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					Unit 9
Teaching Objectives
1. Enlarge vocabulary
2. Talk about changing status of the
  family structure
3. Learn to read for types of reading
  comprehension questions
4. Learn to write about charts and
  tables
          Sections

Section A Premarital Agreements
Section B Is the Traditional Family
          Structure at Risk
Section C A Male Nanny
   Section A

Premarital Agreements
      Table of Contents
Background Information
Warming-up Activities
Text Analysis
Vocabulary and Structure
Vocabulary Testing
Writing
    Premarital agreements
Premarital agreements or prenuptial agreements are
  binding legal contracts between two people who
  intend to marry each other.
       Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
Born on July 28, 1929, Jacqueline
Bouvier Kennedy was first lady of
the United States during the
administration (1961-1963) of her
first husband, John F. Kennedy. She
had been a newspaper reporter and
photographer before their marriage
in 1953. She was riding beside
President Kennedy when he was
assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on
Nov. 22, 1963. In 1968 she married
the Greek shipping millionaire
Aristotle Onassis.
Aristotle Onassis
                    Born on January 20, 1906,
                    Aristotle Onassis was a Greek
                    shipping millionaire who
                    accumulated a fortune of
                    more than $500 million. Born
                    of Greek parents in Turkey,
                    he went to Buenos Aires in
                    1923 and became a telephone
                    operator there. Soon Onassis
                    established a tobacco import
                    business, and by 1930s he
                    bought unused freighters at
                    low prices and by the end of
                    World War II had amassed
                    great wealth in shipping.
                    After the war he increased his
                    shipping fleet by purchasing
                    surplus wartime freighters.
   The American Academy of Marriage Lawyers


  Its official name is the American Academy of
Matrimonial Lawyers.
 Warming-up Activities

1. Say something about your ideal husband or wife.

2. There are many campus lovers in our university,
   can you imagine the future of their love story?

3. Would you ask for a prenuptial agreement
   before your marriage? Why or why not?
Reference for Answering Questions (1)
1. an ideal husband:
  tall, handsome, wealthy, healthy, smart, hardworking,
   non-smoker, soft-spoken, tolerant, considerate,
   laborious, honest
    an ideal wife:
    pretty, slim, fashionable, passionate, sociable,
   hospitable, independent, tender, elegant

2. playmate, emptiness, follow the lead of one’s
  classmates or friends, experience (v.&n.), say
  farewell to each other, pursuit one’s own aim, each
  goes his or her own way
Reference for Answering Questions(2)

3. it depends, bathe oneself in, the last thing sb. should
   do, take sth. out of, true love, must (n.), save… from,
   shed light on, result in, let there be, prevent a
   terrible marriage.
     Comprehension of the Test (1)
1. Please list three crazier clauses of prenuptial agreements
   according to the text.
   First, the future husband wanted to be sure that he could
   keep his treasured ice-cream collection if his marriage
   failed. Second, a woman wanted to make clear who would
   walk the dog. Third, one man wanted to be entitled to a
   divorce if his future wife gained more than 15 pounds once
   she married him.

2. What is a prenuptial agreement?
   A prenuptial agreement, or prenup, negotiated by lawyers
   and sighed before a marriage, is mainly designed to deal
   with financial problem when divorce is insisted on by one
   party.
Comprehension of the Test(2)

3. Why has signing prenups become popular in the US
   since the early 1980s?
   Because more and more states began passing laws
   based either on “splitting evenly” or on “whatever a
   judge thinks is ‘fair’”.

4. What are the three situations calling for premarital
   agreements?
   First, a wealthy man who has been stung once may
   want to avoid such future problems. Second,
   protecting children from a previous marriage is a
   strong reason. Third, when one future partner is
   extremely rich while the other is poor.
Comprehension of the Test(3)

5. What kinds of problems can prevent a premarital
   agreement from being enforced in court?
   First, and language mistakes in a prenup, even a
   misplaced preposition, can be disastrous. Second, a
   prenuptial agreement signed under pressure can
   cause problems. Third, there can be a dispute over
   premarital accords if a couple decides to divorce
   while living abroad, or when they have different
   passports.

6. How do British courts view prenuptial agreements?
   Prenuptial agreement are almost ignored by British
   courts because English law says that circumstances
   of a marriage aren’t static, and therefore a judge
   should decide how financial assets will be divided.
    Comprehension of the Test(4)

7. According to the lawyers, why do more and more
   American people begin to accept prenuptial agreements?
    For one thing, divorce rate in the U.S. is very high, which
   is often accompanied by money problems. For another,
   laying bare all one’s finances can sometimes save a
   couple from a terrible marriage.

8. Why is there still hope for the couples who signed a
   prenup?
    Because many people just put it in a drawer and never
   look at it again after signing an agreement.
Text Analysis (1)
Main idea of the text

     The author gives the reader a detailed
 exposition of what prenups are, who needs
 prenups, what points to be taken care of
 before signing prenups, and how people
 evaluate prenups.
      Text Analysis (2)
Main Idea of Each Part
                   A general introduction of prenups:
     Part I        What are prenups and how they are
  (Paras. 1-4)
                                 forged?

    Part II           This part is about who needs
  (Paras. 5-8)                   prenups.

                  This part deals with what points
     Part III
  (Paras. 9-14)
                  should be taken care of when one
                  goes into a premarital agreement.


    Part IV
                  This part is about possible
 (Paras.15-16)    evaluations of prenups.
   Vocabulary and Structure
               Expressions
Words

bind           to make no mistake about
               to make/hit the headlines
division       to call for
shield         to be in line for
               to be stuck under one’s
cite           nose
forge          to have no/little/some/
               much bearing on
dispute        to shed/throw/cast light on
circumstance   upon
Structures


1. Typical patterns for the exposition of sth. / sb.


2. Typical patterns for emphasis on the
   conditions
bind v. (1)
1) hold (people or things) together; unite 联合,
  连接,结合
  Many things bind us (together).
   许多事情使我们结合在一起。
   我们的爱国之心把我们和祖国紧密地连接在一起。
   Our patriotism has bound us to the motherland.
2) tie tightly 捆绑,捆扎
  Bind the thief to the seat with the rope lest he should
  escape.
   把小偷用绳子绑在座位上以防他逃跑。
   她把头发扎起来。
   She bound (up) her hair.
bind (2)
3) force sb. To obey, esp. by a law or a promise
  迫使,约束
  我受这项协议的约束。
   I was bound by this agreement.
   The agreement binds him to repay the debt in full
  within three weeks.
   协议规定他必须在三个星期之内还清全部债务。
     division n.
1) dividing or being divided 分开,划分
  We insist on a fair division of the profits.
   我们坚持公平分配利润。
   这条河成了这座城市重工业区和轻工业区的分界线。
   The river forms the division between the heavy
  industrial and light industrial areas of the city.
2) one of the parts or groups in which a whole is
  divided 部门
  Which division of the company do you work in?
   你在这个公司的哪个部门工作?
   他哥哥在公司的外事部工作。
   His brother works in the foreign division of the
  company.
 shield vt./n.
1) Protect from harm; defend from criticism,
  attack, etc. 保护,防护,庇护
   The prisoner shielded his eyes with his hand when he
  walked out of the cave.
  囚犯从岩洞里走出来时用手遮护眼睛。
  詹妮把手放在眼睛上遮阳。
  Jennie put her hand over her eyes, shielding them
  from the sun.
2) 防护物,护罩,盾(状物)
    cite v. (1)
1) mention, esp. as an example in a statement,
  argument, etc. 引用,引证
  The judicial minister cited the latest crime figures as
  proof of the need for strengthening of the comprehensive
  administration of social public order.
   司法部长引用最新的犯罪统计数字来证明需要加强社会治
  安的综合管理。
   市长援引最新的失业数据以证明有必要增加投资。
   The mayor cited the latest unemployment figures as a
  proof of the need for more investment.
2) praise (sb. in the armed forces) publicly because
  of their bravery (军队中由于勇敢)通令嘉奖
  因勇敢而受到嘉奖是士兵的极高荣誉。
   It is a great honor for a soldier to be cited for bravery.
cite v. (2)
cite & quote
cite和quote都有“引用”,“引证”的意思,但二者之间
   也有不同:
cite是正式用语,通常指引用权威的研究和见解作为例证
   来支持所说明的事物;有时可以不引用原文,只提及书
   名和页码。
quote指一字不改地把别人的原文、原话引证过来或丝毫
   不差地抄录出来,用以支持或说明自己的意见、观点。
forge vt.
1) make or produce, esp. with some difficulty 锻
  造,锤炼,使形成
  forge a sword/a chain/an anchor
  锻造剑/铁链/锚

2) make an illegal copy of sth. in order to cheat
  伪造,假冒,仿造
  forge a banknote/ will/signature
  伪造钞票/遗嘱/签字
dispute n./v. (1)
1) a serious argument or disagreement 争端,分
  歧,纠纷
  工会和管理方不时发生争执。
   Dispute occasionally occur between the union and
  the management.
   The firm is involved in a legal dispute with a rival
  company.
  这家公司卷入与竞争对手的法律纠纷中。
2) to argue or disagree with someone 争论,争吵,
  辩论
   The lawmakers disputed over the need for new taxes.
   立法人员就征收新税的必要性展开辩论。
   书中的主要事实从来没有引起过争议。
   The main facts of the book have never been disputed.
dispute (2)
dispute, argue, debate& quarrel
dispute, argue, debate和quarrel都有“争论”或“辩论”
   之意,但它们之间也有不同:
dispute指由于反对某一观点而激烈地争论,有一定感情
   色彩,且含相持不下之意。
argue多指以讲道理的方式提出理由,对自己的主张、见
   解等进行热烈地争辩或论证。
debate常用来表示就已经确定或以前已经同意的问题进
   行公开的、正式的争论。
quarrel常指因琐事而感到气愤,进行争吵。
circumstance n.
an event connected with what is happening or
   has happened 环境,情况
in/under circumstances 既然这样;在这种情况下
I wanted to leave quickly, but under the circumstances
   (my uncle has just died) I decided to stay another
   night.
我本想很快离开,但是在目前情况下(我叔叔刚刚去
   世),我决定再呆一个晚上。
也许在这样的情况下我们可以说人定胜天。
Maybe under these circumstances we may say that man
   can conquer nature.
     make no mistake about
别弄错了;毫无疑问



Make no mistake about
  弄清楚你上学的首
your priority at school.
  要任务;你应该把
You should concentrate
  精力集中在学习上
on your study instead of
  而不是整天游山玩
traveling from one
  水。
scenic spot to another.
    make/hit the headlines
成为头条新闻


空难、地震和地区流血冲突等灾难常常成为
我们生活中头条新闻。
Such disasters as air
crashes, earthquakes
and regional blood-
shed conflicts often
make the headlines in
our life.
    call for
需要,要求;值得



信息时代要求人们的经济和社会价值观有巨大
的改变。
The information age
calls for dramatic
changes in people’s
economic and social
values.
     be in line for
即将获得,很可能得到



As a result of our
由于科学家们的不懈
scientists’ untiring
努力,我国即将在杂
efforts, our country is
交水稻育种方面取得
in line for a major
重大突破。 in
breakthrough
cross-breeding of rice.
      be stuck under one’s nose
(某物) 被放到面前



当大笔的金钱放到面
前时,这位记者乱了
方寸。
This journalist lost his
bearings when large
sums of money were
stuck under his nose.
     have no much bearing on
与······无 / 几乎没有 / 有一些 / 有很大关系




一个人的成功固然与他的智慧有
关; 但勤奋对成功更为重要。
It is true that one’s success
has some bearing on his
intelligence; but diligence
counts more to it.
   shed light on
使更容易理解 / 使人了解



一位好老师应有能力使抽象复杂的问题简单
明了,从而使学生能很容易地理解。
A good teacher should
have the ability to shed
light on the abstract and
complex problems so
that students can easily
understand them.
 1. Typical patterns for the exposition of sth. / sb.

原句: A typical candidate for a prenuptial
agreement is a man who has accumulated
considerable wealth, has already been stung
典型的欲签定婚前协议的人是那些积存了大量
财富的男性,他们曾吃过苦头,因而想减少自
once, and wants to reduce his exposure to
己日后的麻烦。 (L. 25)
future problems.
                    句型提炼
1) A typical / ideal candidate for sth. is one
   who…某事的典型/理想的候选人是······人。
   (sth.: the presidency, the partnership in my
   life, the job, the position, the title, etc.)
  Typical patterns for the exposition of sth. / sb.
应用:a. 管理岗位的理想人选是把雇员更多地
以朋友而不是以下级相待,给雇员的精神刺激
多于物质刺激的人。
An ideal candidate for the
position of management is
one who treats his
employees more as friends
than as subordinates and
gives more spiritual than
material incentive to them.
Typical patterns for the exposition of sth. / sb.
应用:b.我终身伴侣的典型候选人应是善解人
意、乐于奉献和对爱忠贞不渝的人。

                         A typical candidate
                         for my lifelong
                         partnership should be
                         one who is good at
                         reading others’ minds,
                         ready to devote, and
                         faithful to her love.
      Typical Pattern
原句:Another situation that calls for premarital
agreements occurs when a potential spouse has ,
or is in line for, great inherited wealth or a
另一种要求签立婚前协议的情形是,未来的丈夫
family business, especially if the future partner
或妻子已经或即将继承巨额遗产或家庭产业,尤
has little or nothing at all. (L. 34)
其是在未来伴侣家资不多或一贫如洗的情况下。

                 句型提炼
2) Another/A situation/problem that calls for/ is
   well worth…occurs when…, or…, especially
   if/when…另/一种要求/值得······的情形/问
   题是,······或······, 尤其是······
      Typical Pattern
应用:a. 另一种值得我们关注的情形是,许多
妇女把婚姻视为改善自身境遇的跳板或提升自
身社会地位的惟一契机,尤其是在她们容貌尚
佳但备受贫穷煎熬的情况下。

 Another situation that calls for our concern
occurs when many women see marriage as a
springboard for them to better their fortunes
or as the sole opportunity for them to raise
their social status, especially if they are good-
looking but distressed with poverty.
      Typical Pattern
应用:b.一个值得家长警惕的问题是,你的孩
子对学习已经或正在产生一种厌烦的情绪,尤
其是在他/她不能从一次重要考试的失败中自
拔的情况下。

A problem that calls for the parents’ vigilance
occurs when your child has developed or is
developing a dislike for study, especially if he/she
could not lift himself/herself out of the failure in
an important exam.
     Typical Pattern
原句:That can lead to “ court-shopping”, since
what matters is the law of the country where
the couple is getting divorced. (L. 58)
这就可能导致 “逛法庭” 的现象,因为问题的
关键在于夫妇办理离婚时所在国的法律。
                 句型提炼
2) Sth./Doing sth. can lead to/result in…, since
   what matters (to sb.) is…某事/ 做某事可
   能导致······, 因为(对某人来讲)问题的关
   键在于······
     Typical Pattern
应用:a. 溺爱孩子可能导致他/她的人生一
事无成,因为问题的关键在于你助长了他/
她的享乐欲和依赖性。
 Spoiling your child can
lead to no achievement in
his/her life, since what
matters is that you foster
his/her hunger for
comfort as well as
dependence on others.
     Typical Pattern
应用:b. 党内腐败可能导致亡党,因为问题的
关键是,在一个腐败盛行的社会里没有诚信和
正义的容身之地。

The corruption within
the Party can lead to the
fall of the Party, since
what matters is no room
for honesty and justice
in a society where
corruption is popular.
2. Typical patterns for emphasis on the conditions

 原句:But even when both parties have signed
 such an agreement, it can be impossible to
 enforce it in court if proper guidelines have not
 但是即使双方签署了这样的协议,如果不遵循
 been followed. (L. 37)
 正确的指导方针,还是不可能在法院实施它。

                    句型提炼
 1) Even when/if …, it can/could (still) be
    (im)possible/hard etc. to do sth. if (not)…
    即使·······,如果(不)······,还是(不)可能 / 很
    难(等)······
Typical patterns for emphasis on the conditions

应用:a.即使我们在毕业时已获得了大量的知
识,如果不继续努力学习的话,我们还是很难
在事业上获得更大成功。


 Even when we have acquired much
 knowledge on graduation, it could still be
 very difficult for us to be in line for greater
 success in our careers if we don’t continue
 our efforts in study.
Typical patterns for emphasis on the conditions
应用:b.即使你已经组成了一个幸福的家庭,
如果你未能给婚后生活增添更多的关爱,仍
不可能使你的幸福长久。
  Even if you have
 formed a happy family,
 it can still be impossible
 to make your happiness
 lasting if you fail to add
 more love and care to
 your marital life.
    Vocabulary Testing (1)
Ⅰ Choose the one that best completes the sentence.
                   D
1. It has direct ______ upon the subject.
   A. relation        B. relationship
   C. connection      D. bearing

                 A
2. There is no ______ to the house from the main road.
   A. access        B. avenue
   C. exposure      D. edge

                       B
3. The shy girl felt _____ and uncomfortable when she could
   not answer the teacher’s questions.
   A. amazed           B. awkward
   C. curious          D. amused
Vocabulary Testing (2)
4. Without proper lessons, you could _____ up a lot of
                                       C
   bad habits when playing the piano.
   A. keep      B. catch
   C. pick      D. draw
                A
5. This article ______ for more attention to the problem
    of cultural interference in foreign language teaching
    and learning.
   A. calls       B. cares
   C. applies     D. allows

                D
6. We can not _______ all the magazines together.
   A. route    B. draw
   C. thread   D. bind
Vocabulary Testing (3)
7. Several words have been _____ from the letter by
                              D
   the editor.
   A. omitted      B. added
   C. rid          D. deleted

      D
8. ______ difficulties we may come across, we’ll help
   one another to overcome them.
   A. However          B. Whenever
   C. Wherever         D. Whatever

                                B
9. They’re interviewing three _____ for the post of sales
   manager.
   A sponsors               B candidates
   C advocates              D opponents
Vocabulary Testing (4)
                D
10. Harry was _____ by a bee when he was collecting
  the honey.
   A scratched            B bitten
   C stuck                D stung
Fill in the blanks with the phrases given below. Change
the form where necessary.
insist on /upon draw up under sb’s nose lead to
end up throw/cast light on call for break out   lay bare
argue over/about   take advice   store away



1.These discoveries may ______________ the origins
                                throw/cast light on
   of the universe.
2. If you don’t work hard, you’ll _________________
                                                  end up
   nowhere.
3. He ______________ her staying in London for
        insisted on/upon

   another couple of weeks.
4. He was asked to _______________ proposals for
                               draw up
   reforming the law.
5. An argument ____________ in the classroom
                        broke out

   between the children.
Fill in the blanks with the phrases given below. Change
the form where necessary.


    insist on /upon draw up under sb’s nose lead to
end up throw/cast light on call for break out    lay bare
       argue over/about   take advice  store away


6. The institution _________ immediate action.
                     calls for

7. Every aspect of their private life has been _________.
                                                   laid bare

8. The children are _____________ which TV program
                     arguing over/about
   to watch.
9. She is a manager who is good at ___________ from
                                         take advice
   the staff.
10. Squirrels are ____________ nuts for the winter.
                     storing away
                        Writing
                         写作方法
How to write an essay based on a chart or a table? (1)
I How to describe a chart or a table?

                   a pie chart




   a chart
                   a line chart




                   a bar chart
Sentence patterns in a pie chart writing
Sentence patterns in a pie chart writing
1. These two pie charts show the differences between
   two groups of…
2. The first point to note is the huge increase (in the
   number of)…
3. According to the graph,…
4. The proportion of…
5. There was a slight recovery…
6. The graph shows the percentage of…
7. Perhaps the most telling feature of the chart is the
   dominance of…
Sentence patterns in a line chart writing
  Sentence patterns in a line chart writing
1.There was a (very) slight/small/slow rise/increase.
2. There was a steady rise/increase.
3. There was a (very) marked/large/steep/sharp/rapid
   rise/increase.
4. The bold graph shows that the percentage of … is
   almost … in the early morning but it gradually rises up
   to … percent at 8 am and remains the same for the next
   two hours.
5. Unlike …, the peak percentage of … is at …, which is
   about … percent.
6. Company B’s profit rose steadily from … to …, whereas
   that of Company A fell slightly.
7. The number of … reached more than … in …(year,
   month, etc.)
Sentence patterns in a bar chart writing
     Sentence patterns in a bar chart writing
1.This bar chart displays the numbers of…
2.The chart reflects several trends.
3.But……We see a different trend emerging.
4.When we compare…,we see…
5.This suggests increased …for … in …
6.It reflects the great differences that exist between…
7.These figures were overwhelmingly greater than the
   corresponding figure of…
8.It can be seen from the chart that the number is
   significantly…~er…than…
9.In all locations, A outnumbered B…
SentenceFor this partin a are allowed thirty
Directions: patterns you bar chart writing
minutes to write a composition on the topic
Student Use of Computers. You should write at
least 120 words and base your composition on
the chart and the outline given below
Average number of hours a student spends on the
computer per week
               20

               18
               16
               14
  hours/week




               12

               10
                8

                6

                4
                2
                0
                    1990   1995   2000
                           year
1、上图所示为1990年、1995年、2002年某校大学生
 事业计算机的情况,请描述其变化;
2、请说明发生这些变化的原因(可从计算机的用途、价
 格或社会发展等方面加以说明);
3、你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题。
         Model writing
     It is obvious in the graphic/table that the rate/number/amount of Y
has undergone dramatic changes. It has gone up/grown/fallen/dropped
considerably in recent years (as X varies). At the point of X1, Y reaches
its peak value of ….

     What is the reason for this change? Mainly there are … reasons
behind the situation reflected in the graphic/table. First of all, …(the first
reason). More importantly, …(the second reason). Most important of
all, …(the third reason).

    From the above discussions, we have enough reason to predict what
will happen in the near future. The trend described in the graphic/table
will continue for quite a long time (if necessary measures are not taken).
   Writing          参考范文
                    Student Use of Computers
      Students tend to use computers more and more nowadays.
Reading this chart, we can find that the average number of hours a
student spends on the computer per week has increased sharply. In
1990, it was less than 2 hours; and in 1995, it increased to almost 4
hours; while in 2000, the number soared to 20 hours.
   Obviously computers are becoming more and more popular. There
are several reasons for this. First, computers facilitate us in more
aspects of life. Also, the fast development of the Internet enlarges our
demands for using computers. We can easily contact with friends in
remote places through the Internet. Besides, the prices of computers
are getting lower and lower, which enables more students to purchase
them.
    Along with the time spent on computers, there arise some problems.
The most serious one is that many students are spending so much
time playing PC games so that they ignore their studies. It is urgent to
let the students use computers in a proper way.
         Section B



Is the Traditional Family Structure
             at Risk
     Table of Contents

Reading Comprehension

Vocabulary Study

Vocabulary Test
 Reading Comprehension (1)
Answer the following questions according to the text.
1. Where is the structure of the family life undergoing
   extreme changes?
   Around the world, in both rich and poor countries.

2. What are the reasons accounting for marriages dissolving
   with increasing frequency?
  Abandonment, separation, divorce or death of a spouse.

3. How many unmarried mothers exist in the north of Europe?
   The number reaches as many as a third of all births.
Reading Comprehension (2)
4. What is the possible problem of the children in single-parent
   households?
   They are more likely to be overtaken by poverty than those
   who live with two parents, largely because of the loss of
   support from the fathers.

5. Who tend to work longer, both at home and on the job,
   men or women?
   The Population Council report says women around the
   world tend to work longer hours than men, both at home
   and on the job.
Reading Comprehension (3)
6. Why are women forced to enter the work force?
    To give their children an adequate life; high rates of
   inflation forces them to earn money as well.

7. What is the result of a reduction of their public education
   budget in many developing countries?
   Parent should pay for school fee, uniforms, transportation
   and supplies without the support from the government.

8. Which country is one apparent exception to the general
   trend? Why?
   Japan. Because single-parent households and unmarried
   mothers have remained relatively rare there.
Vocabulary Study
    Words       Expressions

    dissolve    serve as
    overtake    be related to
    maintain    by the time
   contribute   care for
   adequate     bring about
    inflation   in particular
     scrape     to the point
  dissolve v.
1) (cause to) come to an end (使)结束,(使)解体
   The Assembly dissolved.
   议会解散了。
   国王解散了议会,要求重新选举。
   The king dissolved the Parliament and called for a new
      election.

2) be absorbed by a liquid 溶解
   Water dissolves salt.
   水溶解盐。
   不到几分钟,热就把蜡烛融化为一摊蜡。
   Heat dissolved the candle into a pool of wax in a few
      minutes.
dissolve
dissolve away 溶解掉
dissolve in 溶解入
dissolve into 溶解;溶解成
dissolve out 分泌出,溶解掉
     overtake v.
1) (of sth. unpleasant) reach suddenly and
  unexpectedly 突然降临,意外侵袭
   A storm overtook the children.
   孩子们遇到了暴风雨。
   露营者们突然遇到了一场沙尘暴的袭击。
   The campers were overtaken by a sandstorm.
2) go beyond by being a greater amount or degree;
  come from behind and pass 追上,超过
  The car overtook the truck.
   小汽车超过了大卡车。
   你超车前一定要确保前方路段没有车。
   Make sure the road is clear ahead of you before you start
  to overtake.
   maintain vt.
1) make sth. continue in the same way or at the
  same standard as before 维持,保养
  This ancient tower is well maintained.
   这座古塔维护得很好。
   英国想要保持它世界大国的地位。
    Britain wants to maintain its position as a world power.
2) make a level or rate of activity, movement etc.
  stay the same 保持
  It is important to maintain a constant temperature inside
  the greenhouse.
   在温室中保持不变的温度是很重要的。
   这是塑造和保持合适身材的最有效的方式。
   This is the most efficient way to build up and maintain a
  reasonable level of physical fitness.
   contribute v.
give money, help, ideas etc. to something that a lot
   of other people are also involved in 捐献,贡献
Air pollution contributes to some kinds of diseases.
空气污染会引起一些疾病。
每位队员都为这次胜利作出了贡献。
Every member of the team contributed to the victory.

contribution n. 捐款,捐献(物),稿件
contributive a. 有助的,促成的
contributor n. 捐款人,贡献者,投稿人
adequate a.
enough in quantity or of a good enough quality
  for a particular purpose 足够的,令人满意的
an adequate description of the situation 对形式的恰当描
  述
adequate, enough & sufficient
adequate指数量之多足以满足某种特定的标准或要求,
  有时可指较低限度的标准。
enough和sufficient基本同意,指在数量或程度上足以满
  足某种需要。
inflation n.
a general continuous increase in prices 通货膨胀
通货膨胀使低收入家庭的购买力不断下降。
Inflation erodes the purchasing power of the families
   with lower income.

check/combat/counter inflation 控制通货膨胀
inflation of language 夸大其词
runaway inflation 无法控制的通货膨胀
boiling inflation 恶性通货膨胀
chronic inflation 长期通货膨胀
   scrape v.&n.
1) to remove (an outer layer, for example) from a
  surface by forceful strokes of an edged or rough
  instrument 刮,擦
  The boy fell and scraped the skin off his knee.
   那男孩摔倒了,擦掉了膝盖上的皮。
   工人在墙上涂油漆前先把壁纸刮掉。
   The workers scraped the wallpaper
    off before painting the wall.

2) the act or sound of scraping 刮,擦,刮擦声
   I heard the scrape of his chair as he shifted in his seat.
   我听得他在座位上转动时椅子发出的擦擦声。
    serve as

serve as: perform certain duties; fulfil the
purpose of 担任······;作······用,起······作
用


1. 他任公司的顾问。
   He serves as an adviser to the company.


   这可以作为切勿这样过快驾车的一个
2. This may serve as a warning not to
   警告。
   drive so fast.
     be related to


 be related to: be connected or associated with
 与······相关,与······有联系


1. The fall in the cost of living is directly
1. 生活费用的下降直接与油价下跌有关。
   related to the drop in the oil price.


2. 我跟他是姻亲关系。 marriage.
   I am related to him by
    by the time


by the time: when 到······的时候



1. By the time this letter reaches you I will
1. 你收到这封信时,我已离开了这个国家。
   have left the country.

2. By the time we got to the museum it was
2. 等我们赶到博物馆时,已是日近黄昏了。
   nearly dark.
     care for


care for: nurse or attend (esp. someone old or
sick); look after 照看,看护


   母亲们上班的时候你愿不愿意照料她们的
1. Do you enjoy caring for small children
  幼儿?
  while their mothers are at work?

2. Uncle Dick is very good at caring for sick
2. 迪克大叔照顾生病的动物很在行。
   animals.
    bring about


bring about: cause to happen 使发生



1. Education is the only method of bringing
1. 教育是改变全世界人口状况的惟一办法。
   about changes in world population.

2. 科学给我们的生活带来许多变化。
2. Science has brought about many changes
  in our lives.
phrases of “bring”
  归纳记忆:bring构成的短语
bring about 引起,产生,导致
bring back 把······带回来,使复原
bring down 击落,减少,降低
bring forward 提出,提前
bring in 引入,带进
bring out 取出,显示,出版
bring up 抚育,养大
     in particular


in particular: 1. especially 特别地,尤其 2.
special or specific 特别的


1. 我特别喜欢这本书,虽然其他的书也非常
1. I liked this book in particular although the
  有趣。 were very interesting too.
  others

   每个人都说那地方值得一看,但我却觉得
2. Everybody says it is worth seeing but I find
  那儿并没什么特别之处。
  nothing in particular about that place.
     to the point


to the point: to a degree that 达到······的程度



   She has come to the point where she can’t
1. 对于他的恶习,她已到了再也无法忍受的
   地步了。 bad habit any longer.
   stand his

2. His addiction to drugs has come to the
   他的毒瘾已到了离开毒品一天也活不下去
2. point where he can’t do without it even for
   的地步了。
   a single day.
Vocabulary Testing(1)
Complete each of the following sentences with the
   proper form of the word given in brackets.
1. ______________ (accept) by their peer group is
       Acceptance
   important to most youngsters.
2. The visit to Germany gave them ________ (expose)
                                     exposure
   to the language.
3. He seemed to take my silence as an ____________
                                            invitation
   (invite) to talk.
4. Each child must obtain the __________ (sign) of his
                               signature
   or her parents.
5. I don’t have to ________ (justification) myself to you
                     justify
   or anyone else.
6. I know she doesn’t want her hair cut, not even
   _______ (trim) at the moment.
    trimmed
Vocabulary Testing(2)
8. I enjoyed the movie we saw last night; it was very
   ____________ (entertainment).
       entertaining
9. He has ________ (urgent) to act and not wait.
              urgency
10. She is a real expert on art, so I feel completely
    inadequate
   __________ (adequate) whenever I talk to her about
   it.
Fill in the blanks with the phrases given below. Change
the form where necessary.
 in particular   to the point    serve as bring about
 contribute to   relate to       vary from by the time
 scrape by        care for    instead of   go on to


1. His comments were brief and _____________.
                                     to the point

2. She ___________ a major change in the way her
        brought about
    company designs its products.
3. We are hoping to _________ $100 _____ the new
                        contribute          to
    wing of the hospital.
4. She had ___________ a model for several painters.
                served as
5. He _______ his current troubles _____ the same
        related                           to
    problem from his unhappy childhood.
6. Both of their families ___________ on very small
                             scraped by
    wages.
     Fill in the blanks with the phrases given below. Change
     the form where necessary.

   in particular    to the point    serve as bring about
      contribute to    relate to       vary from by the time
       scrape by         care for    instead of   go on to



7. Why did you recommend him for the job ____________?
                                                in particular
8. ______________ the train reached its destination there
        By the time
   was nobody left in the dining car.
9. Uncle Dick is very good at __________sick animals, and
                                caring for
   that is why neighbors usually turn to him for help when
   their pets fall ill.
10. We should propel history forward _________preventing it
                                         instead of
   from progressing.
Section C


A Male Nanny
Reading Comprehension (1)
Choose the best answer to each of the following
  questions:

1.Which of the following statements is true
  according to the passage? C

A. The author doesn’t like watching Sam, but he
   needs the money to pay for school.
B. The author’s experience with kids is no better
   than that of any high school girl who watch
   kids.
C. Many nannies regard the author as Sam’s
   father while he is Sam’s male nanny.
D. The author has the conventional idea that man
   is abnormal to be a nanny.
Reading Comprehension (2)
                                  A
2. The message of the story is ___________.

A. that it’s hard for a man to be a nanny
B. that it’s easy for a man to be a nanny
C. that conventions kill creativity
D. that creativity comes from struggling against
   conventions
  Read the text first and then provide short
  answers to the following questions.
3. What does the word “nanny” mean in the passage?
   It means “ baby-sitter”.

4. What does Sam’s mother think of the author?
   In Sam’s mother’s eyes, the author is Sam’s best
   playmate.

5. What is the author’s attitude towards the
   conventional idea that man is abnormal to be a
   nanny?
   The author is critical of the conventional idea that
   man is abnormal to be a nanny.
Thanks

				
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