When would chemotherapy become
 an adjunct to radiation therapy?
Tumor Lysis Syndrome:
What causes tumor lysis syndrome?
What are signs and symptoms of this
 complications
What nursing interventions apply to
 treatment?
Bone marrow and Stem Cell
Transplantation
 Used to treat leukemia, neuroblastomas and
  some noncancerous conditions-aplastic
  anemia
 Goal to administer a lethal dose to kill the
  cancer, and resupply the body with stem cells
  from the child’s own bone marrow, or a
  compatible donor
Develop a plan of care for the child undergoing
treatment for leukemia:
  Risk for injury:
   Soft tissue/mucous membranes
   Generalized trauma
 Risk for infection:
 Risk for alteration in bowel elimination
 Risk for GI distress
 Fluid volume delicate
Nephroblastoma- Wilm’s Tumor
 Soft renal tumor - one or both kidneys
 (p 1332) Metastasis or seeding spread by
  palpation
 Nephrectomy treatment of Wilm’s tumor
Nursing treatment of Wilms’ tumor:
 Pain management
    Frequent reposition
    Noninvasive and pharmacologic pain interventions
 Prevent circulatory overload
    Weigh daily
    I&O, urine for specific gravity
 Prevent infection
    Hand washing
    Protective isolation
    Homecare needs
Clinical manifestations of
Neuroblastoma (p 1327)
 Smooth, hard, non-tender along sympathetic
  nervous system
 Frequent location is abdomen
 Neck and facial edema from vena cava
  syndrome
 Increased ICP
 Limp if metastasis to bone
 Pancytopenia
Nursing Management
 Assess by observation and inspection   (not
  palpation)
 Document bowel and bladder function
 Record height & weight, observe gait
 Chemotherapy, radiation, surgery
 Teach parents S&S of infection. Why?
Osteosarcoma- most common
primary bone malignancy in
children
 Goal of treatment- remove tumor and prevent spread of
  disease
    Biopsy     Chemo       Surgery      Chemo
     (radiation=palliative pain control)
 Promote self esteem
    Side effects of chemotherapy
    Amputation of extremity
    Separation from friends and family
Ewing Sarcoma- second most common bone
tumor associated with children
 Pain, soft tissue swelling
 Anorexia, fever, malaise with metastasis
 Diagnosis same as osteosarcoma
 Management
   Chemo
   Surgery (decrease tumor bulk)
   Radiation
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Pathophysiology and Manifestations
 Most common soft tissue malignancy
 Divided by young (<10 yrs) and older
  (adolescents) in location
 60% have positive prognosis
 Soft to hard, nontender mass (depends
  on location)
 In pelvic tumors, may disrupt organ
  function
Diagnosis and Treatment
 CT, BM aspiration and biopsy
 Renal function and liver function tests
 Treated with chemo, surgery and
 radiation
Retinoblastoma (p1333)
Retinoblastoma- rare malignant tumor
of the neural retina
 “cat’s eye” reflex seen as a white light in the
  pupil is the most common “leukocoria”
 May have strabismus of involved eye
 Red painful eye is late symptom
 Staging based on extent of disease
Nursing care of the child/family
with a malignant disease:
 Initial focus on support of family members
 Nurses facilitate the educational process to allay fears
  of unknown
 Encourage family members to verbalize fears and
  questions
 Postoperative care if indicated
 Community resources (through the discharge planner,
  case worker)
Death and Dying:
Understanding of death according to developmental age:
 < 3 years- no understanding/concept of death
 3-5 years- afraid of separation from parents
 5-9 years- understand death is permanent, irreversible
  and sad. Concerns for fear of pain, being left alone and
  leaving parents and friends.
 Age 10> have adult’s concept of death
Nursing Care and Grief
 Child- encourage child to express feelings,
 allow choices, help maintain
 independence

 Family- listen, answer questions, provide
 information, encourage expression of
 feelings and fears
For questions or concerns please contact
Marlene Meador RN, MSN, CNE
mmeador@austincc.edu
References:
McKinney, James, Murray, & Ashwill.
 Maternal- Child Nursing Third ed (2009).
 Saunders.

				
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