American Regionalism_ Realism_ and Naturalism

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					American Regionalism, Realism,
       and Naturalism
                          1860-1920’s
                       What is Realism?

   A faithful representation of reality in
    literature, also known as
    “verisimilitude.”
   Emphasis on development of
    believable characters.
   Written in natural vernacular, or
    dialect.
   Prominent from 1860-1890.
                   Realist Writers

   Mark Twain
   William Dean
    Howells
   Henry James
            Why did Realism develop?
   The Civil War
   The urbanization and industrialization of
    America
   As a reaction to Romanticism
   Increasing rates of democracy and literacy
   The emerging middle class
   Upheaval and social change in the latter
    half of the 19th century
Nineteenth-century Definitions of
                       Romance
    Romance focuses “upon the extraordinary, the
     mysterious, the imaginary.” –Bliss Perry
     (1903)
    Nathaniel Hawthorne: the romance “has fairly
     a right to present that truth under
     circumstances, to a great extent, of the
     writer’s own choosing or creation” (Preface
     to The House of the Seven Gables)
           Romance and Realism:
                Taste and Class
Romance                        Realism
   Aspired to the ideal          Thought to be more
   Thought to be more             democratic
    genteel since it did not      Critics stressed the
    show the vulgar details        potential for vulgarity
    of life                        and its emphasis on the
                                   commonplace
                                  Potential “poison” for
                                   the pure of mind
                       What is Regionalism?
   Often called “local color.”

   Focuses on characters, dialect, customs, topography,
    and other features specific to a certain region (eg. the
    South)

   Coincided with Realism and sharing many of the
    same traits.

   Prominent from 1865-1895.
                       Regionalist Writers

   Kate Chopin—
    South
   Mary E. Wilkins-
    Freeman—New
    England
   Mark Twain—West
   Willa Cather—
    Midwest
      Why did Regionalism develop?

   Dual influence of Romanticism and
    Realism
   The Civil War and the building of a
    national identity
   An outgrowth of realism with more
    focus on a particular setting and its
    influence over characters
                   What is Naturalism?
   Applied scientific principles of
    objectivity and detachment to the study
    of human beings.
   Influenced by Darwinism (natural
    selection) and psychology (Freud)
   Posited that men were governed by
    heredity and environment.
   Often depict man in conflict with nature,
    society, or himself.
   Prominent from 1880-1920s
                        Naturalist Writers
   Stephen Crane
   Ambrose Bierce
   Jack London
   Edwin Arlington
    Robinson
   Katherine Anne
    Porter
   Charlotte Perkins
    Gilman
   Edith Wharton
        Why did Naturalism develop?
   The swell of immigrants in the latter half of
    the 19th century, which led to a larger lower
    class and increased poverty in the cities
   The prominence of psychology and the
    theories of Sigmund Freud
   Pessimism in the wake of the Civil War and
    Reconstruction
   Publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of
    the Species
                Points to Remember…
   Realism, Regionalism, and
    Naturalism are intertwined and
    connected.
   Their influence has dominated most
    literature created since 1920, though
    the movement itself is dated to
    roughly that point.
   They are truly American modes of
    writing.
                                     Works Cited
www.wsu.edu/~campbelld/powerpoint/realismmedium.ppt
www.huffenglish.com/powerpoints/American%20Regionalis
m,%20Realism,%20and%20Naturalism.ppt

				
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posted:3/20/2012
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