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Report on the sleep and dreams

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Report on the sleep and dreams Powered By Docstoc
					Report on the sleep and dream...!


 Subject;
            Psychology

Submitted to;
           Ms, Saima Kalsoom



Developed by;
         Muhammad Usman Ali
              B.B.A-7
Sleep:
           A condition of body and mind such as that which typically recurs for several
hours every night, in which the nervous system is inactive.
                Or
       To take the rest afforded by a suspension of voluntary bodily functions and the
natural suspension, complete or partial, of consciousness.
              Or
          The natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the
body are restored
Stages of Sleep:
            Stage .1
                The state of transition between wakefulness and sleep characterized by
relatively rapid low voltage brain waves. Your pulse slows a bit more, muscles relax, and
your breathing becomes uneven. When people first go to sleep, they move from a waking
state in which they are relaxed with their eyes closed into stage 1 This is actually a stage of
transition between wakefulness and sleep and lasts only a few minutes. During stage 1,
images sometimes appear, as if we were viewing still photos, although this is not true
dreaming, which occurs later in the night.
              Stage2
                  A sleep deeper than that of stage one characterized by a slower more
regular wave pattern along with momentary interruptions of “sleep spindles”. Your eyes
will roll from side to side. Minor noises will not wake you. As sleep becomes deeper,
people enter stage 2 sleeps, which makes up about half of the total sleep of those in their
early 20s. However, there are also momentary interruptions of sharply pointed, spiky waves
that are called, because of their configuration, sleep spindles. It becomes increasingly
difficult to awaken a person from sleep as stage 2 progresses.
              Stage 3
                  A sleep characterized by slow brain waves with greater peaks and valleys
in the wave pattern.
               Stage 4
            The deepest stage of sleep during which we are least responsive to outside
stimulation. This stage is the deepest sleep. If you are awakened by a loud noise or sudden
movement, you may feel disoriented. Talking in your sleep, sleepwalking and bedwetting
will occur in this stage and will leave no memory. This deep sleep is important to physical
and psychological well being. Most people spend 75% of their sleep in Stages 1-4.
Paradox of sleep:
            Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Sleep occupying 20% of an adult’s sleeping
time, characterized by increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate; erections;
eye movements; and the experience of dreaming. Several times a night, when sleepers have
cycled back to a shallower state of sleep, something curious happens. Their heart rate
increases and becomes irregular, their blood pressure rises, and their breathing rate
increases. Most characteristic of this period is the back-and-forth movement of their eyes,
as if they were watching an action-filled movie. Paradoxically, while all this activity is
occurring, the major muscles of the body appear to be paralyzed.
Why do we sleep?
             We are not for sure why people sleep but some suggested reasons include…
Allows people to “recharge,” allowing your brain to recover from exhaustion and stress.
Rebuilds your immune system, restore muscles, and repair cells. Clears out your mind of
useless information .May play a role in memory and learning (mental housekeeping).
          Sleep is a requirement for normal human functioning, although, surprisingly, we
don’t know exactly why. It is reasonable to expect that our bodies would require a tranquil
“rest and relaxation” period to revitalize them, and experiments with rats show that total
sleep deprivation results in death. But why?
              One explanation, based on an evolutionary perspective, suggests that sleep
permitted our ancestors to conserve energy at night, a time when food was relatively hard
to come by. Consequently, they were better able to forage for food when the sun is up.
              A second explanation for why we sleep is that sleep restores and replenishes
our brains and bodies. For instance, the reduced activity of the brain during non-REM sleep
may give neurons in the brain a chance to repair themselves. Furthermore, the onset of
REM sleep stops the release of neurotransmitters called monoamines and so permits
receptor cells to get some necessary rest and to increase their sensitivity during periods of
wakefulness (McNamara, 2004; Siegel, 2003; Steiger, 2007).
             Finally, sleep may be essential, because it assists physical growth and brain
development in children. For example, the release of growth hormones is associated with
deep sleep (Peterfi et al., 2010).

How Much sleep is needed?
             Scientists have been unable to establish just how much sleep is absolutely
required. Most people today sleep between seven and eight hours each night, which is three
hours a night less than people slept a hundred years ago.
                                       Dreaming
Dreaming:
        The mental activity that takes place during sleep. Everybody dreams, but most
people are only able to recall a few, if any, of their dreams. In some cultures, dreams are
highly valued and frequently discussed so people will begin to remember them most
mornings.
             However, most of the 150,000 dreams the average person experiences by the
age of 70 are much less dramatic. They typically encompass everyday events such as going
to the supermarket, working at the office, and preparing a meal. Students dream about
going to class; professors dream about lecturing. Dental patients’ dream of getting their
teeth drilled; dentists dream of drilling the wrong tooth. The English have tea with the
queen in their dreams; in the United States, people go to a bar with the president (Domhoff,
1996; Schredl & Piel, 2005; Taylor & Bryant, 2007).
Nightmares:
              Unusually frightening dreams occur fairly often. In one survey, almost half of
a group of college students who kept records of their dreams over a two-week period
reported having at least one nightmare. This works out to some 24 nightmares per person
each year, on average. (Levin & Nielsen, 2009)

DO DREAMS REPRESENT UNCONSCIOUS WISH FULFILLMENT?

               Using psychoanalytic theory, Sigmund Freud viewed dreams as a guide to
the unconscious (Freud, 1900). However, because these wishes are threatening to the
dreamer’s conscious awareness, the actual wishes—called the latent content of dreams. The
true subject and meaning of a dream, then, may have little to do with its apparent story line,
which Freud called the manifest content of dreams.
       To Freud, it was important to pierce the armor of a dream’s manifest content to
understand its true meaning. To do this, Freud tried to get people to discuss their dreams,
associating symbols in the dreams with events in the past. He also suggested that certain
common symbols with universal meanings appear in dreams. For example, to Freud,
dreams in which a person is flying symbolize a wish for sexual intercourse.

      Unconscious wish fulfillment theory
              Sigmund Freud’s theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that
dreamers desire to see fulfilled.

      Latent content of dreams
             According to Freud, the “disguised” meanings of dreams, hidden by more
obvious subjects.

      Manifest content of dreams
             According to Freud, the apparent story line of dreams.
DREAMS-FOR-SURVIVAL THEORY:
                The theory suggesting that dreams permit information that is critical for our
daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep. Dreaming is considered an
inheritance from our animal ancestors, whose small brains were unable to sift sufficient
information during waking hours. Consequently, dreaming provided a mechanism that
permitted the processing of information 24 hours a day.
             According to this theory, dreams represent concerns about our daily lives,
illustrating our uncertainties, indecisions, ideas, and desires. Dreams are seen, then, as
consistent with everyday living. Rather than being disguised wishes, as Freud suggested,
they represent key concerns growing out of our daily experiences (Ross, 2006; Winson,
1990).
ACTIVATION-SYNTHESIS THEORY:
                 Hobson’s theory that the brain produces random electrical energy during
REM sleep that stimulates memories stored in the brain. Because we have a need to make
sense of our world even while asleep, the brain takes these chaotic memories and weaves
them into a logical story line, filling in the gaps to produce a rational scenario (Hobson,
2005; Porte & Hobson, 1996).
      Activation-synthesis theory has been refined by the activation information
modulation (AIM) theory. According to AIM, dreams are initiated in the brain’s pons,
which sends random signals to the cortex. Areas of the cortex that are involved in particular
waking behaviors are related to the content of dreams. For example, areas of the brain
related to vision are involved in the visual aspects of the dream, while areas of the brain
related to movement are involved in aspects of the dream related to motion (Hobson,
2007).
Insomnia:
        Difficulty in sleeping. Due to Failure, Fear and Uncertainty but it have no oblivious
cause. It could be due to a particular situation, such as the breakup of a relationship,
concern about a test score, or the loss of a job. Some cases of insomnia, however, have no
obvious cause. Some people are simply unable to fall asleep easily, or they go to sleep
readily but wake up frequently during the night. Insomnia is a problem that affl icts as
many as one-third of all people. Women and older adults are more likely to suffer from
insomnia, as well as people who are unusually thin or are depressed (Bains, 2006; Cooke &
Ancoli-Israel, 2006; Henry et al., 2008).
      Some people who think they have sleeping problems actually are mistaken. For
example, researchers in sleep laboratories have found that some people who report being
up all night actually fall asleep in 30 minutes and stay asleep all night. Furthermore, some
people with insomnia accurately recall sounds that they heard while they were asleep,
which gives them the impression that they were awake during the night (Semler & Harvey,
2005; Yapko, 2006).
Circadian rhythms:
                Biological processes that occur regularly on approximately a 24-hour cycle.
Bodily functions, such as body temperature, hormone production, and blood pressure.
Circadian cycles are complex, and they involve a variety of behaviors. For instance,
sleepiness occurs not just in the evening but throughout the day in regular patterns, with
most of us getting drowsy in mid-afternoon—regardless of whether we have eaten a heavy
lunch. By making an afternoon siesta part of their everyday habit, people in several cultures
take advantage of the body’s natural inclination to sleep at this time (Reilly & Waterhouse,
2007; Takahashi et al., 2004; Wright, 2002).
             The brain’s suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls circadian rhythms.
However, the relative amount of light and darkness, which varies with the seasons of the
year, also plays a role in regulating circadian rhythms. In fact, some people experience
seasonal affective disorder, a form of severe depression in which feelings of despair and
hopelessness increase during the winter and lift during the rest of the year. The disorder
appears to be a result of the brevity and gloom of winter days. Daily exposure to bright
lights is sometimes sufficient to improve the mood of those with this disorder
Daydreams
      Fantasies that people construct while awake. Daydreams are a typical part of waking
consciousness. Unlike dreaming that occurs during sleep, daydreams are more under
people’s control. Therefore, their content is often more closely related to immediate events
in the environment than is the content of the dreams that occur during sleep.Although they
may include sexual content, daydreams also pertain to other activities or events that are
relevant to a person’s life.
               Daydreams are a typical part of waking consciousness, even though our
awareness of the environment around us declines while we are daydreaming. People vary
considerably in the amount of daydreaming they do. For example, around 2% to 4% of the
populations spend at least half their free time fantasizing. Although most people daydream
much less frequently, almost everyone fantasizes to some degree. Studies that ask people to
identify what they are doing at random times during the day have shown that they are
daydreaming about 10% of the time (Holler, 2006; Lynn et al., 1996; Singer, 2006).
The brain is surprisingly active during daydreaming. For example, several areas of the
brain that are associated with complex problem solving become activated during
daydreaming. In fact, daydreaming may be the only time these areas are activated
simultaneously, suggesting that daydreaming may lead to insights about problems that we
are grappling with (Fleck et al., 2008; Kounios et al., 2008).
Hypnosis
       A trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to the suggestions of others. In some
respects, it appears that they are asleep. Yet other aspects of their behavior contradict this
notion, for people are attentive to the hypnotist’s suggestions and may carry out bizarre or
silly suggestions.
              How is someone hypnotized? Typically, the process follows a series of four
steps. First, a person is made comfortable in a quiet environment. Second, the hypnotist
explains what is going to happen, such as telling the person that he or she will experience a
pleasant, relaxed state. Third, the hypnotist tells the person to concentrate on a specific
object or image, such as the hypnotist’s moving finger or an image of a calm lake. The
hypnotist may have the person concentrate on relaxing different parts of the body, such as
the arms, legs, and chest. Fourth, once the subject is in a highly relaxed state, the hypnotist
may make suggestions that the person interprets as being produced by hypnosis, such as
“Your arms are getting heavy” and “Your eyelids are more difficult to open.” Because the
person begins to experience these sensations, he or she believes they are caused by the
hypnotist and becomes susceptible to the suggestions of the hypnotist.
            Despite their compliance when hypnotized, people do not lose all will of their
own. They will not perform antisocial behaviors, and they will not carry out self destructive
acts. People will not reveal hidden truths about themselves, and they are capable of lying.
Moreover, people cannot be hypnotized against their will—despite popular misconceptions
(Gwynn & Spanos, 1996; Raz, 2007).
 Hypnosis has been used successfully to solve practical human problems. Applications are:
       Controlling pain:
                Patients suffering from chronic pain may be given the suggestion, while
      hypnotized, that their pain is gone or reduced. They also may be taught to hypnotize
      themselves to relieve pain or gain a sense of control over their symptoms. Hypnosis
      has proved to be particularly useful during childbirth and dental procedures (Accardi
      & Milling, 2009; Hammond, 2007; Mehl-Madrona, 2004).
       Reducing smoking:
                     Although it hasn’t been successful in stopping drug and alcohol abuse,
      hypnosis sometimes helps people stop smoking through hypnotic suggestions that the
      taste and smell of cigarettes are unpleasant (Elkins et al., 2006; Fuller, 2006; Green,
      Lynn, & Montgomery, 2008).
       Treating psychological disorders:
                          Hypnosis sometimes is used during treatment for psychological
      disorders. For example, it may be employed to heighten relaxation, reduce anxiety,
      increase expectations of success, or modify self-defeating thoughts (Golden, 2006;
      Iglesias, 2005; Zarren & Eimer, 2002).
       Assisting in law enforcement:
                      Witnesses and victims are sometimes better able to recall the details of
      a crime when hypnotized. In one often-cited case, a witness to the kidnapping of a
      group of California schoolchildren was placed under hypnosis and was able to recall
      all but one digit of the license number on the kidnapper’s vehicle. However, hypnotic
      recollections may also be inaccurate, just as other recollections are often inaccurate.
      Consequently, the legal status of hypnosis is unresolved (Kazar, 2006; Knight &
      Meyer, 2007; Whitehouse et al., 2005).
       Improving athletic performance.
                         Athletes sometimes turn to hypnosis to improve their performance.
      For example, some baseball players have used hypnotism to increase their
      concentration when batting, with considerable success (Barker & Jones, 2008; Grind
      staff & Fisher, 2006; Lindsay, Maynard, & Thomas, 2005).
     Meditation:
                     A learned technique for refocusing attention that brings about an
     altered state of consciousness. Meditation typically consists of the repetition of a
     mantra —a sound, word, or syllable—over and over. In some forms of meditation,
     the focus is on a picture, flame, or specific part of the body. Regardless of the nature
     of the particular initial stimulus, the key to the procedure is concentrating on it so
     thoroughly that the meditator becomes unaware of any outside stimulation and
     reaches a different state of consciousness.
                After meditation, people report feeling thoroughly relaxed. They sometimes
     relate that they have gained new insights into themselves and the problems they are
     facing. The long-term practice of meditation may even improve health because of the
  biological changes it produces. For example, during meditation, oxygen usage
  decreases, heart rate and blood pressure decline, and brainwave patterns change
  (Barnes et al., 2004; Lee, Kleinman, & Kleinman, 2007; Travis et al., 2009).
                             Drug Use
  The Highs and Lows of Consciousness
                 Psychoactive drugs:
                                     Drugs that influence a person’s emotions,
  perceptions, and behavior. Yet even this category of drugs is common in most of our
  lives. If you have ever had a cup of coffee or sipped a beer, you have taken a
  psychoactive drug. A large number of individuals have used more potent—and more
  dangerous—psychoactive drugs than coffee and beer (see Figure 1 on page 160); for
  instance, surveys find that 41% of high school seniors have used an illegal drug in the
  last year. In addition, 30% report having been drunk on alcohol. The figures for the
  adult population are even higher (Johnston et al., 2009).
                 Addictive drugs:
                                    Drugs that produce a biological or psychological
  dependence in the user so that withdrawal from them leads to a craving for the drug
  that, in some cases, may be nearly irresistible. In physiological dependence, the body
  becomes so accustomed to functioning in the presence of a drug that it cannot
  function without it. In psychological dependence, people believe that they need the
  drug to respond to the stresses of daily living. Although we generally associate
  addiction with drugs such as heroin, everyday sorts of drugs, such as caffeine (found
  in coffee) and nicotine (found in cigarettes), have addictive aspects as well (Li,
  Volkow, & Balu, 2007).
                 Stimulants:
          Drugs that have an arousal effect on the central nervous system, causing a rise
  in heart rate, blood pressure, and muscular tension.
                                         Caffeine
                                         Amphetamines
                                         Cocaine
                  Depressants:
                           The effect of depressants is to impede the nervous system by
causing neurons to fire more slowly. Small doses result in at least temporary feelings of
intoxication —drunkenness—along with a sense of euphoria and joy. When large
amounts are taken, however, speech becomes slurred and muscle control becomes
disjointed, making motion difficult. Ultimately, heavy users may lose consciousness
entirely.
                  Alcohol:
                            The most common depressant is alcohol, which is used by
                 more people than is any other drug. Based on liquor sales, the average
                 person over the age of 14 drinks 2½ gallons of pure alcohol over the
                 course of a year. This works out to more than 200 drinks per person.
                 Although alcohol consumption has declined steadily over the last
                 decade, surveys show that more than three-fourths of college students
                 indicate that they have had a drink within the last 30 days (Jung, 2002;
                 Midanik, Tam, & Weisner, 2007).
                        Barbiturates:
                                      Barbiturates, which include drugs such as Nembutal,
Seconal, and Phenobarbital, are another form of depressant. Frequently prescribed by
physicians to induce sleep or reduce stress, barbiturates produce a sense of relaxation. Yet
they, too, are psychologically and physically addictive and, when combined with alcohol,
can be deadly, since such a combination relaxes the muscles of the diaphragm to such an
extent that the user stops breathing.
                      Rohypnol:
                                    Rohypnol is sometimes called the “date rape drug,”
because, when it is mixed with alcohol, it can prevent victims from resisting sexual assault.
Sometimes people who are unknowingly given the drug are so incapacitated that they have
no memory of the assault.
                      Narcotics:
              Drugs that increase relaxation and relieve pain and anxiety. Two of the most
    powerful narcotics, morphine and heroin , are derived from the poppy seed pod.
    Although morphine is used medically to control severe pain, heroin is illegal in the
    United States. This status has not prevented its widespread use.
              Heroin users usually inject the drug directly into their veins with a
    hypodermic needle. The immediate effect has been described as a “rush” of positive
    feeling, similar in some respects to a sexual orgasm—and just as difficult to describe.
    After the rush, a heroin user experiences a sense of well-being and peacefulness that
    lasts three to five hours. When the effects of the drug wear off, however, the user feels
    extreme anxiety and a desperate desire to repeat the experience. Moreover, larger
    amounts of heroin are needed each time to produce the same pleasurable effect. These
    last two properties are all the ingredients necessary for physiological and psychological
    dependence: The user is constantly either shooting up or attempting to obtain ever-
    increasing amounts of the drug. Eventually, the life of the addict revolves around
    heroin. Because of the powerful positive feelings the drug produces, heroin addiction is
    particularly difficult to cure. One treatment that has shown some success is the use of
    methadone. Methadone is a synthetic chemical that satisfies a heroin user’s
    physiological cravings for the drug without providing the “high” that accompanies
    heroin. When heroin users are placed on regular doses of methadone, they may be able
    to function relatively normally. The use of methadone has one substantial drawback,
    however: Although it removes the psychological dependence on heroin, it replaces the
    physiological dependence on heroin with a physiological dependence on methadone.
    Researchers are attempting to identify no addictive chemical substitutes for heroin as
    well as substitutes for other addictive drugs that do not replace one addiction with
    another (Amato et al., 2005; Joe, Flynn, &Broome, 2007; Oviedo-Joekes et al., 2009;
    Verdejo, Toribio, & Orozco, 2005).
             Oxycodone (sold as the prescription drug OxyContin) is a type of pain reliever
    that has led to a significant amount of abuse. Many well-known people (including
    Courtney Love and Rush Limbaugh) have become dependent on it.
                      Hallucinogen:
                                  A drug that is capable of producing hallucinations, or
    changes in the perceptual process.
                         The most common hallucinogen in widespread use today is
marijuana, whose active ingredient—tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)—is found in a common
weed, cannabis. Marijuana is typically smoked in cigarettes or pipes, although it can be
cooked and eaten. Just over 32% of high school seniors and 11% of eighth-graders report
having used marijuana in the last year (Johnston et al., 2009).
              The effects of marijuana vary from person to person, but they typically consist
of feelings of euphoria and general well-being. Sensory experiences seem more vivid and
intense, and a person’s sense of self-importance seems to grow. Memory may be impaired,
causing users to feel pleasantly “spaced out.” However, the effects are not universally
positive. Individuals who use marijuana when they feel depressed can end up even more
depressed, because the drug tends to magnify both good and bad feelings.
               There are clear risks associated with long-term, heavy marijuana use.
Although marijuana does not seem to produce addiction by itself, some evidence suggests
that there are similarities in the way marijuana and drugs such as cocaine and heroin affect
the brain. Furthermore, there is some evidence that heavy use at least temporarily decreases
the production of the male sex hormone testosterone, potentially affecting sexual activity
and sperm count (Iverson, 2000; Lane, Cherek, & Tcheremissine,2007; Rossato, Pagano, &
Vettor, 2008).
              In addition, marijuana smoked during pregnancy may have lasting effects on
children who are exposed parentally, although the results are inconsistent. Heavy use also
affects the ability of the immune system to fight off germs and increases stress on the heart,
although it is unclear how strong these effects are. There is one unquestionably negative
consequence of smoking marijuana: The smoke damages the lungs much the way cigarette
smoke does, producing an increased likelihood of developing cancer and other lung
diseases (Cornelius et al., 1995; Julien, 2001).
References:
     1 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/sleep
    2 Feldman, Robert S. (Robert Stephen), 1947–Understanding psychology / Robert S.
Feldman.—6th Ed.

				
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