Report on the sleep and dream...! Subject; Psychology Submitted to; Ms, Saima Kalsoom Developed by; Muhammad Usman Ali B.B.A-7 Sleep: A condition of body and mind such as that which typically recurs for several hours every night, in which the nervous system is inactive. Or To take the rest afforded by a suspension of voluntary bodily functions and the natural suspension, complete or partial, of consciousness. Or The natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the body are restored Stages of Sleep: Stage .1 The state of transition between wakefulness and sleep characterized by relatively rapid low voltage brain waves. Your pulse slows a bit more, muscles relax, and your breathing becomes uneven. When people first go to sleep, they move from a waking state in which they are relaxed with their eyes closed into stage 1 This is actually a stage of transition between wakefulness and sleep and lasts only a few minutes. During stage 1, images sometimes appear, as if we were viewing still photos, although this is not true dreaming, which occurs later in the night. Stage2 A sleep deeper than that of stage one characterized by a slower more regular wave pattern along with momentary interruptions of “sleep spindles”. Your eyes will roll from side to side. Minor noises will not wake you. As sleep becomes deeper, people enter stage 2 sleeps, which makes up about half of the total sleep of those in their early 20s. However, there are also momentary interruptions of sharply pointed, spiky waves that are called, because of their configuration, sleep spindles. It becomes increasingly difficult to awaken a person from sleep as stage 2 progresses. Stage 3 A sleep characterized by slow brain waves with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern. Stage 4 The deepest stage of sleep during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation. This stage is the deepest sleep. If you are awakened by a loud noise or sudden movement, you may feel disoriented. Talking in your sleep, sleepwalking and bedwetting will occur in this stage and will leave no memory. This deep sleep is important to physical and psychological well being. Most people spend 75% of their sleep in Stages 1-4. Paradox of sleep: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Sleep occupying 20% of an adult’s sleeping time, characterized by increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate; erections; eye movements; and the experience of dreaming. Several times a night, when sleepers have cycled back to a shallower state of sleep, something curious happens. Their heart rate increases and becomes irregular, their blood pressure rises, and their breathing rate increases. Most characteristic of this period is the back-and-forth movement of their eyes, as if they were watching an action-filled movie. Paradoxically, while all this activity is occurring, the major muscles of the body appear to be paralyzed. Why do we sleep? We are not for sure why people sleep but some suggested reasons include… Allows people to “recharge,” allowing your brain to recover from exhaustion and stress. Rebuilds your immune system, restore muscles, and repair cells. Clears out your mind of useless information .May play a role in memory and learning (mental housekeeping). Sleep is a requirement for normal human functioning, although, surprisingly, we don’t know exactly why. It is reasonable to expect that our bodies would require a tranquil “rest and relaxation” period to revitalize them, and experiments with rats show that total sleep deprivation results in death. But why? One explanation, based on an evolutionary perspective, suggests that sleep permitted our ancestors to conserve energy at night, a time when food was relatively hard to come by. Consequently, they were better able to forage for food when the sun is up. A second explanation for why we sleep is that sleep restores and replenishes our brains and bodies. For instance, the reduced activity of the brain during non-REM sleep may give neurons in the brain a chance to repair themselves. Furthermore, the onset of REM sleep stops the release of neurotransmitters called monoamines and so permits receptor cells to get some necessary rest and to increase their sensitivity during periods of wakefulness (McNamara, 2004; Siegel, 2003; Steiger, 2007). Finally, sleep may be essential, because it assists physical growth and brain development in children. For example, the release of growth hormones is associated with deep sleep (Peterfi et al., 2010). How Much sleep is needed? Scientists have been unable to establish just how much sleep is absolutely required. Most people today sleep between seven and eight hours each night, which is three hours a night less than people slept a hundred years ago. Dreaming Dreaming: The mental activity that takes place during sleep. Everybody dreams, but most people are only able to recall a few, if any, of their dreams. In some cultures, dreams are highly valued and frequently discussed so people will begin to remember them most mornings. However, most of the 150,000 dreams the average person experiences by the age of 70 are much less dramatic. They typically encompass everyday events such as going to the supermarket, working at the office, and preparing a meal. Students dream about going to class; professors dream about lecturing. Dental patients’ dream of getting their teeth drilled; dentists dream of drilling the wrong tooth. The English have tea with the queen in their dreams; in the United States, people go to a bar with the president (Domhoff, 1996; Schredl & Piel, 2005; Taylor & Bryant, 2007). Nightmares: Unusually frightening dreams occur fairly often. In one survey, almost half of a group of college students who kept records of their dreams over a two-week period reported having at least one nightmare. This works out to some 24 nightmares per person each year, on average. (Levin & Nielsen, 2009) DO DREAMS REPRESENT UNCONSCIOUS WISH FULFILLMENT? Using psychoanalytic theory, Sigmund Freud viewed dreams as a guide to the unconscious (Freud, 1900). However, because these wishes are threatening to the dreamer’s conscious awareness, the actual wishes—called the latent content of dreams. The true subject and meaning of a dream, then, may have little to do with its apparent story line, which Freud called the manifest content of dreams. To Freud, it was important to pierce the armor of a dream’s manifest content to understand its true meaning. To do this, Freud tried to get people to discuss their dreams, associating symbols in the dreams with events in the past. He also suggested that certain common symbols with universal meanings appear in dreams. For example, to Freud, dreams in which a person is flying symbolize a wish for sexual intercourse. Unconscious wish fulfillment theory Sigmund Freud’s theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers desire to see fulfilled. Latent content of dreams According to Freud, the “disguised” meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects. Manifest content of dreams According to Freud, the apparent story line of dreams. DREAMS-FOR-SURVIVAL THEORY: The theory suggesting that dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep. Dreaming is considered an inheritance from our animal ancestors, whose small brains were unable to sift sufficient information during waking hours. Consequently, dreaming provided a mechanism that permitted the processing of information 24 hours a day. According to this theory, dreams represent concerns about our daily lives, illustrating our uncertainties, indecisions, ideas, and desires. Dreams are seen, then, as consistent with everyday living. Rather than being disguised wishes, as Freud suggested, they represent key concerns growing out of our daily experiences (Ross, 2006; Winson, 1990). ACTIVATION-SYNTHESIS THEORY: Hobson’s theory that the brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep that stimulates memories stored in the brain. Because we have a need to make sense of our world even while asleep, the brain takes these chaotic memories and weaves them into a logical story line, filling in the gaps to produce a rational scenario (Hobson, 2005; Porte & Hobson, 1996). Activation-synthesis theory has been refined by the activation information modulation (AIM) theory. According to AIM, dreams are initiated in the brain’s pons, which sends random signals to the cortex. Areas of the cortex that are involved in particular waking behaviors are related to the content of dreams. For example, areas of the brain related to vision are involved in the visual aspects of the dream, while areas of the brain related to movement are involved in aspects of the dream related to motion (Hobson, 2007). Insomnia: Difficulty in sleeping. Due to Failure, Fear and Uncertainty but it have no oblivious cause. It could be due to a particular situation, such as the breakup of a relationship, concern about a test score, or the loss of a job. Some cases of insomnia, however, have no obvious cause. Some people are simply unable to fall asleep easily, or they go to sleep readily but wake up frequently during the night. Insomnia is a problem that affl icts as many as one-third of all people. Women and older adults are more likely to suffer from insomnia, as well as people who are unusually thin or are depressed (Bains, 2006; Cooke & Ancoli-Israel, 2006; Henry et al., 2008). Some people who think they have sleeping problems actually are mistaken. For example, researchers in sleep laboratories have found that some people who report being up all night actually fall asleep in 30 minutes and stay asleep all night. Furthermore, some people with insomnia accurately recall sounds that they heard while they were asleep, which gives them the impression that they were awake during the night (Semler & Harvey, 2005; Yapko, 2006). Circadian rhythms: Biological processes that occur regularly on approximately a 24-hour cycle. Bodily functions, such as body temperature, hormone production, and blood pressure. Circadian cycles are complex, and they involve a variety of behaviors. For instance, sleepiness occurs not just in the evening but throughout the day in regular patterns, with most of us getting drowsy in mid-afternoon—regardless of whether we have eaten a heavy lunch. By making an afternoon siesta part of their everyday habit, people in several cultures take advantage of the body’s natural inclination to sleep at this time (Reilly & Waterhouse, 2007; Takahashi et al., 2004; Wright, 2002). The brain’s suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls circadian rhythms. However, the relative amount of light and darkness, which varies with the seasons of the year, also plays a role in regulating circadian rhythms. In fact, some people experience seasonal affective disorder, a form of severe depression in which feelings of despair and hopelessness increase during the winter and lift during the rest of the year. The disorder appears to be a result of the brevity and gloom of winter days. Daily exposure to bright lights is sometimes sufficient to improve the mood of those with this disorder Daydreams Fantasies that people construct while awake. Daydreams are a typical part of waking consciousness. Unlike dreaming that occurs during sleep, daydreams are more under people’s control. Therefore, their content is often more closely related to immediate events in the environment than is the content of the dreams that occur during sleep.Although they may include sexual content, daydreams also pertain to other activities or events that are relevant to a person’s life. Daydreams are a typical part of waking consciousness, even though our awareness of the environment around us declines while we are daydreaming. People vary considerably in the amount of daydreaming they do. For example, around 2% to 4% of the populations spend at least half their free time fantasizing. Although most people daydream much less frequently, almost everyone fantasizes to some degree. Studies that ask people to identify what they are doing at random times during the day have shown that they are daydreaming about 10% of the time (Holler, 2006; Lynn et al., 1996; Singer, 2006). The brain is surprisingly active during daydreaming. For example, several areas of the brain that are associated with complex problem solving become activated during daydreaming. In fact, daydreaming may be the only time these areas are activated simultaneously, suggesting that daydreaming may lead to insights about problems that we are grappling with (Fleck et al., 2008; Kounios et al., 2008). Hypnosis A trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to the suggestions of others. In some respects, it appears that they are asleep. Yet other aspects of their behavior contradict this notion, for people are attentive to the hypnotist’s suggestions and may carry out bizarre or silly suggestions. How is someone hypnotized? Typically, the process follows a series of four steps. First, a person is made comfortable in a quiet environment. Second, the hypnotist explains what is going to happen, such as telling the person that he or she will experience a pleasant, relaxed state. Third, the hypnotist tells the person to concentrate on a specific object or image, such as the hypnotist’s moving finger or an image of a calm lake. The hypnotist may have the person concentrate on relaxing different parts of the body, such as the arms, legs, and chest. Fourth, once the subject is in a highly relaxed state, the hypnotist may make suggestions that the person interprets as being produced by hypnosis, such as “Your arms are getting heavy” and “Your eyelids are more difficult to open.” Because the person begins to experience these sensations, he or she believes they are caused by the hypnotist and becomes susceptible to the suggestions of the hypnotist. Despite their compliance when hypnotized, people do not lose all will of their own. They will not perform antisocial behaviors, and they will not carry out self destructive acts. People will not reveal hidden truths about themselves, and they are capable of lying. Moreover, people cannot be hypnotized against their will—despite popular misconceptions (Gwynn & Spanos, 1996; Raz, 2007). Hypnosis has been used successfully to solve practical human problems. Applications are: Controlling pain: Patients suffering from chronic pain may be given the suggestion, while hypnotized, that their pain is gone or reduced. They also may be taught to hypnotize themselves to relieve pain or gain a sense of control over their symptoms. Hypnosis has proved to be particularly useful during childbirth and dental procedures (Accardi & Milling, 2009; Hammond, 2007; Mehl-Madrona, 2004). Reducing smoking: Although it hasn’t been successful in stopping drug and alcohol abuse, hypnosis sometimes helps people stop smoking through hypnotic suggestions that the taste and smell of cigarettes are unpleasant (Elkins et al., 2006; Fuller, 2006; Green, Lynn, & Montgomery, 2008). Treating psychological disorders: Hypnosis sometimes is used during treatment for psychological disorders. For example, it may be employed to heighten relaxation, reduce anxiety, increase expectations of success, or modify self-defeating thoughts (Golden, 2006; Iglesias, 2005; Zarren & Eimer, 2002). Assisting in law enforcement: Witnesses and victims are sometimes better able to recall the details of a crime when hypnotized. In one often-cited case, a witness to the kidnapping of a group of California schoolchildren was placed under hypnosis and was able to recall all but one digit of the license number on the kidnapper’s vehicle. However, hypnotic recollections may also be inaccurate, just as other recollections are often inaccurate. Consequently, the legal status of hypnosis is unresolved (Kazar, 2006; Knight & Meyer, 2007; Whitehouse et al., 2005). Improving athletic performance. Athletes sometimes turn to hypnosis to improve their performance. For example, some baseball players have used hypnotism to increase their concentration when batting, with considerable success (Barker & Jones, 2008; Grind staff & Fisher, 2006; Lindsay, Maynard, & Thomas, 2005). Meditation: A learned technique for refocusing attention that brings about an altered state of consciousness. Meditation typically consists of the repetition of a mantra —a sound, word, or syllable—over and over. In some forms of meditation, the focus is on a picture, flame, or specific part of the body. Regardless of the nature of the particular initial stimulus, the key to the procedure is concentrating on it so thoroughly that the meditator becomes unaware of any outside stimulation and reaches a different state of consciousness. After meditation, people report feeling thoroughly relaxed. They sometimes relate that they have gained new insights into themselves and the problems they are facing. The long-term practice of meditation may even improve health because of the biological changes it produces. For example, during meditation, oxygen usage decreases, heart rate and blood pressure decline, and brainwave patterns change (Barnes et al., 2004; Lee, Kleinman, & Kleinman, 2007; Travis et al., 2009). Drug Use The Highs and Lows of Consciousness Psychoactive drugs: Drugs that influence a person’s emotions, perceptions, and behavior. Yet even this category of drugs is common in most of our lives. If you have ever had a cup of coffee or sipped a beer, you have taken a psychoactive drug. A large number of individuals have used more potent—and more dangerous—psychoactive drugs than coffee and beer (see Figure 1 on page 160); for instance, surveys find that 41% of high school seniors have used an illegal drug in the last year. In addition, 30% report having been drunk on alcohol. The figures for the adult population are even higher (Johnston et al., 2009). Addictive drugs: Drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in the user so that withdrawal from them leads to a craving for the drug that, in some cases, may be nearly irresistible. In physiological dependence, the body becomes so accustomed to functioning in the presence of a drug that it cannot function without it. In psychological dependence, people believe that they need the drug to respond to the stresses of daily living. Although we generally associate addiction with drugs such as heroin, everyday sorts of drugs, such as caffeine (found in coffee) and nicotine (found in cigarettes), have addictive aspects as well (Li, Volkow, & Balu, 2007). Stimulants: Drugs that have an arousal effect on the central nervous system, causing a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, and muscular tension. Caffeine Amphetamines Cocaine Depressants: The effect of depressants is to impede the nervous system by causing neurons to fire more slowly. Small doses result in at least temporary feelings of intoxication —drunkenness—along with a sense of euphoria and joy. When large amounts are taken, however, speech becomes slurred and muscle control becomes disjointed, making motion difficult. Ultimately, heavy users may lose consciousness entirely. Alcohol: The most common depressant is alcohol, which is used by more people than is any other drug. Based on liquor sales, the average person over the age of 14 drinks 2½ gallons of pure alcohol over the course of a year. This works out to more than 200 drinks per person. Although alcohol consumption has declined steadily over the last decade, surveys show that more than three-fourths of college students indicate that they have had a drink within the last 30 days (Jung, 2002; Midanik, Tam, & Weisner, 2007). Barbiturates: Barbiturates, which include drugs such as Nembutal, Seconal, and Phenobarbital, are another form of depressant. Frequently prescribed by physicians to induce sleep or reduce stress, barbiturates produce a sense of relaxation. Yet they, too, are psychologically and physically addictive and, when combined with alcohol, can be deadly, since such a combination relaxes the muscles of the diaphragm to such an extent that the user stops breathing. Rohypnol: Rohypnol is sometimes called the “date rape drug,” because, when it is mixed with alcohol, it can prevent victims from resisting sexual assault. Sometimes people who are unknowingly given the drug are so incapacitated that they have no memory of the assault. Narcotics: Drugs that increase relaxation and relieve pain and anxiety. Two of the most powerful narcotics, morphine and heroin , are derived from the poppy seed pod. Although morphine is used medically to control severe pain, heroin is illegal in the United States. This status has not prevented its widespread use. Heroin users usually inject the drug directly into their veins with a hypodermic needle. The immediate effect has been described as a “rush” of positive feeling, similar in some respects to a sexual orgasm—and just as difficult to describe. After the rush, a heroin user experiences a sense of well-being and peacefulness that lasts three to five hours. When the effects of the drug wear off, however, the user feels extreme anxiety and a desperate desire to repeat the experience. Moreover, larger amounts of heroin are needed each time to produce the same pleasurable effect. These last two properties are all the ingredients necessary for physiological and psychological dependence: The user is constantly either shooting up or attempting to obtain ever- increasing amounts of the drug. Eventually, the life of the addict revolves around heroin. Because of the powerful positive feelings the drug produces, heroin addiction is particularly difficult to cure. One treatment that has shown some success is the use of methadone. Methadone is a synthetic chemical that satisfies a heroin user’s physiological cravings for the drug without providing the “high” that accompanies heroin. When heroin users are placed on regular doses of methadone, they may be able to function relatively normally. The use of methadone has one substantial drawback, however: Although it removes the psychological dependence on heroin, it replaces the physiological dependence on heroin with a physiological dependence on methadone. Researchers are attempting to identify no addictive chemical substitutes for heroin as well as substitutes for other addictive drugs that do not replace one addiction with another (Amato et al., 2005; Joe, Flynn, &Broome, 2007; Oviedo-Joekes et al., 2009; Verdejo, Toribio, & Orozco, 2005). Oxycodone (sold as the prescription drug OxyContin) is a type of pain reliever that has led to a significant amount of abuse. Many well-known people (including Courtney Love and Rush Limbaugh) have become dependent on it. Hallucinogen: A drug that is capable of producing hallucinations, or changes in the perceptual process. The most common hallucinogen in widespread use today is marijuana, whose active ingredient—tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)—is found in a common weed, cannabis. Marijuana is typically smoked in cigarettes or pipes, although it can be cooked and eaten. Just over 32% of high school seniors and 11% of eighth-graders report having used marijuana in the last year (Johnston et al., 2009). The effects of marijuana vary from person to person, but they typically consist of feelings of euphoria and general well-being. Sensory experiences seem more vivid and intense, and a person’s sense of self-importance seems to grow. Memory may be impaired, causing users to feel pleasantly “spaced out.” However, the effects are not universally positive. Individuals who use marijuana when they feel depressed can end up even more depressed, because the drug tends to magnify both good and bad feelings. There are clear risks associated with long-term, heavy marijuana use. Although marijuana does not seem to produce addiction by itself, some evidence suggests that there are similarities in the way marijuana and drugs such as cocaine and heroin affect the brain. Furthermore, there is some evidence that heavy use at least temporarily decreases the production of the male sex hormone testosterone, potentially affecting sexual activity and sperm count (Iverson, 2000; Lane, Cherek, & Tcheremissine,2007; Rossato, Pagano, & Vettor, 2008). In addition, marijuana smoked during pregnancy may have lasting effects on children who are exposed parentally, although the results are inconsistent. Heavy use also affects the ability of the immune system to fight off germs and increases stress on the heart, although it is unclear how strong these effects are. There is one unquestionably negative consequence of smoking marijuana: The smoke damages the lungs much the way cigarette smoke does, producing an increased likelihood of developing cancer and other lung diseases (Cornelius et al., 1995; Julien, 2001). References: 1 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/sleep 2 Feldman, Robert S. (Robert Stephen), 1947–Understanding psychology / Robert S. Feldman.—6th Ed.