Dominion Christian High School
3 Critical issues between 1800
• 1. nationalism: period of economic cooperation
after War of 1812
Six states entered the Union: Louisiana,
Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, and
Concern for economic strength of the nation
a. New system of coastal fortifications
b. Enlarge the army
c. New naval construction program
• 2. sectionalism: west, south, and northeast
• Henry Clay’s economic nationalist policy that would unite the
country “by cords of commerce.”
1. Tariff of 1816: tax on imported goods (protectionist legislation
that led to higher consumer prices)
a. Doubled current tariff rate
b. Foreign imports would be taxed at 20%
c. 25% for imported textiles
South and New England were opposed
2. Internal improvements (funding for roads, canals, and harbor
developments that would bolster commerce and communication)
Link western goods with eastern markets
Was spending on roads laid out in the Constitution?
3. Recharter the Bank of the United States
• 1. Erie Canal
• 2. National Road: started under Jefferson. Extended
road to Wheeling, VA from Cumberland MD
• 1825: ended in Zanesville, Ohio
• 1839: ended in Vandalia, Illinois
• EX: Ordinary stagecoach ride between Boston to NY
cost between 10 and 11 dollars (2 days wages)
• 5 weeks were needed to move a stagecoach from
Nashville to Washington DC.
• Should road construction be responsibility of state?
Turnpike construction was cheapest
• Macadamized Road: McAdam used 2 inch broken
stones in a layer 6-10 inches deep and depended on
road traffic to pack it into a dense mass.
• Program supported by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
Clay: (1-16-1816) “A chain of turnpikes, roads, and canals
from Passamaquoddy (Maine) to New Orleans, an in
addition to those, tariffs to effectually protect our
Calhoun: “National greatness is the best guarantee of
liberty and independence.” To that end, let us then
bind the republic together with a perfect system of
roads and canals, bring the country farmer into the
network of the market system, and make the country
price approximate to that of the commercial towns.”
Recharter of the Bank
• 1. first bank charter expired in 1811
• 2. approved a second Bank of the U.S. in
a. Provided uniform currency
b. Source for loans to the public and
c. Place for government revenue to be
d. Made loans for land purchasing: was
paid back by land sales.
Panic of 1819
• 1. price of cotton dropped on the world
• 2. prices of American goods dropped
• 3. banks called in loans that people
couldn’t pay back (defaulted)
a. State and National Bank made loans to
western land speculators
b. Bitterness towards National Bank grew in
west and south
• Founding fathers didn’t want government in hands of
aristocrats or the “unwashed majorities.”
Elections of presidents up through Monroe were settled
by the votes of the states and the electoral college,
not by public majority
Electors to the Electoral College and even senators in
the U.S. senate, were elected by state legislators
Rights to votes were impacted by racial, gender, and
Over time, property qualifications fell fast
Why Increased Democratization?
3 White male suffrage increased
3 Party nominating committees.
3 Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential
3 Spoils system.
3 Rise of Third Parties.
3 Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats,
3 Two-party system returned in the 1832
Dem-Reps Natl. Reps.(1828) Whigs
(1832) Republicans (1854)
• 1821: NY: any white male who held fee
simple property, paid taxes, served in
the state militia, or worked on public
roads could vote
• 1824: only VA, NC, RI, and Louisiana
maintained any significant property
• 27% voted in national election in 1824
• 80% in 1840
in the Early 19c
Voter Turnout: 1820 - 1860
The “Common Man’s”
Jackson’s Opponents in 1824
Henry Clay John Quincy Adams John C. Calhoun
[KY] [MA] [SC]
William H. Crawford
Results of the 1824 Election
Corrupt Bargain of 1824
• Election thrown into House of
Representatives (Henry Clay was speaker of
• Final vote by state
• Adams: 13
• Jackson: 7
• Clay became secretary of State: no evidence
that Adams entered into any bargain with
Clay to win his support
Death of “King Caucus”
• 1796-1820, a congressional caucus
(closed meeting of party leaders)
selected the presidential and vice
presidential nominees for their party.
• See Virginia Dynasty: Jefferson,
Madison, and Monroe
• Ended with 1824 Election
John Quincy Adams: 6th
president of United States
• Election of 1824 united Adams’ enemies
and crippled his administration before it
Adams, the President
Extremely smart, hard worker, and very
capable, but not a good president
Suffered from bouts of depression
Self-Righteousness, self pity, self doubt,
Refused to play the political game
• Promoted internal improvements
• Worked for higher tariffs
• Set up a national university
• Finance scientific explorations
• Build astronomical observatories
• Adams and Clay supporters: National
• Jackson: Democratic-Republicans, later
Rachel Jackson: Was she divorced from her first husband?
Final Divorce Decree
Jackson in Mourning for His Wife: She died weeks before his
1828 Election Results
Election of 1828
• Adams-Jackson rematch
• NY Senator Martin Van Buren (Little
Magician) where we get the expression
O.K. “Old Kinderhook”
• Jackson’s V.P. was John C. Calhoun
• 56% of popular vote
• 178 to 83 Electoral votes
• One million votes for president were
cast: twice as many as 1824.
The Center of Population in the
Country Moves WEST
The New “Jackson Coalition”
3 The Planter Elite in the South
3 Patriotic, National War hero
3 Debtors and local bankers who
hated the national bank
3 People on the Frontier
3 State Politicians
3 Immigrants in the cities.
in the “Common Man”
3 Intense distrust of Eastern
“establishment,” monopolies, &
3 His heart & soul was with the
3 Belief that the common man was
capable of uncommon
The Reign of “King Mob”
Age of Jackson
• First president not to come from a
prominent colonial family
• Self made-soldier politician-land
• Symbolized a change in the country
• “Old Hickory”
Champion of “King”
the OR Andrew?
Andrew Jackson as President
• Jackson’s attempt to replace career,
entrenched politicians with people who
would be more responsive to the public.
• Unfortunately, new officeholders were
loyal to Jackson for the job, not to the
Jackson’s political appointments to his
cabinet were based on services
rendered during the campaign.
Kitchen Cabinet: close circle of friends,
including Martin Van Buren who were
the real advisors to the president.
Jackson sides with Van Buren
• Peggy Eaton Affair: Calhoun’s wife and
proper ladies of Washington isolated
Peggy Eaton because of her lack of
• Jackson opposes Maysville Road Bill:
authorized government to buy stock in a
road in KY. Jackson vetoed the Bill.
Jackson’s Use of Federal Power
1830 Maysville Road project
in KY [state of his
political rival, Henry
The “Peggy Eaton Affair”
1832 Tariff Conflict
3 1828 --> “Tariff of
3 1832 --> new tariff
3 South Carolina’s reaction?
3 Jackson’s response?
3 Clay’s “Compromise”
Tariff of 1828
1828: Higher protective tariff
Rates up to 50% on imports
North: supported it
South hated it: “Tariff of Abominations”
South agreed constitutionally to right of
Congress to use tariffs to raise
revenue, not as protection for a class or
a particular section of the country
• South relied on foreign imports
• Higher tariffs meant higher prices in
the North and higher sales in the South
• Revenue from tariff came from the
South to fund internal improvements in
• High Tariff was considered
The Webster-Hayne Debate: Jan 1830 debate on the
merits of nullification and secession.
Sen. Daniel Sen. Robert
Hayne and Webster
• Hayne: denounced Tariff of 1828 and
stated that nullification (states could
reject congressional acts they deemed
• Webster: “The people of the U.S. had
ratified the Constitution, not the
individual states.” A state could not
secede or nullify an act of Congress.
Liberty and Union, now and
forever, one and inseparable.
Our Federal Union—it must be
The Union, next to our liberty,
South Carolina Exposition and
• John C. Calhoun’s treatise that
protested the Treaty of 1828 and urged
• Nullification stopped short of secession.
• Calhoun wanted to preserve the rights
of the South.
• U.S. government could abandon the law
or get a constitutional amendment voted
on by the states.
Tariff of 1832
Reduced rates, but tariffs on cotton,
wool, and iron remained high
South Carolina responds
• 1832: state legislature called a state
convention that nullified (cancelled) the
Tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
• Tariffs were considered
unconstitutional by SC.
• No collection of duties after Feb. 1,
• Calhoun resigned as V.P.
1. Force Bill: (1833) Congressional
authorization for Jackson to use the
army to force compliance with federal
law in South Carolina
2. Jackson sent federal soldiers to
War was averted
1833: Compromise Tariff of 1833:
reduced tariff gradually until 1842
Less than what South wanted, but saved
face for nullification supporters
As a parting shot, SC nullified the Force
3 Jackson’s Goal?
3 1830 Indian Removal Act
3 Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831)
* “domestic dependent nation”
3 Worcester v. GA (1832)
John Marshall has made his
decision, now let him enforce
Jackson’s view on Indians
He saw Indians as barbaric and needed to
moved out of the way to make way for
He wanted to move them west of the
Indian Removal Act of 1830
• Relocation of Indians to the west
• 1832: Black Hawk War (Saux and Fox Indians led by
Chief Black Hawk) sought to reoccupy lands previously
abandoned (looking for a place to raise corn)
• Slaughtered by Illinois militia
• South: Resistance from Seminoles and Cherokees.
• Seminole War: (1835-1842) led by Osceola who was
captured under a flag of truce.
• Cherokee Indians attempted to assimilate to white
• Stayed on land guaranteed by them in a 1791 treaty
Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
• Whites had invaded Cherokee land
searching for gold
• Marshall ruled that the Supreme Court
lacked jurisdiction because the
Cherokees were a domestic dependant
nation rather than a foreign state.
• Marshall did say the Cherokee had a
right to their land.
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
Worcester vs. Georgia (1832)
Case of two white missionaries who
refused to follow Georgia law that said
those whites who moved to Cherokee
territory had to get a license and take
an oath to the state of Georgia.
Ruling: Court said that Cherokee Nation
was a distinct political community and
Georgia law had no force and effect.
Georgia law was unconstitutional.
Cherokees forced to sign a
Gave up lands in SE in exchange for
tracts in the Indian Territory
5 million dollars from U.S. government
Expenses for transportation
Trail of Tears
• 12,000 departed in 1838
• 8,000 survived
• Several hundred hid in North Carolina
(Eastern Band of the Cherokees)
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
Jackson’s Professed “Love” for
The National Bank Debate
• President of Bank since 1823
• Came from well to do Philadelphia family:
Valedictorian of Princeton class at age 15.
1. Supported business expansion
2. Supplied a stable currency by forcing
state banks to keep specie reserve
(gold or silver) on hand to back paper
3. Bank became the most powerful lending
institution in country: it determined
the amount of available credit to the
Opponents of Re-chartering
1. State and local banks: could not freely loan money
because they had to keep certain amount of specie
2. Businessmen and speculators who wanted easier
3. Jackson supported a hard money policy
4. Many thought national bank fed interest in
5. Many believed the national bank was unconstitutional
6. NYC: didn’t want revenue from tariffs handed over to
Philadelphia: NY businessmen jealous of Philadelphia
7. Westerners and common laborers
• 1832: president Nicolas Biddle
submitted the Bank’s charter to
Congress for 20 year renewal
Existing charter was valid through 1836
Congressional Bill was supported by Henry
Bill passed Congress, but vetoed by
Jackson. Senate could not achieve 2/3
votes to override Jackson’s veto.
The “Monster” Is Destroyed!
3 “pet banks”?
3 1832 Jackson vetoed the
extension of the 2nd
National Bank of the
3 1836 the charter expired.
3 1841 the bank went
Jackson brings down the bank
• 1. Jackson order that future governmental
deposits be placed in state banks (pet banks)
23 state banks benefitted from federal
deposits in 1833.
• Was this act constitutional?
Biddle responded: Bank of U.S. would limit loans
throughout the nation and demand the
immediate redemption of state bank notes in
gold or silver: Tried to create a depression by
The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
State Banks Respond
• Rampant speculation to meet credit
• New banks came online and began
printing money with reckless abandon.
• Sale of public lands:
1834: 4 million acres
1835: 15 million acres
1836: 20 million acres
Jackson feared speculation: that’s what
1832 Election Results
Election of 1832: 3 political
• 1. introduction of a third party (Anti-
• 2. Political parties began to issue
platforms: written statement describing
the political position of their party
• 3. national convention: state delegates
gathered to nominate the party’s
president and vice-president candidates
The Specie Circular (1836)
3 “wildcat banks:” or
3 buy future federal
land only with gold or
3 Jackson’s goal: stop
Results of the Specie Circular
$ Banknotes lose their value.
$ Land sales plummeted.
$ Credit not available.
$ Businesses began to fail.
$ Unemployment rose.
The Panic of 1837!
The 1836 Election Results
Martin Van Buren
The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844
(one year before his death)
1767 - 1845