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6. SOPs and Lab Practices 6.1. Policy Statement MMI expects all laboratory personnel to be responsible for his or her safety and the safety of others in the laboratories. Following established safety rules, procedures, and policies is necessary for safe laboratory operations. Prior to beginning any work in the laboratory, familiarization with the chemicals, procedures, and equipment is required. If any uncertainty exists regarding the safe procedures or operations, ASK FIRST! Check with knowledgeable supervision, Safety Committee representative, or the Chemical Hygiene Officer. Reference to “chemicals” in the following paragraphs means all laboratory chemicals and materials that have hazardous or noxious properties. Materials that have properties making them difficult to handle, clean up, or are otherwise undesirable, are included in this category. The following are minimum safe procedures for working in the laboratories: 6.2. Chemical Procurement New chemicals are ordered through the standard purchasing procedures with the Facilities Manager. Prior to ordering a chemical, the laboratory worker should check the internal inventory to determine if the material already exists in the building. This step may result in ready material access and minimize the amount of materials present in the building. If the material is not already at MMI, use the following procedure: 1. Evaluate the risks and hazards of the material. Do you still want to use this material? Determine the correct NFPA values for the material. 2. Complete a purchase order worksheet, including the NFPA values. Chemical will not be ordered if the NFPA values are not provided. If assistance is needed in assigning correct values, see the Chemical Hygiene Officer. 3. Submit the worksheet for supervisor approval signature, and then forward it to the Facilities Manager. 4. The Hazardous Chemical Procurement procedure (Section 6.2.1) will be invoked if the material is deemed as being hazardous through the NFPA values (a 3 or 4 in health, flammability, reactivity, or it is registered as having a specific hazard). 5. The chemical list will be reviewed for presence of the Department of Homeland Security Chemicals of Interest list before ordering. (Quantities of certain materials may be restricted to remain below Screening Threshold Quantities.) Incoming chemicals (including free and sponsor provided samples) are received by the Facilities Manager. Chemicals will be distributed to the ordering laboratory when MSDS are obtained and distributed. Laboratory workers should not begin using the chemicals unless they are familiar with the health and safety hazards. 6.2.1. Hazardous Chemical Procurement Chemicals with NFPA values of 3 or 4 in any field require additional handling and disposal considerations. Such chemicals require a second signature from the Chemical Hygiene Officer or a Safety Committee Representative on the order form prior to the order being placed. The Chemical Hygiene Officer or a Safety Committee Representative will also discuss handling concerns prior to the order being placed. Additionally, any Chemicals with NFPA values of 4 MUST have a disposal date identified prior to ordering and recorded on the chemicals label. Failure to accurately identify the appropriate NFPA values will result in all the chemicals currently assigned to the employee as well as future purchases going into review. Review will consist of: The employee re-evaluating the NFPA values of all of the chemicals already assigned to them under the supervision of the Chemical Hygiene Officer or a Safety Committee Representative prior to any further laboratory work being performed. Any chemicals ordered will require a second signature from the Chemical Hygiene Officer for a period of at least 6 months. 6.3. Chemical Storage and Transport 6.3.1. Storage of Chemicals The decision to acquire and use a hazardous chemical is a commitment to handle and use the chemical properly from initial receipt to disposal. MMI does not operate a central stockroom for chemicals. Storage of chemicals and materials is provided in commercial storage cabinets and shelves in the laboratories. Chemicals and materials for laboratory use must be properly stored when not in use. A key factor in safe storage is reduction of the quantity of materials to store. Ordering smaller quantities to have on hand means less storage space is required. Clearly, the nature of the material will dictate the storage conditions and location. The need for refrigeration, vented storage, potential reactivity, liquid or solid, and so on, will be factors to consider for storage. Basic guidelines are: All chemical containers must have proper labels (see section 6.4), Owner/user name and date must be on the container, Separate chemicals into compatible groups (see Table 6.1) and store groups segregated from each other (storing alphabetically within group is recommended), Highly toxic and/or carcinogenic chemicals require special, separate storage, Flammable liquids must be stored in an approved flammable liquid storage cabinet, Store volatile toxics and/or odoriferous chemicals in a ventilated cabinet, Chemicals not requiring ventilated or flammable storage cabinets may be stored in closeable cabinets or on shelves that have a lip to prevent containers from sliding off. Chemicals should not be stored on high shelves and large bottles should be stored no more than two feet from floor level, Storage of chemicals at the lab bench or other work areas shall be kept to a minimum, Flammable and reactive materials are to be stored in approved flammable storage cabinets. You may NOT store: Solvents and chemicals under hoods, (some exceptions exist for certain under-hood cabinets), Liquids above “eye level” (approximately four feet above floor), Chemicals on the floor. (An exception to this would be inert materials such as pelletized or powder plastics, strand glass, mineral filler and such.) Table 6.1. Related and Compatible Storage Groups* Inorganic Family Nitric acid, other organic acids Metals, hydrides Sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic, Halides, sulfates, sulfites, phosphorus pentoxide thiosulfates, phosphates, halogens Organic Family Amides, nitrates, (except Acids, anhydrides, peracids ammonium nitrate), nitrites, Alcohols, glycols, amines, azides amides, imines, imides Hydroxides, oxides, Hydrocarbons, esters, silicates, carbonates, carbon aldehydes Sulfides, selenides, Ethers, ketones, ketenes, phosphides, carbides, halogenated hydrocarbons, nitrides ethylene oxide Chlorates, perchlorates, Epoxy compounds perchloric acid, chlorites, isocyanates hypochlorites, peroxides, hydrogen peroxide Peroxides hydroperoxides, azides Arsenates, cyanides, cyanates Sulfides, polysulfides, sulfoxides, nitrites Borates, chromates, manganates, permanganates Phenols, cresols Store flammables in a storage cabinet for flammable liquids or in safety cans. Separate chemicals into their organic and inorganic families and then related compatible groups, as shown. Separation of chemical groups can be by different shelves (or sub containers) within the same cabinet. DO NOT store chemicals as a whole alphabetically; this could result in incompatible materials stored together. Storing alphabetically within compatible groups is acceptable and recommended. This listing is a suggested method of arranging chemical materials for storage and is not intended to be complete. * Reference Table 4.1, Prudent Practices in the Laboratory, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1995 18.104.22.168. Specific Guidelines All stored materials must have proper labels. In addition to the basic guidelines, the following storage requirements are appropriate for specific situations, materials, and storage locations: Secondary containers such as corrosion resistant trays are recommended to contain materials in the event of spills or leaks of the primary container. Containers must have proper closures that ensure a good seal. Flammable and Combustible Liquids Flammable and combustible liquid use and storage in laboratories is governed by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 45 and 30. These standards specify container type size and total storage amounts permitted in the laboratories. When possible, store quantities of flammable liquids greater than 1 L in safety cans. Store combustible liquids either in their original containers or in safety cans. The Flammable Liquids Storage Cabinets at MMI meet the requirements of Section 9.5 NFPA 30, 2008 Edition. They are to be used for storage of flammable and combustible materials. The volume of Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids stored in an individual storage cabinet are not to exceed 60 gallons. The laboratories at MMI are not equipped with sprinkler systems. The storage limits for un-sprinkled laboratories are listed in Table 6.2 The container size for storing flammable and combustible liquids (NFPA 45) limitations is based on the type of container and the flammability of the liquid. The limits are listed in Table 6.3 The outdoor solvent shed is used for the storage of bulk solvents and chemicals. Bulk solvents are supplied in five-gallon (20 L) cans and stored on the floor or bottom shelf in the storage shed. One gallon and smaller bottles may be stored on the top shelf in the shed. Trays must be used to contain the materials in the event of a bottle break or leak. Highly flammable solvents may be stored in the solvent shed to reduce the quantity of solvents in the laboratories. Table 6.2. Storage Limits for Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Liquefied Flammable Gases in Nonsprinklered Laboratories.* Maximum Quantity in Typical 750 sq. ft. MMI Laboratory Excluding Quantities in Storage Including Quantities in Storage Cabinets or Safety Cans Cabinets or Safety Cans Lab Fire Flammable and L gal L gal Hazard Combustible Class Liquids Class C I 56 15 112 30 I, II, and IIIA 112 30 225 60 D I 30 7.5 56 15 I, II, and IIIA 30 7.5 56 15 * Reference Table 10.1.5 NFPA 45 Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, 2004 Edition. Table 6.3. Maximum Allowable Size - Container Size for Storage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids.* Flammable Liquidsa Combustible Liquidsb Class IA Class IB Class IC Class II Class IIIA Container Liters Gallons Liters Gallons Liters Gallons Liters Gallons Liters Gallons Glassc 0.5 1 pt 1 1 qt 4 1 gal 4 1 gal 20 5 gal Metal or 4 1 gal 20 5 gal 20 5 gal 20 5 gal 20 5 gal Approved Plastic Safety Cans 10 2.6 gal 20 5 gal 20 5 gal 20 5 gal 20 5 gal Metal 4 1 gal 20 5 gal 20 5 gal 227 60 gal 227 60 gal Container (DOT Spec.) Polyethylene 4 1 gal 20 5 gal 20 5 gal 227 60 gal 227 60 gal UN1H1 and UN1H2 Label safety cans with contents and hazard warning information. Safety cans containing flammable or combustible liquid waste must have appropriate waste labels. Place 20-L (5-gallon) and smaller containers of flammable liquids that are not in safety cans into storage cabinets for flammable liquids. Do not vent these cabinets unless they also contain volatile toxics or odoriferous chemicals. Aerosol cans that contain 21% (by volume) or greater, alcohol or petroleum base liquids are considered Class IA flammables. When space allows, store combustible liquids in storage cabinets for flammable liquids. Otherwise, store combustible liquids in their original (or other Department of Transportation approved) containers according to Table 6.2. Store 55-gallon drums of flammable and combustible liquids in special storage rooms for flammable liquids. Keep flammable and combustible liquids away from an ignition source. Remember that most flammable vapors are heavier than air and can travel to ignition sources. a Class IA includes those flammable liquids having flashpoints below 73 °F and having a boiling point below 100 °F, Class IB includes those having flashpoints below 73 °F and having a boiling point at or above 100 °F, and Class IC includes those having flashpoints at or above 73 °F and having a boiling point at or above 73 °F and below 100 °F. b Class II includes those combustible liquids having flashpoints at or above 100 °F and below 140 °F, Class III includes those having flashpoints at or above 140 °F and below 200 °F, and Class IIIB includes those having flashpoints above 200 °F. c Glass containers as large as 1 gallon can be used if needed and if the required purity would be adversely affected by storage in a metal or approved plastic container, or if the liquid would cause excessive corrosion or degradation of a metal or approved plastic container. *Reference Table 10.1.4 NFPA 45 Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals, 2004 Edition. Gas Cylinders Cylinders must be labeled with the gas contents. Cylinders are to be securely strapped or chained to a wall, bench top, or proper cylinder rack. Cylinders not in use must be stored with the cylinder cap in place. Incompatible gases are to be used and stored segregated from other cylinders. Keep flammables from reactives, including oxidizers and corrosives. Empty or finished, but partially used cylinders are to be capped and tagged with a label (ring tags are OK) specifying the status and returned to the outdoor cylinder shed. Secure the cylinder to the racks in the shed. Use a cylinder cart when transporting a cylinder to and from storage. Lecture bottle cylinders are not to be stored for extended periods of time. Use or discard the contents within six months of acquiring the cylinder. Refrigerated Storage Laboratory refrigerators used for chemical storage shall have explosion proof controls. Any refrigerator without explosion proof controls shall not be used to store any flammable liquids. (See also refrigerated storage of thermally unstable materials below.) Corrosive Materials Corrosive chemicals and materials are to be segregated from other chemicals. Store only in a Corrosive Storage Cabinet or a well ventilated storage area. The containers shall be placed in corrosion resistant trays. Highly Reactive Substances Order only minimum quantities that you will be able to use in a three to six month period. Label the container including the date the material is acquired. Label the container with: DANGER! HIGHLY REACTIVE MATERIAL Do not attempt to store highly reactive substances longer than six months. Do not open a liquid organic peroxide or peroxide former if crystals and/or precipitate are present! Dispose of highly reactive materials prior to their expiration date. Segregate the following materials: Oxidizing agents from reducing agents and combustibles, Powerful reducing agents from readily reducible substrates, Pyrophoric compounds from flammables, and Perchloric acids from reducing agents. Store highly reactive liquids in trays large enough to hold the contents of the bottles. Store peroxide forming materials away from heat and light. Store materials that react vigorously with water away from possible contact with water. Store thermally unstable materials in a refrigerator. The refrigerator must have these safety features: All spark producing controls on the outside, Magnetic door latch, and An alarm to warn if the temperature is too high. Store liquid organic peroxides at the lowest possible temperature consistent with the solubility or freezing point. Liquid peroxides are particularly sensitive during phase changes. Inspect and test peroxide-forming chemicals periodically (label these with acquisition and/or expiration dates) and discard containers that have exceeded their safe storage lifetime. Materials known to detonate or are explosive require special storage. Consult the safety committee prior to acquisition of these materials. Toxic Substances Store chemicals known to be highly toxic (including carcinogens) in ventilated cabinets in unbreakable, chemical resistant secondary containers. Use minimum quantities. Label storage areas with appropriate warning signs such as: CAUTION! REPRODUCTIVE TOXIN STORAGE or CAUTION! CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT STORAGE Limit access to these storage areas. Maintain an inventory of all highly toxic chemicals. 6.3.2. Transport of Laboratory Chemicals Laboratory chemicals and materials being transported outside or between laboratories are to be in break-resistant secondary containers. The secondary containers may be commercially available rubber or plastic buckets with carrying handles. They must be large enough to hold the contents of the chemical containers in the event of a break. Chemicals transported on a cart must be in secondary containers or trays to prevent tipping or spills. The cart must have tray type shelves to contain leaks or spills. Cylinders of compressed gases must be strapped to a cylinder cart with the valve protected with a cylinder cap. When transporting chemicals and gas cylinders between floors using the elevator, passengers should not be present on the elevator. 6.4. Chemical Retention Policy Chemicals may only be retained if there is a reason to keep them. High cost of replacement and being part of MMI or its subsidiaries sales catalog may be valid reasons to retain specific chemicals longer than is typically permitted. An obsolete chemical is therefore defined as a chemical that has no use within the Institute or has been subject to long-term storage. The long-term storage of chemicals that have no reasonable purpose or timetable for future use is prohibited. Such chemicals must be disposed of by the owner upon identification. No chemicals should be kept beyond the manufacturers posted expiration date (where applicable). Following this chemical management program will remove inappropriate, outdated, unknown, and unnecessary chemicals from the laboratory. Chemicals that meet any of the following criteria will require disposal under this chemical management program. 6.4.1 Time-Sensitive Chemicals Each lab occupant should be aware of the time-sensitive chemicals that they have in their lab. Developing a time-sensitive chemical storage program is the responsibility of the individual scientist but should include the following elements: a) identification of time-sensitive chemicals b) tracking c) defining proper storage conditions d) determine inspection periods e) define when time-sensitive chemicals become unsafe, and f) managing unsafe time-sensitive chemicals. MMI's annual Chemical Inventory day could serve as an ideal opportunity during which to ascertain the need to keep and the quality of materials stored in the lab. However, continual oversight of all chemicals in the laboratory is required. 22.214.171.124 Peroxide Forming Chemicals Testing of peroxide levels in reagents may be done to permit re-dating and extending of storage times. The container must be labeled with the test date and new expiration date. The following schedules are to be followed. Examples (not all inclusive) are included. a) Peroxide formation hazard during storage, e.g. isopropyl ether, divinyl acetylene, vinylidene chloride, potassium metal, sodium amide. Discard after 3 months. b) Peroxide formation causes initiation of hazardous polymerization, e.g. methyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, butadiene, tetrafluoroethylene, chorotrifluoroethylene, vinyl acetylene, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, vinyl pyridine, chloroprene. Discard after 12 months. c) Peroxide formation hazard during storage and on concentration of compound, e.g. diethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, dioxane, acetal, methyl isobutyl ketone, ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, vinyl ethers, dicyclopentadiene, diacetylene, methyl acetylene, cumene, tetrahydronaphthalene, cyclohexene, methylcyclopentane. Discard after 18 months. d) Distillation or after removal of inhibitors of peroxide forming materials. Discard after six months. 126.96.36.199 Gases All gas containers must be inspected monthly. Any gas, e.g. fluoroacetone, diborane, phosphine, silane, chlorine, fluorine, nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, ozone, ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, vinyl bromide, in a container exhibiting any signs of corrosion or other visible damage must be disposed of immediately. Inert gases may be kept indefinitely as long as the container is in good condition. Other gases may be kept for no more than 18 months. 188.8.131.52 Highly Reactive Materials Any material with an NFPA reactivity number of 3 is considered a highly reactive material. Opened containers containing such chemicals should be used up or discarded within 12 months after they are first opened. Unopened containers should be stored no more than 18 months from purchase. The storage of obsolete chemicals however is prohibited. Examples of these chemicals would include: a) Pyrophorics, e.g. sodium, finely divided metal (e.g., aluminum, chromium, zinc), aluminum borohydride, diethylzinc. b) Oxidizers, e.g. ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, potassium chlorate, potassium nitrate, sodium dichromate, sodium nitrate, bromine, chromic acid, hydrogen peroxide, perchloric acid. 184.108.40.206 Extremely Toxic or Regulated Materials The purchase of extremely toxic and/or regulated materials (e.g. acrylamide, cadmium chloride, potassium fluoride, aniline, chlordane, phenol, 4-aminodiphenyl, 4- dimethylaminoazobenzene, 4-nitrobiphenyl, -naphthylamine, arsenic, benzidine, methyl chloromethyl ether, asbestos, benzene, bis-chloromethyl ether, ethylene oxide, ethyleneimine, formaldehyde) should only be done with the written permission of the CEO. These chemicals should be disposed of as soon as they are no longer needed and no later than when the program in which they were used is completed. Opened containers should be used up or discarded within 12 months after they are purchased. 220.127.116.11 Corrosives Containers housing corrosive chemicals should be evaluated annually. Chemicals in any container that has been compromised (crystal growth by the cap, rusted cans, etc.) must be disposed of immediately as the integrity of the contents is no longer known. No chemicals of this type should be kept any longer than five years without written permission from the CEO. a) Acids, e.g. acetic acid, citric acid, formic acid, oxalic acid, nitric acid, perchloric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid. b) Bases, e.g. ammonium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, tri-sodium phosphate. 6.4.2 Specialty Chemicals 18.104.22.168 Limited Use Chemicals that have very limited use within the Institute and are purchased for use in a narrowly focused research or testing effort should be disposed of as soon they are no longer needed and no later than when the program in which they were used is completed. 22.214.171.124 Biological Chemicals Biological chemicals typically have a specific lifespan that is often recorded as the manufacturer’s expiration date. No such chemicals should be retained beyond that date. Chemicals that are used in biological assays or come in contact with living cells should be discarded within 12 months of purchase. Biological chemicals that are used in synthesis should be disposed of within 5 years of purchase. 126.96.36.199 Plastics and Polymers Plastics and Polymers may typically be kept indefinitely if they have efficacy. The storage of obsolete chemicals however is prohibited. 6.4.3 The Owner is No Longer Employed at MMI An individual must dispose of the chemicals held in their name as part of the MMI check- out procedure prior to leaving employment with the Institute. However, there are a limited number of circumstances when this procedure may not be followed (for example, immediate termination of employment, etc.) and in these cases, the Chemical Hygiene Officer or their designee will perform the disposal. 6.5. Chemical Labeling All chemical containers must be properly labeled. Commercial materials with original labels should meet minimum labeling requirements. Repackaged or laboratory prepared containers must have a proper label applied. Minimum requirements are: 6.5.1. Commercial Materials The commercial label should contain at a minimum: Identity of the chemical in the container. Appropriate hazard warning for the material in the form of words, pictures symbols or a combination thereof. Manufacturer name and address. Responsible party identification (MMI employee “owner” name). NFPA label with hazard codes (1 – 4). Labels on commercially provided materials are not to be altered, defaced, or removed from the container as long as the material remains in the container. Re-use of the container is permitted if the original contents are thoroughly washed out and the label is completely removed or covered. No portion of the old label may be visible. The only exception to this is when the container is re-used for the exact same chemical. (For example, re-using the container to fill from a bulk supply.) 6.5.2. Repackaged/Laboratory Materials Chemicals transferred to another container from bulk or the original container must be similarly labeled. The label must contain at a minimum: Identity of the chemical in the container. Appropriate hazard warning for the material in the form of words, pictures symbols or a combination thereof. Responsible party identification (MMI employee “owner” name) NFPA label with hazard codes (1 – 4). Labels meeting these requirements (except responsible party/owner identification) are available from the Chemical Hygiene Officer. An example label is as follows: 6.6. Chemical Inventory A thorough chemical inventory is required by the MIOSHA Right to Know rule. Chemical inventories are conducted in each laboratory on an annual basis. Minimum information to be collected in the inventory audit includes: Product/chemical name Maximum quantity Location of storage (room number) Owner/responsible person’s name A chemical inventory database is maintained on the network servers and can be accessed using a web browser at msds.mmi.org. A printed copy can be produced as needed; see the Chemical Hygiene Officer for assistance. 6.7. General Laboratory Practices 6.7.1. Personal Chemical Hygiene and Work Practices Developing good working habits and practices when working with chemicals is critical to the safe operation of a laboratory. Prior to working with any chemicals the MSDS sheets and/or other literature must be consulted so the user is informed of the properties, dangers, and emergency response actions regarding the chemicals. Wash promptly after working with chemicals or whenever a chemical is suspected to have contacted the skin. Use soap and water; do not use solvents to remove stubborn or sticky materials. Avoid "routine" exposure. Develop safe habits of handling chemicals, especially regarding repeated contact with even minor amounts of materials. Avoid inhalation of chemicals. Do not smell or taste any chemicals. Do not use mouth suction on anything; pipets, siphons, etc. Use a pipet or suction bulb. Do not eat, drink, or apply cosmetics in the laboratory. Horseplay is forbidden. Practical jokes or other behavior can startle, confuse, or distract other workers causing accidents and injuries. Make a habit of washing hands and arms well with soap and water before leaving the laboratory. Eating or drinking in the laboratories is not allowed. Food must not be prepared in laboratory areas or by using laboratory equipment. Laboratory refrigerators and freezers must not be used for storing food. Ice produced in laboratory freezers or ice machines must not be used in food or drinks. When handling chemicals, pay particular attention to avoid putting hands or fingers near the mouth or face. Tip resistant safety shields are to be used where explosion, implosion, bursting, or spray risks exist. Chemicals of unknown toxicity shall be handled as though they are highly toxic. Such materials shall be used within a chemical fume hood if there is any possibility of vapor, dust, or aerosol generation. Impermeable gloves shall be worn and, depending on the physical state and the amount of the material, other protective clothing may need to be worn as well. Equipment and glassware must be handled with care to avoid damage. Do not use damaged or chipped glassware. Use extra care with Dewar flasks and other evacuated glass apparatus; shield or wrap them to contain chemicals and fragments should an implosion occur. Use glassware and equipment only for its intended purpose. Hoods should be verified for operation before beginning operations in them. Use the hood for operations which might result in release of toxic chemical vapors or dust. 6.7.2. Gas Cylinders/Compressed Gases The use of compressed gases is a regular part of operations in many laboratories. Gases in use may range from relatively harmless compressed air to highly reactive or corrosive materials. Proper precautions are necessary to use the gases and handle the cylinders safely. Rules for the proper use of compressed gases include: Handle cylinders of compressed gases as high-energy sources and potentially explosive. Restrain cylinders of all sizes, whether empty or full. Use proper straps, chains, brackets, or suitable stands to prevent cylinders from falling. When storing or moving cylinders, have the protective cap securely in place to protect the valve stems. Strap or chain the cylinder to a proper cylinder transport cart when moving. Do not expose cylinders to temperatures higher than about 50 °C (122 °F). Some rupture devices on cylinders will release at about 65 °C (149 °F). Some small cylinders (lecture bottles) are not fitted with rupture devices and may explode if exposed to excessively high temperatures. Never use a cylinder if its contents cannot be positively identified. Never lubricate, modify, force, or tamper with cylinder valves. Use toxic, flammable, or reactive gases in fume hoods only. Cylinders awaiting use are to be stored in the outdoor cylinder shed, chained or fastened to brackets. Never direct, or allow high-pressure gases to be directed at a person. Use caution when using a compressed gas to blow dust or debris from surfaces (samples, specimens) as the flying debris is dangerous. Do not extinguish a flame involving a highly combustible gas until the source of the gas is shut off. It could re-ignite causing an explosion. Close the main cylinder valves tightly when not in use. Promptly remove the regulators from empty cylinders (always leave a little pressure in the cylinder) and replace the protective caps at once. Label the cylinder to indicate it is empty (ring tags or card tags with labels). Use the appropriate regulator on each gas cylinder. The threads/fittings on the regulators are designed to avoid improper use. Adaptors or home made modifications are not to be used. Use only the correct CGA fittings. All gas lines from a compressed gas source are to be labeled clearly to identify the gas. Flammable gases are to be conspicuously marked, identifying the content and appropriate precaution. Example: HYDROGEN – FLAMMABLE GAS NO OPEN FLAMES Backflow preventers and flame arrestors are required on flammable gases. Never put oil or grease on an oxygen, chlorine, or oxidizing material cylinder. A fire or explosion can result. Always wear safety glasses when handling and using compressed gases. Acetylene cylinders require special rules and handling procedures. Consult the supplier for details. 6.7.3. Cryogens Cryogens include liquid nitrogen, liquid helium, and dry ice. These materials can cause tissue damage (frostbite) from the extreme cold when in contact with the body (including gases). Rules for proper use of cryogens include: Adequate ventilation, boil-off gases can asphyxiate. Pressure relief venting for containers. Prevent condensation of oxygen in systems using liquid nitrogen or helium. Wear safety glasses when handling cryogens. Use only appropriate dewars for transport or laboratory use. Use proper and adequate thermal gloves when filling dewars from bulk station. Get training before using the bulk liquid nitrogen filling station. Do not ride in the elevator with cryogens (send cryogen without passengers). 6.7.4. Containers Maximum container sizes for flammable materials are listed in Table 6.3. Secondary containers are to be used when transporting chemicals. Wash (squirt) bottles containing flammable or organic solvents must not exceed 500 mL in volume. Proper labeling is mandatory. See section 6.4 Chemical Labeling. Transporting chemicals in the elevator with passengers is not permitted. 6.7.5. Laboratory Hoods Laboratory fume hoods are the first line of protection from chemical fumes and vapors. Proper use of the hoods is critical to the performance and protection they offer. When using a hood, do not lean in or work with your head inside the plane of the sash. (Set-up operation where this becomes necessary should only be done when hazardous work is not being conducted in the hood.) Place equipment and apparatus no closer than six inches from the hood sash. Keep heating units at least one foot behind the plane of the sash. Place equipment and apparatus so it does not block the airflow slots or baffles in the back of the hood. Elevate the equipment if necessary to allow airflow under it. The sash opening should be kept to a minimum while the hood is in use. Close the hood doors and sashes when not working directly in the hood. Standard laboratory hoods do not offer adequate protection for reactions that have the potential for explosion. Such reactions must have facilities that are not available at MMI. Make certain the hood airflow is adequate before making use of the hood, especially if hazardous material is present in the hood. Extension cords and plug strips are not permitted in the hoods. All electrical devices must plug directly into the outlets on the outside of the hood. Run all electrical cords outside the hood by going under the hood airfoil. Minimize the quantities of flammable materials in the hoods whenever possible. Keep the hood free of clutter, chemicals, waste materials, reacted samples, etc. Return chemicals to the proper short/long term storage location. Clean up spills and chemical contamination promptly. 6.7.6. Electrical/grounding All laboratory electrical equipment must be grounded. The exceptions to this are double insulated equipment and tools that are specifically designed for such cords. Office items such as clocks, radios, lamps, when used in office spaces, do not require grounding. These items are not to be used in hazardous locations. Any cord with the ground lug broken off must be repaired or replaced. Cracked or frayed cords are to be replaced promptly. Extension cords are not permitted in the laboratory. Computer equipment in the laboratory may be used with surge suppression type plug strips. (Such plug strips must plug directly into an outlet.) 6.7.7. Distillations, Refluxing, etc. Distillations, reflux reactions, and the like, are to be set up and operated in laboratory hoods. Spill containment must be considered, especially protecting any stirrers and hot plates. All water lines to condensers, cooling jackets, etc., must be securely clamped. Vacuum distillations must be done in a hood and have safety shielding. Users should wear a face mask to guard against flying glass and chemicals if an implosion occurs. Users must be aware of the potential for hot flammable liquids to be scattered. 6.7.8. Vacuum Lines Vacuum breakers are required on all faucets equipped with aspirators for vacuum filtrations, etc. Always use a cold trap with adequate cooling (material dependant, wet ice, dry ice, isopropanol/dry ice slush, liquid nitrogen) between the vacuum system and the pump. Isopropanol/dry ice is acceptable for cold traps. Provide a cover for the dewar to prevent evaporation of the isopropanol. Do not use acetone/dry ice for cold trap dewars. Empty and clean the cold trap frequently. Do not allow a cold trap used with liquid nitrogen to be open to the atmosphere. Oxygen can condense in the trap resulting in an explosion with the trapped liquids. 6.7.9. Vacuum Ovens and Rotary Evaporators Vacuum ovens and rotary evaporators are to be used with cold traps to prevent contamination of the pump oil and transfer of chemical vapors into the lab atmosphere. Caution must be exercised to use the correct cold trap and cryogen combination (see 6.6.3 and 6.6.8). Empty and clean the cold traps immediately after use. Vacuum Ovens 1. Make sure there is a sufficient oil level in the vacuum pump. a. If you are the person responsible for the vacuum pump, change the oil on a regular basis. Contaminated oil can put toxic vapors into the air if it is not connected to a ventilation system. 2. Make sure the belt guard is in place on the vacuum pump. 3. Make sure the vacuum lines and connections are in good condition. 4. Make sure the oven seal is in good condition. 5. Make sure the oven is clean. Clean up any spills you may have after use. 6. Make sure the dry ice trap is in good condition with no cracks. Check for liquids in the trap. Empty it before starting if there was liquid left in it. 7. Fill the trap with dry ice (or appropriate coolant choice) with each use. 8. If the oven has a door latch make sure it is secure during use. For ovens that DO NOT have a door latch it is recommended not to use these for overnight use due to the following reasons: a. A power loss at MMI would mean that the vacuum pump will shut off. This will cause an oven (without a door latch) seal to be broken and the door to open. If the power comes back on before you arrive the pump and the oven will come back on. This will cause the pump to draw air and it could overheat and start a fire. b. The oven will be heating the material inside which will now be vented to the lab atmosphere. 9. If you have to leave your liquid sample unattended for long periods at a time make sure it is in a large container to avoid spilling of the sample in some way. Sometimes it is best to place the sample in a secondary container to avoid spilling onto the oven surface. 10. Release the vacuum slowly, as a fast release could cause turbulence in the oven and blow your sample around if it is light enough or in powder form. 11. Make sure to leave the vacuum pump running while releasing the vacuum to avoid “blow back” of oil and trap contents into the oven. 12. Empty the trap after use. Rotary Evaporators Follow a similar procedure as outlined for the vacuum ovens regarding the pumps and traps. Rotary evaporator operation requires training prior to use. 6.7.10. Vacuum Desiccators Vacuum desiccators should be protected by covering with cloth-backed or duct tape or enclosed in an approved shielding device for protection in case of an implosion. A crisscross pattern can be used to permit viewing of the contents. Before attempting to open them, assure yourself that the desiccator has been vented to the atmosphere. 6.7.11. Heating Baths Heated oil baths must be used with caution. Take care to prevent water, or other objects, from falling into a heated bath (water may turn to steam instantly and cause explosion or spattering of hot oil). Label the bath with the type of oil and the operating temperature range. Hot oil baths should not be left unattended without a warning label (HOT!) and an over-temperature protection shut-off device. Similarly, hot water baths should have over-heat protection to avoid boiling away the water. Water/ethylene glycol or water/propylene glycol mixtures are recommended for bath liquids when possible. 6.7.12. Unattended Operations Laboratory operations involving hazardous substances are often carried out continuously or overnight with no one present. It is the responsibility of the worker to design these operations so as to prevent the release of hazardous substances in the event of a loss of utilities (gas, water, electric) or unexpected reaction results. A consideration for safety interlocks to prevent overheating, over-pressure, or other dangerous conditions must be included. If such unattended operations are necessary: Conduct the unattended operation within a fume hood if at all possible. Leave a light on in the lab to allow visual inspection from a distance. Place a sign on the door (including the hood doors) indicating the nature of the operation, materials in use, emergency response information and the name and phone number of the responsible party(s). Unproven reactions must not be run unattended. Incorporate safety interlocks; over-temperature protection, loss of water, vacuum, etc. Safety interlocks should not reset without operator action. Seek approval and secondary review prior to running operations unattended. 6.8. Pre-Startup MMI requires pre-startup inspections of laboratory research and development equipment and prior approval of laboratory operations in order to ensure that equipment, machinery, instruments, and lab apparatus are installed and/or set up safely and in accord with governmental codes and regulations. Proper installation is a key element to the safe use and operation of laboratory equipment. This policy addresses two separate situations: (1) the installation of equipment and instruments (including design of shop-built custom equipment), in section 6.7.1, and (2) chemical reactions, processes, and scale-ups, covered in sections 6.7.2.–6.7.3. The intention of the inspections is to provide a safe working environment for persons using the equipment and laboratories. 6.8.1. Instruments/Equipment Pre-startup inspections are required when new instruments and/or equipment are installed, when major modifications are made to existing equipment and prior to use of shop-built equipment. Only after an inspection team approves the installation and/or design, may the instrument/equipment be put into operation. This inspection is required in order to ensure the instrument/equipment is installed in proper accord with State codes, i.e., electrical, plumbing, fire, etc., as well as within MMI safety policy and chemical hygiene plan guidelines. The inspection team will check the instrument/equipment for proper installation methods, materials used, safety guards, potential chemical exposure, and any other potential hazards. State and local codes as well as 29 CFR 1910 shall be used as elements of the inspection. Plans for equipment and apparatus being designed and built on site are to be reviewed by the inspection team before construction begins and after it is completed. The equipment and apparatus must be capable of meeting the same safety criteria as used for commercially available equipment; safety considerations must be included. 188.8.131.52 Inspection Team The pre-startup inspection team shall include two members of the Safety Committee, (typically the appropriate group representative and the Chemical Hygiene Officer) the group supervisor, and the instrument/equipment principal user. 184.108.40.206 Inspection Process The inspection process for new equipment begins at the time of order. Prior to acquisition, location of the apparatus, utility services, additional safety equipment, emergency plans, and accessibility must be carefully considered. (Foresight at this time can save many troubles at installation time.) Once installation is complete, the equipment must be inspected before operation may begin. The inspection team will look for, but is not restricted to, the following categories: Completed key point card (if necessary), with emergency shutdown procedure. Proper electrical installation and protection per National Electric Code. Proper plumbing installation and labeling of gases, compressed air, water supply and drains. Presence of safety guards and shielding. Adequate ventilation and fume removal, exposure controls. Considerations of flammable vapors and ignition sources, Use of proper material for hoses, covers, connectors, etc, with respect to service temperature and materials in use. Presence of over-temperature protection controls. Upon passing inspection, the inspection team will indicate on the key point card the date and result of the inspection. If a key point card is not used or unnecessary, the inspection team shall indicate the result of the inspection in memo form to the Safety Committee and equipment supervisor. In either case, the inspection results are forwarded to the Safety Committee Secretary for filing in the permanent safety files. 6.8.2. Reactions/Processes Chemical operations and set-up of laboratory apparatus (glassware for reactions, distillations, etc.) are to be approved by the employee's supervisor rather than the inspection team. Approval is required whenever: A previously untried reaction or procedure is to be carried out in a reactor size greater than 250 mL and/or a pressurized system (greater than 2 psi) will be used. The reaction may produce highly toxic by-products or OSHA permissible exposure limits (PEL) could be exceeded. Unproven reaction apparatus may not be left unattended. To indicate that the operation and/or apparatus have been reviewed and approved the supervisor shall make a notation in the employee’s laboratory notebook regarding the approval. 6.8.3. Reaction Scale-up Scale up of reactions from those producing a few milligrams to those producing more than 100 grams of a product may represent several orders of magnitude of added risk. Although it is not always possible to predict whether a scaled-up reaction has increased risk, the following conditions must be considered. Do the starting materials/intermediates contain functional groups that have known explosive behavior — e.g., N–N, N–O, N–halogen, O–O, and O–halogen bonds —or that could explode to give a large increase in pressure? Is a reactant or product unstable near the planned reaction or work-up temperature? (A potential test for this is to heat a very small amount on a glass slide with a hot plate in a hood. Cover the test if possible and be aware of problems with oxygen/air/moisture exposure.) Is there an induction period in the reaction? Are gaseous by-products formed? Is the reaction exothermic? How much heat is generated? Can the available cooling handle the evolved heat? Are precautions in place for a prolonged reflux in case of loss of solvent? Is there a significant change of reactants or quantities of reactants to be used in a procedure, e.g., a scale-up factor of ten? Has the heat of reaction and temperature change been calculated? (See section 6.7.4) Will viscosity be a factor in ability to stir or transfer heat? Be prepared if: - The electric power fails, - cooling fails, - vessel pressure increases beyond expectation, - water enters reaction system. - air/oxygen enters the reaction system, or - the reaction vessel fails leaking its contents. These conditions require special consideration to account for the consequences suggested. Be certain that the apparatus and equipment can handle the consequences. 6.8.4. Suggested Pre-Startup Evaluation Procedure Prior to any new or unfamiliar and potentially hazardous operations being conducted in the laboratory, it is the responsibility of the researcher to obtain sufficient information for the safe use and handling of the materials being used. The planned operation should then be reviewed thoroughly with the researcher's supervisor, your safety representative, and other qualified persons to secure permission to begin the work. The following steps are suggested as an aid in evaluating the procedure. 220.127.116.11. Gather relevant information List all chemicals to be used, the reactions that are expected to take place, and all products and by-products that may be generated. Give careful consideration to side reactions or alternate products that may be formed. Consider the heat of reaction, heat capacity, and total amount of material involved. Calculate the heat of reaction from the heats of formation for the reaction. Using these data, calculate the maximum temperature that could be reached under adiabatic conditions. Heat control measures must be applied for exothermic reactions. Research the properties of the materials to be used and generated both individually and in combination. These data may be retrieved from MSDS's, handbooks, technical literature, etc., with specific attention being paid to toxicity, reactivity, corrosivity, and flammability. If data are unavailable, further research must be undertaken to document the four areas of concern. If toxicity data are unavailable, the materials must be treated as extremely toxic. 18.104.22.168. Prepare for the operation If running a reaction or process for the first time, no matter what scale, discuss any questions or uncertainties with personnel experienced in that chemistry. All reactions over 100 g or any reaction left unattended should have a sign posted on the hood indicting what the reaction is and the emergency shutdown procedure including means of stopping the reaction. Have the necessary shutdown materials readily and conspicuously available. Specify materials and equipment to be used. Determine the proper type of protective equipment to be used and arrange for its use and/or availability. Check operational status of protective equipment. Document all chemical handling and storage procedures that are to be followed. Write emergency response procedures pertaining to the operation and laboratory location. Have a plan and approved means of disposing of wastes and by-products. Have a review meeting with your supervisor to address the operation and secure permission. Inform co-workers in the vicinity of the operation what the process involves. Review with them the health hazards, reactivity and environmental concerns. 22.214.171.124. Example Calculation of Heat of Reaction An example calculation is shown for the combustion of methane: The combustion of methane gas is represented by the reaction: CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) The calculation for the heat of combustion for methane is then: heat of combustion = [heat of formation of CO2 (g) + 2 x heat of formation of H2O (g)] - [heat of formation of CH4 (g) + 2 x heat of formation of O2 (g)] = [ -393.5 kJ + 2x(-241.8 kJ)] - [-74.8 kJ + 2x(0 kJ)] = - 802.3 kJ So, the heat of combustion, that is, the heat of reaction, is - 802.3 kJ per mole of methane. 6.9. Clothing 6.9.1. Permitted Clothing Long pants, preferably cotton (polyester may melt and stick to the skin, especially in a fire situation) and shirt/blouse along with the use of laboratory coats are the suggested apparel for laboratory work. This will provide the best nominal protection short of specially designed suits or uniforms. Long sleeves are suggested to protect from splashes (laboratory coat). If working with particularly hazardous materials, (see Section 8 of this manual) long sleeve lab coats are required. The use of laboratory coats is especially in order if the employee is exposed to the potential of chemical contamination or contact while wearing clothing that is also worn at home. Female employees on some occasions wear skirts or dresses for more formal meetings or functions. On those occasions, it is best to plan the day doing work other than laboratory work or bring a change of clothing as needed. 6.9.2. Permitted Footwear Leather shoes with closed toes provide the best protection from a splash or spill in the laboratory. A flat or low heel type sole is best for balance and stability. Athletic type shoes that have leather tops will also provide good protection. 6.9.3. What Not to Wear Shorts and bare midriff clothing are prohibited. Tank tops or other clothing items with minimal shoulder cover are strongly discouraged. Canvas shoes provide minimal protection, and will soak liquids rapidly. Sandals, open weave, and open toe and/or open heel shoes are not permitted in the laboratory. High heels are not to be worn in the laboratory. Loose clothing, dangling neckties, scarves, and the like are not to be worn in the labs as they can become entangled in moving equipment or dip into chemicals. (This includes long hair; tying it back is recommended.) 6.9.4. Earphones/Headsets The use of audible warnings and verbal communication is essential in the laboratory and office spaces. Wearing headphones/earphones/earbuds is not permitted in the laboratories. Employees may play music in offices and labs as long as it is not excessive in volume or disturb or bother other lab or office occupants. An exception to this is the use of earmuffs for hearing protection from loud noise or when headsets are used as part of an instrument or transcription device. 6.10. Respirator Use 6.10.1. Respiratory Protection Program The Institute’s Respiratory Protection Program controls respirator use in the laboratories. Normally, laboratory operations are conducted using hoods and ventilation ductwork to control exposure to dust and chemical vapors. If ventilation controls are not sufficient to control the exposure, a respirator may be in order. The Respiratory Protection Program outlines the procedures for respirator selection, fit test, and use. Typically, a medical evaluation with pulmonary function test is required along with a fit test. 6.10.2. Voluntary or Comfort Respirator Use A voluntary or comfort respirator may be used when exposure levels do not otherwise require a respirator. Comfort respirators typically are used to control nuisance odors or particles. If an employee chooses to use a comfort respirator, it must be approved by the Chemical Hygiene Officer and the employee must be trained using the information in Appendix D of the MIOSHA Part 451 Respirator Protection Standard. 6.11. Laboratory Housekeeping Order and cleanliness in a lab correlates with safety. The following housekeeping practices are expected of laboratory staff: Never obstruct access to exits, electrical panels, and emergency equipment such as fire extinguishers and safety showers. Clean work areas regularly, including lab benches, hoods, and sinks. Put properly labeled chemicals in proper storage locations. Hoods are not acceptable locations for long term chemical storage. Secure compressed gas cylinders to walls or benches. Do not store chemical containers on floors or under open hood benches. Do not use floors and aisle ways for storage. Clear lab benches of clutter and long term storage. Clutter on a lab bench is an invitation for accidents from spills, knocked over items, broken glassware, etc. Clean-up is essential. Regular laboratory inspections will be conducted to evaluate housekeeping and cleanliness. Personal housekeeping: Keep your work area clean and uncluttered. Chemicals and equipment must be properly labeled and stored. Clean your work area on completion of an operation or at the end of each work day. Maintenance and housekeeping staff should sweep and clean (wet mop) floors regularly to prevent accumulation of dust and debris. 6.12. Waste Disposal 6.12.1. Chemical Waste Disposal Policy MMI conforms to applicable regulations of the State of Michigan, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Transportation, and United States Department of Labor with regard to the safe use, handling, transportation and disposal of chemical substances and waste. 6.12.2. Waste Coordinator The Waste Coordinator is responsible for coordinating the disposal of surplus and waste chemical substances and to assure compliance with environmental regulations. The Waste Coordinator is also a member of the Safety Committee. Specifically, the waste coordinator is responsible for waste characterization, conducting inspections of the waste accumulation area and safety equipment used in the waste accumulation area, training of lab personnel, loading and unloading of waste, labeling of hazardous waste containers, manifest and transporting of waste, treating, storing and disposing of waste (40 CFR 265.16). 6.12.3. General Guidelines MMI personnel shall not accept any chemical, hazardous substance, or item containing hazardous substances, as gifts or donations on the behalf of MMI without notifying the Chemical Hygiene Officer prior to the transfer. Any chemical that is accepted must have an MSDS. This is to assure that no unanticipated future hazardous waste costs result from such a transfer. Under no circumstances is any person to dispose of a hazardous substance down the drain or in the refuse disposal system where the applicable regulations, procedures, and policies regarding its disposal as described in this document or the MSDS for the product prohibit this action or are unknown. Any questions concerning this should be forwarded to the Waste Coordinator. MMI can only dispose of substance(s) purchased by or generated within MMI. MMI cannot accept any substance(s) for disposal from anyone outside MMI. At the time of this writing, MMI does not have any biohazard waste. These guidelines do not take into account biohazard issues. 6.12.4. What is Chemical Waste? The decision to discard a chemical is left up to the individual working with that chemical. The following criteria will help determine if a chemical is waste. 1. Is the chemical more than 10 years old, 2 years if it is a monomer or peroxide former? 2. Is the chemical discolored, have precipitate in it, or exhibits abnormal viscosity? 3. Has the container been opened, or has a solid precipitate formed around the cap of the bottle? 4. Is it properly labeled? 5. Does it have an owner listed on the label? 6. Has the listed owner left MMI? 7. Has the label been defaced in any way? 8. If the chemical is a research sample, is it properly labeled with some way to track who made it and how it was made? If there is any doubt, discard it. Once a chemical has been determined to be waste, it must be sent to the burner for incineration. It is the responsibility of the individual generating the waste to abide by the following procedures (sections 6.11.5. and 6.11.6.). 6.12.5. Basic Procedures 1. Collect compatible substances into waste containers. 2. Print on the label of the waste container your name, lab number, and contents. 3. Do not date the containers until they are full. 4. When full, transfer the container to the solvent satellite area. 6.12.6. Detailed Procedures 1. Collect compatible substances into the waste containers. a. All chemicals must be compatible when placed into the waste containers. Compatible in this case means when mixed there is no generation of heat, gasses or fumes. Two layers can be accepted but not recommended, for example water and toluene. The MSDS may list the chemicals that should not be mixed. When in doubt, ask the Waste Coordinator for assistance. b. The waste container refers to only the ½-gallon or 1-gallon polyethylene jugs available in the stockroom. No other container will be accepted. The ½- gallon jugs are for solvents and solids. The 1-gallon jugs are to be used for solids or waste lab supplies, not for liquids (solvents). 2. Each waste container must have the hazardous waste label shown below. Any waste container that does not meet the following requirements will be returned to the lab or person listed on the label. Hazardous Waste NAME: __________________ LAB NO.: ___________DATE: ______________ CONTENTS (FULL CHEMICAL NAME) 3. The following must be PRINTED on the label: 4. The NAME of the person who is the principal investigator or person responsible for generating the waste (or someone with direct knowledge of how the waste was generated). 5. The LAB NO. identifies what lab generated the waste. 6. The DATE is recorded only when the container is full. Once the date is on the container, you have six days from that date to remove the container to the satellite storage area. 7. The CONTENTS must clearly and neatly indicate the chemical or common name of each substance that is present in at least 1% by volume of the total contents or mixture. Carcinogens, catalysts, or highly toxic substances must be listed if they are 0.1% or more by volume. See the Waste Coordinator to determine if a chemical is in this category. Do not use chemical formulas, chemical symbols, chemical equations or abbreviations. The omission of the name of a substance could cause the addition of non-compatible substances in the container, which could cause a reaction. Do not allow the creation of "UNKNOWNS" through lack of secure readable labeling. 8. An outer or secondary container is required if any chemical is being carried within MMI. 6.12.7. Other Notes About Waste Chemicals a. Strong acids or strong bases must be neutralized (pH must be between 2.0 and 12.0) before placing into the waste containers. Any reactive chemical and oxidizing or reducing agents must also be neutralized before placing into waste containers. b. For any chemical containing lithium, mercury, radioactive or acutely hazardous, contact the Waste Coordinator before disposal. c. The total amount of waste must be kept to a minimum. For that reason, glass (see glass disposal) and metal must not be placed into the waste containers. Used syringe needles are an exception and may be placed into the waste containers. 6.12.8. Disposal of Empty Containers Containers which are empty and no longer needed must be disposed of properly. If a container contained a chemical, the container shall be considered empty only if the container has been triple rinsed using a solvent capable of removing the chemical or cleaned by another method that has been shown in the scientific literature to achieve equivalent removal and dried. The rinsate then becomes a hazardous waste. The container can then be placed into the normal refuse. Small, lecture bottles of compressed gas must be at atmospheric pressure and the main valve removed. The bottle must then be rinsed with a suitable solvent and dried. The labels should be removed and discarded in the normal refuse. 6.12.9. Original Container Condition a. Where possible, materials should be kept in their original containers. Do not write on the label. b. Containers shall be in good condition; leaking or damaged containers are not acceptable. If the container is leaking or is damaged, dispose of the chemical. c. Containers shall be equipped with a properly fitting cap or other closure means. Properly secured means with the original device or method provided by the manufacturer, or when unavoidable, with a substitute means of equal or better quality that will prevent leakage or incidental exposure during routine handling or in the event of the container tipping or falling over. Makeshift covers such as tape to hold down a screw cap or a rag stuffed in an opening are unacceptable. d. Containers shall be compatible with substances contained therein. e. Clear plastic bags, where acceptable as containers (double bagging is preferred), shall be without punctures or tears and shall be tightly sealed. Ordinary garbage (2 mil or less) bags shall not be used as a primary or secondary container for hazardous chemical waste. f. Containers should be inspected weekly for signs of leaks or deterioration. g. Compressed gas cylinders shall not be handled or transported until the regulating device is removed and the safety cap installed. Every effort should be made to return compressed gas cylinders to the manufacturer or original supplier. 6.13. Laboratory Work Outside Normal Operating Hours Work in the laboratories outside of normal business hours is discussed in section 4. Laboratory operations are discussed here. For review of the policy, see section 4. Employees are not permitted to bring children or family members under the age of 15 into the building while working outside of normal business hours. Work functions that involve potentially hazardous operations require the presence of a second, qualified person so assistance is available in case of an emergency. The second person must be in an adjacent area, within sight or hearing range of the operation, and aware of the details of the work. Example operations include, but are not limited to: Chemical operations, particularly operations within laboratory hoods. Vacuum-line work. Sample molding, cutting, shredding, granulating, etc. High temperature or pressure equipment. Construction and equipment maintenance. Machine shop work. Operations not requiring a second person: Instrument operations not involving chemical reactions (examples include; microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, NMR, GC-MS, thermal analysis, etc. – specimen preparation may require a second person, depending on the specific hazards involved). Office functions may be conducted without second person restrictions. Use of the elevator after hours is discouraged. In case of questions or concerns regarding the need for a second person, consult with the Chemical Hygiene Officer. It is strongly recommended that you notify another person of your presence at MMI as well as an expected length of stay. That person should also have a phone number where you can be reached should you be longer than expected. 6.14. Elevator Usage The elevator provides a convenient way of travel between floors at MMI. In an event of mechanical failure or loss of power it can become disabled and trap occupants. For this reason the following use guidelines apply: 1. Use of the elevator after hours is discouraged unless others are present that can respond to an emergency. 2. The elevator is not to be used to transport cryogens or gas cylinders with passengers. If it is necessary to use the elevator for this purpose, load the elevator and send it to the next floor. Arrange for someone to meet it and remove the items. 3. No chemicals should be transported in the elevator with passengers. If this is necessary, use the procedure in item 2 above. 4. The elevator is not to be used for building evacuation in case of an emergency. 6.15. Key Point Cards 6.15.1. Key Point Cards are half page cards, red in color, attached to certain pieces of equipment outlining key safe operating procedures and precautions. 6.15.2. Purpose To identify the person(s) responsible for the equipment. To identify person(s) authorized to use the equipment. To provide safety information and required protective equipment needed to operate the equipment. To provide a shutdown procedure in the event of an emergency or accident. 6.15.3. Equipment requiring Key Point Cards Equipment that require Key Point Cards includes, but are not limited to equipment with: large moving or rotating parts, cutting edges, complex or specific operating procedures, specific training, radiation producing equipment, restricted instruments and equipment, presses, and other equipment determined to have specific hazards. 6.15.4. Required information on the Key Point Cards Equipment name, including the model number. Key points for safe operation. Include required or recommended personal protective equipment (gloves, eye protection, etc.). Shutdown procedures for a safe but fast and orderly shutdown. If this is extensive, an alternative emergency shutdown must be identified and marked as Emergency Shutdown. Authorized user’s names. Include a “valid thru” date if refresher training is required after that date, or if use is infrequent. Key Point Cards are to be attached to the equipment by placing the cards in transparent ticket holder envelopes and fastening with bead chain or tie-wrap fasteners so they are not easily removed or lost.
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