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Andrew Jackson

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					        Mr. Marston
Dominion Christian High School
        Marietta, GA
3 Critical issues between 1800
            and 1828
• 1. nationalism: period of economic cooperation
  after War of 1812
Six states entered the Union: Louisiana,
  Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, and
  Missouri
Concern for economic strength of the nation
a. New system of coastal fortifications
b. Enlarge the army
c. New naval construction program
• 2. sectionalism: west, south, and northeast
              American System
• Henry Clay’s economic nationalist policy that would unite the
  country “by cords of commerce.”
1. Tariff of 1816: tax on imported goods (protectionist legislation
   that led to higher consumer prices)
a. Doubled current tariff rate
b. Foreign imports would be taxed at 20%
c. 25% for imported textiles

South and New England were opposed
2. Internal improvements (funding for roads, canals, and harbor
     developments that would bolster commerce and communication)
Link western goods with eastern markets
Was spending on roads laid out in the Constitution?
3. Recharter the Bank of the United States
      Internal Improvements
• 1. Erie Canal
• 2. National Road: started under Jefferson. Extended
  road to Wheeling, VA from Cumberland MD
• 1825: ended in Zanesville, Ohio
• 1839: ended in Vandalia, Illinois
• EX: Ordinary stagecoach ride between Boston to NY
  cost between 10 and 11 dollars (2 days wages)
• 5 weeks were needed to move a stagecoach from
  Nashville to Washington DC.
• Should road construction be responsibility of state?
  Turnpike construction was cheapest
• Macadamized Road: McAdam used 2 inch broken
  stones in a layer 6-10 inches deep and depended on
  road traffic to pack it into a dense mass.
       National Republicanism
• Program supported by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
Clay: (1-16-1816) “A chain of turnpikes, roads, and canals
  from Passamaquoddy (Maine) to New Orleans, an in
  addition to those, tariffs to effectually protect our
  manufacturers.”
Calhoun: “National greatness is the best guarantee of
  liberty and independence.” To that end, let us then
  bind the republic together with a perfect system of
  roads and canals, bring the country farmer into the
  network of the market system, and make the country
  price approximate to that of the commercial towns.”
     Recharter of the Bank
• 1. first bank charter expired in 1811
• 2. approved a second Bank of the U.S. in
  1816
a. Provided uniform currency
b. Source for loans to the public and
   private sectors
c. Place for government revenue to be
   stored
d. Made loans for land purchasing: was
   paid back by land sales.
            Panic of 1819

• 1. price of cotton dropped on the world
  market
• 2. prices of American goods dropped
• 3. banks called in loans that people
  couldn’t pay back (defaulted)
  a. State and National Bank made loans to
     western land speculators
  b. Bitterness towards National Bank grew in
     west and south
            Democratization
• Founding fathers didn’t want government in hands of
  aristocrats or the “unwashed majorities.”
Elections of presidents up through Monroe were settled
  by the votes of the states and the electoral college,
  not by public majority
Electors to the Electoral College and even senators in
  the U.S. senate, were elected by state legislators
Rights to votes were impacted by racial, gender, and
  property qualifications
Over time, property qualifications fell fast
    Why Increased Democratization?
3   White male suffrage increased
3   Party nominating committees.
3   Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential
    electors.
3   Spoils system.
3   Rise of Third Parties.
3   Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats,
    etc.)
3   Two-party system returned in the 1832
    election:
        Dem-Reps  Natl. Reps.(1828)  Whigs
                      (1832)  Republicans (1854)
        Democrats (1828)
• 1821: NY: any white male who held fee
  simple property, paid taxes, served in
  the state militia, or worked on public
  roads could vote
• 1824: only VA, NC, RI, and Louisiana
  maintained any significant property
  voting qualifications
• 27% voted in national election in 1824
• 80% in 1840
Voting Requirements
  in the Early 19c
Voter Turnout: 1820 - 1860
The “Common Man’s”
Presidential Candidate
 Jackson’s Opponents in 1824




Henry Clay   John Quincy Adams     John C. Calhoun
   [KY]            [MA]                 [SC]


             William H. Crawford
                     [GA]
  Results of the 1824 Election

    A
 “Corrupt
Bargain?”
     Corrupt Bargain of 1824

• Election thrown into House of
  Representatives (Henry Clay was speaker of
  the House)
• Final vote by state
• Adams: 13
• Jackson: 7
• Crawford:4
• Clay became secretary of State: no evidence
  that Adams entered into any bargain with
  Clay to win his support
     Death of “King Caucus”

• 1796-1820, a congressional caucus
  (closed meeting of party leaders)
  selected the presidential and vice
  presidential nominees for their party.
• See Virginia Dynasty: Jefferson,
  Madison, and Monroe
• Ended with 1824 Election
    John Quincy Adams: 6th
  president of United States
• Election of 1824 united Adams’ enemies
  and crippled his administration before it
  got underway
      Adams, the President

Extremely smart, hard worker, and very
 capable, but not a good president
Suffered from bouts of depression
Self-Righteousness, self pity, self doubt,
 self loathing.
Refused to play the political game
                 Program

•   Promoted internal improvements
•   Worked for higher tariffs
•   Set up a national university
•   Finance scientific explorations
•   Build astronomical observatories
              Outcome

• Adams and Clay supporters: National
  Republicans
• Jackson: Democratic-Republicans, later
  became Democrats
Rachel Jackson: Was she divorced from her first husband?




                              Final Divorce Decree
Jackson in Mourning for His Wife: She died weeks before his
                       inauguration
1828 Election Results
         Election of 1828

• Adams-Jackson rematch
• NY Senator Martin Van Buren (Little
  Magician) where we get the expression
  O.K. “Old Kinderhook”
• Jackson’s V.P. was John C. Calhoun
• 56% of popular vote
• 178 to 83 Electoral votes
• One million votes for president were
  cast: twice as many as 1824.
The Center of Population in the
    Country Moves WEST
The New “Jackson Coalition”
3   The Planter Elite in the South
3   Patriotic, National War hero
3   Debtors and local bankers who
    hated the national bank
3   People on the Frontier
3   State Politicians
3   Immigrants in the cities.
           Jackson’s Faith
       in the “Common Man”
3   Intense distrust of Eastern
    “establishment,” monopolies, &
    special privilege.
3   His heart & soul was with the
    “plain folk.”
3   Belief that the common man was
    capable of uncommon
    achievements.
The Reign of “King Mob”
          Age of Jackson

• First president not to come from a
  prominent colonial family
• Self made-soldier politician-land
  speculator
• Symbolized a change in the country
• “Old Hickory”
Essential Question:




   Champion of         “King”
      the        OR   Andrew?
 “Common Man”?
Andrew Jackson as President
           Spoils System

• Jackson’s attempt to replace career,
  entrenched politicians with people who
  would be more responsive to the public.
• Unfortunately, new officeholders were
  loyal to Jackson for the job, not to the
  public.
          Kitchen Cabinet

Jackson’s political appointments to his
 cabinet were based on services
 rendered during the campaign.

Kitchen Cabinet: close circle of friends,
  including Martin Van Buren who were
  the real advisors to the president.
Jackson sides with Van Buren
        over Calhoun
• Peggy Eaton Affair: Calhoun’s wife and
  proper ladies of Washington isolated
  Peggy Eaton because of her lack of
  “virtue.”
• Jackson opposes Maysville Road Bill:
  authorized government to buy stock in a
  road in KY. Jackson vetoed the Bill.
Jackson’s Use of Federal Power


           VETO
1830  Maysville Road project
       in KY [state of his
       political rival, Henry
       Clay]
The “Peggy Eaton Affair”
       1832 Tariff Conflict
3   1828 --> “Tariff of
             Abomination”
3   1832 --> new tariff
3   South Carolina’s reaction?
3   Jackson’s response?
3   Clay’s “Compromise”
    Tariff?
           Tariff of 1828

1828: Higher protective tariff
Rates up to 50% on imports
North: supported it
South hated it: “Tariff of Abominations”
South agreed constitutionally to right of
  Congress to use tariffs to raise
  revenue, not as protection for a class or
  a particular section of the country
            The Debate

• South relied on foreign imports
• Higher tariffs meant higher prices in
  the North and higher sales in the South
• Revenue from tariff came from the
  South to fund internal improvements in
  the North
• High Tariff was considered
  discriminatory
The Webster-Hayne Debate: Jan 1830 debate on the
      merits of nullification and secession.




   Sen. Daniel                        Sen. Robert
    Webster                             Hayne
      [MA]                               [SC]
       Hayne and Webster

• Hayne: denounced Tariff of 1828 and
  stated that nullification (states could
  reject congressional acts they deemed
  unconstitutional)
• Webster: “The people of the U.S. had
  ratified the Constitution, not the
  individual states.” A state could not
  secede or nullify an act of Congress.
              1830
Webster:
    Liberty and Union, now and
    forever, one and inseparable.
Jackson:
    Our Federal Union—it must be
    preserved.
Calhoun:
    The Union, next to our liberty,
    most dear.
South Carolina Exposition and
       Protest (1828)
• John C. Calhoun’s treatise that
  protested the Treaty of 1828 and urged
  its repeal.
• Nullification stopped short of secession.
• Calhoun wanted to preserve the rights
  of the South.
• U.S. government could abandon the law
  or get a constitutional amendment voted
  on by the states.
          Tariff of 1832

Reduced rates, but tariffs on cotton,
 wool, and iron remained high
    South Carolina responds

• 1832: state legislature called a state
  convention that nullified (cancelled) the
  Tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
• Tariffs were considered
  unconstitutional by SC.
• No collection of duties after Feb. 1,
  1833.
• Calhoun resigned as V.P.
        Jackson responds

1. Force Bill: (1833) Congressional
   authorization for Jackson to use the
   army to force compliance with federal
   law in South Carolina
2. Jackson sent federal soldiers to
   Charleston Harbor.
         War was averted

1833: Compromise Tariff of 1833:
  reduced tariff gradually until 1842
Less than what South wanted, but saved
  face for nullification supporters
As a parting shot, SC nullified the Force
  Bill
          Indian Removal
3   Jackson’s Goal?
3   1830  Indian Removal Act
3   Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831)
       * “domestic dependent nation”
3   Worcester v. GA (1832)
3   Jackson:
      John Marshall has made his
      decision, now let him enforce
      it!
   Jackson’s view on Indians

He saw Indians as barbaric and needed to
 moved out of the way to make way for
 western expansion.
He wanted to move them west of the
 Mississippi River.
 Indian Removal Act of 1830

• Relocation of Indians to the west
           Indian Resistance
• 1832: Black Hawk War (Saux and Fox Indians led by
  Chief Black Hawk) sought to reoccupy lands previously
  abandoned (looking for a place to raise corn)
• Slaughtered by Illinois militia
• South: Resistance from Seminoles and Cherokees.
• Seminole War: (1835-1842) led by Osceola who was
  captured under a flag of truce.
• Cherokee Indians attempted to assimilate to white
  culture
• Stayed on land guaranteed by them in a 1791 treaty
  with U.S.
 Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
           (1831)
• Whites had invaded Cherokee land
  searching for gold
• Marshall ruled that the Supreme Court
  lacked jurisdiction because the
  Cherokees were a domestic dependant
  nation rather than a foreign state.
• Marshall did say the Cherokee had a
  right to their land.
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
Worcester vs. Georgia (1832)

Case of two white missionaries who
 refused to follow Georgia law that said
 those whites who moved to Cherokee
 territory had to get a license and take
 an oath to the state of Georgia.
Ruling: Court said that Cherokee Nation
 was a distinct political community and
 Georgia law had no force and effect.
 Georgia law was unconstitutional.
  Cherokees forced to sign a
        Treaty (1835)
Gave up lands in SE in exchange for
  tracts in the Indian Territory
  (Oklahoma)
5 million dollars from U.S. government
Expenses for transportation
Indian Removal
           Trail of Tears

• 12,000 departed in 1838
• 8,000 survived
• Several hundred hid in North Carolina
  (Eastern Band of the Cherokees)
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
Jackson’s Professed “Love” for
      Native Americans
    The National Bank Debate




Nicholas                President
 Biddle                  Jackson
               Nicolas Biddle
• President of Bank since 1823
• Came from well to do Philadelphia family:
  Valedictorian of Princeton class at age 15.
            Bank policies

Bank:
1. Supported business expansion
2. Supplied a stable currency by forcing
   state banks to keep specie reserve
   (gold or silver) on hand to back paper
   currency
3. Bank became the most powerful lending
   institution in country: it determined
   the amount of available credit to the
   nation.
  Opponents of Re-chartering
          the Bank
1. State and local banks: could not freely loan money
    because they had to keep certain amount of specie
    on reserve.
2. Businessmen and speculators who wanted easier
    credit.
3. Jackson supported a hard money policy
4. Many thought national bank fed interest in
    speculation
5. Many believed the national bank was unconstitutional
6. NYC: didn’t want revenue from tariffs handed over to
    Philadelphia: NY businessmen jealous of Philadelphia
7. Westerners and common laborers
           Bank Renewal

• 1832: president Nicolas Biddle
  submitted the Bank’s charter to
  Congress for 20 year renewal
Existing charter was valid through 1836
Congressional Bill was supported by Henry
  Clay
Bill passed Congress, but vetoed by
  Jackson. Senate could not achieve 2/3
  votes to override Jackson’s veto.
The “Monster” Is Destroyed!
3   “pet banks”?
3   1832  Jackson vetoed the
           extension of the 2nd
           National Bank of the
           United States.
3   1836  the charter expired.
3   1841  the bank went
           bankrupt!
Jackson brings down the bank

• 1. Jackson order that future governmental
  deposits be placed in state banks (pet banks)
  23 state banks benefitted from federal
  deposits in 1833.
• Was this act constitutional?
Biddle responded: Bank of U.S. would limit loans
  throughout the nation and demand the
  immediate redemption of state bank notes in
  gold or silver: Tried to create a depression by
  limiting credit.
The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
      State Banks Respond

• Rampant speculation to meet credit
  demands.
• New banks came online and began
  printing money with reckless abandon.
• Sale of public lands:
1834: 4 million acres
1835: 15 million acres
1836: 20 million acres
Jackson feared speculation: that’s what
1832 Election Results


                     Main
                    Issue?
  Election of 1832: 3 political
          precedents
• 1. introduction of a third party (Anti-
  Masonic Party)
• 2. Political parties began to issue
  platforms: written statement describing
  the political position of their party
• 3. national convention: state delegates
  gathered to nominate the party’s
  president and vice-president candidates
An 1832
Cartoon:
  “King
Andrew”?
The Specie Circular (1836)
3 “wildcat banks:” or
  state banks
3 buy future federal
  land only with gold or
  silver.
3 Jackson’s goal: stop
 Results of the Specie Circular
$ Banknotes lose their value.
$ Land sales plummeted.
$ Credit not available.
$ Businesses began to fail.
$ Unemployment rose.


   The Panic of 1837!
The 1836 Election Results




Martin Van Buren

“Old Kinderhook”
     [O. K.]
The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844
    (one year before his death)




          1767 - 1845

				
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