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					SADC 10 no 3 eng        01/01/70       3:52 AM   Page 1


   POLICY                      3                                                         SADC Brigade
   CLIMATE CHANGE           4-5
                                                                                       anchors regional


                                                                               peace support operations
   HISTORY TODAY               8
                                          by Munetsi Madakufamba
  Leadership                             THE 2007 SADC Summit held in Lusaka, Zambia           Council, the African Standby Force and the Mil-
   President Levy Mwanawasa
                                         will be remembered for the historic launch of the     itary Staff Committee.
   of Zambia was elected the
                                         SADC Brigade, a regional multidimensional peace          The policy document for the establishment of
   new Chairperson of SADC               support operations capability established under       the African Standby Force and the Military Staff
   for 2007/8 and President              the framework of the African Standby Force.           Committee was adopted by African leaders in
   Thabo Mbeki of South Africa              The SADC Brigade, launched through a Memo-         Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in July 2004. The African
   is the deputy Chairperson.            randum of Understanding (MOU) signed by
                                         southern African leaders on 17 August, was estab-                                        continued on page 2
   South Africa will host the
   2008 Summit. Together with            lished to guarantee peace, security and political
                                         stability, which are prerequisites for development.
   the previous Chairperson,
   Lesotho Prime Minister                   Consisting of military, police and civilian com-   New impetus to regional
                                         ponents, the force will rely on resources pledged
   Pakalitha Mosisili, they make
   up the current SADC Troika.           by member states on a standby arrangement.            infrastructure
                                         Other support mechanisms could be in the form
                                                                                               SADC HAS committed to embark on radical
   President José Eduardo dos            of logistical and medical services.
                                                                                               measures to strengthen infrastructure develop-
   Santos of Angola is the new              The persistence of conflict in some parts of
   Chairperson of the SADC               Africa has hampered socio-economic develop-           ment and speed up the process of implementing
   Organ on Politics, Defence            ment and integration efforts. This has prompted       its regional integration programme.
   and Security Cooperation, and         the continent to review its security agenda.              At the 27th SADC Summit of Heads of State
   King Mswati III of Swaziland             In 2002, the Organisation of African Unity         and Government held in Lusaka, Zambia from
   is deputy Chairperson. They           (OAU) was transformed into the African Union          16-17 August, southern African leaders ex-
   join the outgoing Chairperson,        in conformity with the UN Charter and the ulti-       pressed concern at the slow pace of implement-
   President Jakaya Kikwete of           mate objectives of the OAU Charter. The trans-        ing goals and targets to achieve regional integra-
   the United Republic of Tanza-         formation ushered in, among other structures          tion and eradicate poverty.
   nia, on the Organ Troika.             and mechanisms, the AU Peace and Security                                                continued on page 2
SADC 10 no 3 eng               01/01/70   3:52 AM   Page 2

         SADC Brigade anchors regional peace support operations
       continued from page 1                  have already been, established     and demobilisation and hu-          operation, taking instructions
                                              in the other four regions of the   manitarian assistance to alle-      from the SADC Committee of
       Standby Force finds its legal          continent, is a step towards the   viate the suffering of civilian     Chiefs of Defence Staff and
       backing in Article 4(d) of the         African Standby Force that         population in conflict areas.       the Committee of SADC Po-
       Constitutive Act of the AU and         should be in place by 2010.           In a departure from peace        lice Chiefs.
       Article 13 of the Protocol Relat-         The SADC Standby Force          support operations of yester-           “The SADC Brigade, like
       ing to the Establishment of the        will, among other duties, per-     year, the SADC Standby Force        all other regional brigades,
       Peace and Security Council of          form observations and moni-        embraces a civilian compo-          will be part and parcel of the
       the AU.                                toring missions, peace sup-        nent to perform functions           African Standby Force,” said
          Once fully established, the         port missions, and interven-       ranging from provision of fi-       Zambian President Levy
       African Standby Force will con-        tions for peace and security       nancial and administrative          Mwanawasa during the
       sist of standby multidiscipli-         restoration in grave circum-       management to the provision         launch ceremony in Lusaka.
       nary contingents, with civilian        stances at the request of a        of legal advice and the protec-         Mwanawasa added that
       and military components locat-         member state.                      tion of human rights includ-        earmarked capabilities of the
       ed in their countries of origin           The force will also be used     ing women and children.             troops or personnel will be
       and ready for rapid deploy-            for preventive deployment in          The force has a Planning El-     domiciled in their countries
       ment anywhere on the conti-            order to prevent a dispute or      ement at the SADC Secretariat       of origin on an “on call” level
       nent at appropriate notice.            conflict from escalating; an on-   in Botswana, which is its only      of alert for the duration of the
          The AU framework docu-              going violent conflict from        permanent structure. This is        assignment in line with pre-
       ment calls for the establish-          spreading to neighbouring          composed of regional military,      scribed times of response.
       ment of the force in two phas-         areas or states; the resurgence    police and civilian staff on sec-       “In short, this is in fact a
       es with Phase I having ended           of violence after parties to a     ondment from member states          permanent standby arrange-
       on 30 June 2005 while Phase II         conflict have reached an           on rotation.                        ment,” he said.
       will end on 30 June 2010.              agreement.                            The Planning Element op-             Member states will be re-
          Thus establishment of the              Other duties will include       erates on a daily basis as a tool   sponsible for training their
       SADC Brigade, along with               peace-building,        including   of the SADC Organ on Poli-          personnel with SADC stan-
       standby forces that are to be, or      post-conflict disarmament          tics, Defence and Security Co-      dardising training objectives
                                                                                                                     at all levels of the brigade to
                                                                                                                     ensure compatibility and in-
       New impetus to regional infrastructure                                                                        teroperability of systems and
                                                                                                                     equipment respectively. Such
       continued from page 1                                                                                         standards should also be
                                                                                                                     compatible with those al-
          To this end, the Summit di-         cluding lack of in-                                  brainstorming     ready developed by the UN.
       rected the SADC Secretariat to         vestment over the                                   session during         The Regional Peace Train-
       work out the details of a region-      last 10 years,                                     the Summit, in      ing Centre located in Zimbab-
       al Master Plan for Infrastruc-         growing popula-                                   line with the Sum-   we and other national peace
       ture Development in close co-          tion as well as                                  mit theme, “Infra-    support training institutions
       operation with Member States.          expanding in-                                   structure Develop-     will play a pivotal role in train-
          The SADC Chairperson,               dustries.                                      ment in Support of      ing military commanders, po-
       President Levy Mwanawasa of               The existing                               Regional Integra-        lice officers and civilian offi-
       Zambia said regional integra-          road and rail transport                      tion.”                    cials at various levels while at
       tion is hampered by inadequate         infrastructure in SADC needs                 The leaders noted that    the same time acting as the
       infrastructure in the key sectors      rehabilitation to meet the re-     Member States lack financial ca-    “clearinghouse” for all peace
       of energy, transport, communi-         gion's current objectives of       pacity to rehabilitate regional     support operations and train-
       cation, water and tourism.             deeper regional integration.       infrastructure and fund new         ing activities in the region.
          Electricity generation capac-       This includes increased intra-     projects, despite the region            SADC member states have
       ity in SADC at present is only         regional trade in line with the    being well placed to receive        also agreed to establish the
       52,743 MW of which 41,000              targets of a Free Trade Area by    long-term investment neces-         Main Logistics Depot in
       MW is secured capacity avail-          2008, Customs Union in 2010        sary for infrastructure develop-    Botswana to support the op-
       able for distribution to con-          and Common Market by 2015.         ment given the peaceful envi-       erations of the force from a
              sumers against demand              In response to the acknowl-     ronment.                            central point.
               of 42,000 MW.                  edged urgent need for suitable        The Summit called for fi-            Discussions between the
                   The mismatch be-           infrastructure and services as     nancial support from the pri-       SADC Secretariat and the
                  tween demand and            the region moves to strengthen     vate sector and the interna-        government of Botswana are
                  supply is a result of a     regional integration, the south-   tional community to comple-         said to be at an advanced
                   number of factors in-      ern African leaders held a         ment regional efforts. ❒            stage to enter into an MOU
                                                                                                                     establishing the depot. ❒

   2     SADC TODAY                 October 2007
SADC 10 no 3 eng          01/01/70   3:52 AM    Page 3

        Gender Protocol referred to Member States for
        more consultations
        by Barbara Lopi                           A protocol is the most bind-       tation of commitments to gen-           equality from being a reality still
                                               ing of SADC legal instruments.        der equality and women's em-            prevail.
        SADC LEADERS have deferred             Once it is signed and comes           powerment.                                 This has caused governments
        the signing of the Protocol on         into operation, the SADC Pro-            Despite some progress, imple-        to reflect on their commitments
        Gender and Development to              tocol on Gender and Develop-          mentation of gender targets in          in a very practical manner and to
        give Member States more time to        ment will provide a legal and         southern Africa still falls short of    request more time to consider the
        conclude national consultations.       institutional framework for the       stated commitments as gaps and          contents of the protocol and the
            The draft protocol is now          region to accelerate implemen-        obstacles that prevent gender           targets. ❒
        being circulated widely so that
        consensus can be reached at the
        national levels, early enough to       Key elements of Draft Protocol on Gender and Development
        be considered for signing at the       THE DRAFT SADC Protocol on                against HIV and AIDS infec-             UN Council Resolution 1325
        next Summit of Heads of State          Gender and Development pro-               tion and other sexually trans-          on peace-building, peace-
        and Government in 2008.                poses specific goals and targets to       mitted infections contracted as         making and peace-keeping.
            A communiqué presented at          ensure accountability in address-         a result of any sexual violation.   o   Recognise gender equality as
        the end of the 27th SADC Sum-          ing inequalities in constitutional    o   Eradicate harmful traditional           intrinsic to freedom of expres-
        mit of Heads of State and Gov-         and legal rights; governance; edu-        norms, practices and religious          sion and ensure that all
        ernment in Lusaka on 17 August         cation and training; productive re-       beliefs that legitimise and ex-         women and men have the
        2007 read, “…Summit noted              sources and employment; gender-           acerbate the persistence and            right to communicate their
        progress on the negotiations of        based violence; health; HIV and           tolerance of gender-based vi-           views, interests and needs.
        the protocol on gender and de-         AIDS; peace building and conflict         olence.                             o   Put in place public education,
        velopment and agreed to defer          resolution; and in the media, in-     o   Enact and adopt specific leg-           information, and education
        its signature to allow some Mem-       formation and communication.              islative provisions by 2010 to          and communication strategies
        ber States to conclude their inter-        Proposed targets in the Draft         prevent human trafficking.              to modify the social and cultur-
        nal consultations.”                    Protocol currently being circulat-    o   Introduce a composite index             al patterns of conduct of
            The new SADC Chairperson,          ed to facilitate wider consulta-          for measuring the reduction             women and men, which are
        President Levy Mwanawasa of            tions at national level include the       in gender-based violence.               based on stereotyped roles for
        Zambia, said after the Summit          following:                            o   Allocate the necessary re-              women and men.
        that he is hopeful the Protocol will   o Enshrine gender equality in             sources to ensure the imple-        o   Adopt legislative measures to
        be considered for signing in 2008.         national constitutions by 2015.       mentation and sustainability            enforce 50 percent representa-
            “It came to our attention dur-     o Review, amend or repeal all             of the programmes set out in            tion of women in decision-
        ing Summit that some countries             discriminatory laws by 2015.          the Protocol.                           making positions in both the
        needed to consult before they          o Abolish the minority status of      o   Adopt and implement legisla-            public and private media by
        could sign the protocol. There             women by 2010.                        tive frameworks, policies,              2015.
        were some amendments to the            o Endeavour to have women                 programmes and services to          o   Increase the number of pro-
        document that were added at the            holding 50 percent of decision-       enhance gender sensitive, ap-           grammes for, by and about
        last minute,” Mwanawasa said.              making positions in the public        propriate and affordable qual-          women, on gender specific
            Member States have been re-            and private sectors by 2015.          ity health care particularly in         topics, and that challenge
        quested to engage further in na-       o Ensure that men and women               maternal health, sexual and             gender stereotypes.
        tional consultations with all rele-        participate equally in deci-          reproductive health, in line        o   Ensure access to education
        vant partners to ensure owner-             sion-making by putting in             with the SADC Protocol on               and training in information
        ship of the draft by all stakehold-        place policies and strategies         Health, by 2015.                        and communication technolo-
        ers. In addition, the SADC Secre-          that ease the burden of multi-    o   Adopt and implement gender              gies including a commitment
        tariat plans to hold a strategy            ple roles played by women.            sensitive policies and pro-             to specifically provide oppor-
        meeting on the protocol in No-         o Enact laws and promote equal            grammes in prevention, treat-           tunities to increase girls' liter-
        vember, for senior officials.              access to primary, secondary,         ment, care and support in ac-           acy and to ensure participa-
            Wider dissemination of the             tertiary and vocational educa-        cordance with the Maseru Dec-           tion by girls and women in
        draft protocol is pivotal to in-           tion in line with the Protocol        laration on HIV and AIDS.               technology education and
        creasing awareness on the con-             on Education and Training by      o   Put in place measures to en-            training at all levels.
        tents of the document and facili-          2015.                                 sure that women have equal          o   Ensure the use of information
        tating debate to reach consensus.      o Enact and enforce legislation           representation and participa-           and communication technolo-
            It is now critical for the na-         prohibiting all forms of gen-         tion in key decision-making             gies in the health, education,
        tional gender machineries to fa-           der-based violence by 2015.           positions in conflict resolution        trade, employment and other
        cilitate in-depth and thorough         o Take measures to protect                and peace building processes            development arenas for
        consultations at national level.           women, men, girls and boys            by 2015 in accordance with              women's empowerment. ❒

                                                                                                                       October 2007            SADC TODAY             3
SADC 10 no 3 eng                    01/01/70      3:52 AM     Page 4


                  SADC braces for climate change challenge
                  by Tigere Chagutah and Mukundi Mutasa

                  SADC MEMBER States are tak-             ing it into liquefied natural           "The international community      been “dragging their feet”
                  ing bold steps to ease the im-          gas,” dos Santos said.               has to live up to its commitment     to move to enable the cre-
                  pact of climate change as evi-               Botswana indicated that it      to provide resources to develop-     ation of an “ecological
                  dence points to continued               fully supports the UNFCCC as         ing countries to adapt to the ef-    partnership” with Africa.
                  warming and drier conditions            the Convention provides an ap-       fect of climate change," he told        “The mission of this
                  across the mainland countries.          propriate global framework for       the high-level meeting. "Namibia     partnership would be to
                     Increasingly violent cyclones        addressing the challenges of cli-    is not happy with the rate at        find creative solutions to
                  are forecast to hit the island and      mate change.                         which investments are made in        these climate and envi-
                  coastal states, especially in the           “What we need is the political   the development of renewable         ronmental problems. Pri-
                  Mozambique Channel.                     will to mobilise resources to fa-    and clean energy sources."           ority actions need to be
                     Announcing various meas-             cilitate effective implementation       President Levy Mwanawasa          agreed upon. A funding
                  ures to address global warm-            of the Convention,” said Mopati      of Zambia, who is the current        and investment strategy
                  ing in the region, SADC lead-           Merafhe, Botswana's Minister of      SADC Chairperson, stressed the       needs to be developed.
                  ers attending the high-level            Foreign Affairs and International    low adaptive capacity to climate     And a strategy for moni-
                  meeting on climate change at            Cooperation, adding that his         change by developing countries.      toring progress needs to
                  the United Nations Headquar-            government has established “a           “Our early warning systems        be formulated,” said
                  ters in New York in September           multi-sectoral national commit-      are inadequate to face the new       Ravalomanana.
                  called for urgent global action,        tee on climate change” to advise     challenges by climate change.           Over the past decade,
                  and local solutions to the cli-         on relevant issues.                  These include weather forecast-      Madagascar has experienced an
                  mate menace.                                Marco Hausiku, the Foreign       ing, disaster prediction and pre-    increase in the number of violent
                     The discussion, which drew           Minister of Namibia said climate     paredness,” he said.                 cyclones from an average of two
                  more than 100 Heads of State            change is a global issue with se-       “The inadequacy in early          to five cyclones a year, to five to
                  and Government and about 80             rious implications for economic      warning systems makes it diffi-      eight cyclones a year.
                  Ministers of Foreign Affairs,           growth, sustainable develop-         cult for us to plan for our farm-       Madagascar's records going
                  was the largest-ever gathering          ment and the achievement of the      ing. It also undermines our abil-    back 50 years show that the av-
                  on climate change.                      Millennium Development Goals.        ity to respond timely to crisis      erage temperatures have in-
                     Delegates witnessed a bold               Hausiku called upon “the         situations induced by adverse        creased by 0.65 degrees Celsius.
                  show of political will to tackle        private sector to join hands         effects of climate change.”             During the same period, the
                  climate change by the region's          with governments to develop             Madagascar's President Marc       length of the growing period
                  leadership who stressed the             and apply technologies that can      Ravalomanana implored some           in the rice fields on the Mada-
                  need for action.                        mitigate climate change."            industrialised nations who have      gascar Highlands has de-
                     They announced various                                                                                         creased as the number of days
                  measures being taken by SADC                                                                                      without rain has increased by
                  Member States as they prepare           Climate change and glaciers in Africa                                     one day per year.
                                                                                                                                       In the United Republic of
                  to deal with the impacts of cli-
                  mate change, while also noting          EVIDENCE OF climate change              Close to 50 percent of the        Tanzania, climate change stud-
                  the challenges of low adaptive          is starkly visible in the disap-     glaciers on the Rwenzori moun-       ies reveal that there has been a
                  capacity.                               pearance of glaciers on moun-        tains, Mount Kenya and Kili-         general increase in tempera-
                     Angolan President José Ed-           tains near the equator in East       manjaro have disappeared,            ture over the last 40 years, and
                  uardo dos Santos reiterated his         Africa.                              while larger glaciers, particular-   rainfall has been decreasing in
                  country's commitment to the                Glaciers are found on three       ly on Kilimanjaro, have been         most parts of the country dur-
                  United Nations Framework                mountains in Africa - the Rwen-      fragmented.                          ing this same period
                  Convention on Climate Change            zori mountains on the DRC-              (Global Outlook for Ice & Snow,      With recent research showing
                  (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Pro-             Uganda border, Mount Kenya           UNEP, 2007, p. 144) ❒                that, due to global warming, the
                  tocol - the current global frame-       in Kenya, and Mt Kilimanjaro
                  work for reducing greenhouse            in the United Republic of Tan-
                  gas emissions by 2012.                  zania.
                     Among measures to reduce                Retreat of these glaciers
                  emissions, dos Santos told dele-        began around the 1880s as a re-
                  gates that the oil-rich southern        sult of a decrease in precipita-
                  African country plans to cut the        tion and an increase in solar ra-
                       burning of gas resulting           diation from reduced cloudi-
                       from oil production.               ness. Later in the 20th century,
                        “My government is com-            increased temperature became
                           mitted to the total elim-      an additional driver, although
                                                                                               1950s                                1999
                            ination, by 2010, of          its relative importance is still
                            such gas by transform-        debated.                             Glacier at the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro

        4           SADC TODAY              October 2007
SADC 10 no 3 eng        01/01/70      3:52 AM   Page 5

                                                                                                                                                             CLIMATE CHANGE
                                        GEO 4: Climate change reaches a tipping point

                                         THE GLOBAL Environment              snow in the Greenland ice sheet         from harmful ultraviolet radia-
                                         Outlook (GEO 4) acknowledges        and on mountains such as the            tion. The hole is now the largest
                                         that climate change has reached     Kilimanjaro in Tanzania.                ever seen.
                                         a tipping point with widespread        The projected increase in fre-          Due to decreased emissions
                                         impacts on both people and the      quency and intensity of heat            of ozone depleting substances,
                                         environment.                        waves, storms, floods and               the ozone layer is expected to re-
                                             According to the report, cli-   droughts would affect millions          cover, but not until the period
                                         mate change, including global       of people across the world.             2060 to 2075. This projection as-
                                         warming, is well underway           Africa is one of the regions most       sumes full compliance with the
                                         with average world tempera-         vulnerable to climate change.           Montreal Protocol on Sub-
                                         tures having risen by 0.74oC           The array of adaptive re-            stances that Deplete the Ozone
                                         over the last century. This trend   sponses ranges from purely              Layer.
                                         shows that 11 of the warmest        technological such as sea de-              The ozone depleting sub-
                                         years in the last 125 years have    fences to managerial such as            stances have undergone a mas-
                                         occurred since 1990.                modified farm practices, to poli-       sive phase out over the last 20
                                             The     Inter-Governmental      cy including regulation of              years, with 2004 emissions
                                         Panel on Climate Change proj-       greenhouse gas emissions.               being 20 percent of the 1990
                                         ects an increase in the average        Carbon dioxide is the princi-        level.
                                         global temperature of 1.8 - 4oC     pal greenhouse gas that causes             The GEO 4 report is set for
                                         by the end of this century.         climate change. Ozone deplet-           launch in October in 40 cities,
glaciers at the summit of Mt Kil-            Climate change impacts are      ing substances also cause cli-          including Johannesburg, South
imanjaro are melting so quickly          already evident and include         mate change and are responsi-           Africa and Port Louis, Mauri-
that they will be gone by 2020,          changes in water availability,      ble for the hole in the stratos-        tius, with the main launch at
there is concern that human ac-          food insecurity, sea-level rise     pheric ozone layer over the             the UN Headquarters in New
tivities may have set in motion          and the melting of ice cover and    Antarctic which protects people         York. ❒
irreversible climatic changes.
    Studies conducted in Zim-
babwe show that the monthly
highest daily maximum tem-             areas for which urgent and im-        SAEO: Impact on southern Africa
peratures for most of the coun-        mediate action is required for the
try are on the increase, by about      countries to adapt to the effects     THE FORTHCOMING Southern                  ant climate change, summer rain-
2 degrees Celsius per century.         of climate change.                    Africa Environment Outlook (SAEO)         fall is expected to decrease over
    Data shows that the length of         The New York event was             projects serious climate change im-       subtropical regions of southern
the cold winter spell is decreas-      aimed at securing political com-      pacts in this region, as records from     Africa, while increasing over
ing by about 15 days per century.      mitment and building momen-           SADC countries show that average          tropical regions. A decrease in the
    “With predictions that agri-       tum for the UN Climate Change         temperatures have risen by more           winter rainfall region of the
cultural productivity in Zimbab-       Conference to be held in Bali, In-    than 0.5°C over the past 100 years,       southern Cape is also probable.
we could decrease by up to 30          donesia in December, where ne-        and the 1990s were the warmest                The anticipated five percent
percent this century and marked        gotiations on a new international     and driest ever.                          decrease in rainfall due to climate
by severe drought, climate             climate agreement should start.           With eight of SADC's 14 Mem-          change will affect people and all
change poses one of the most se-          That meeting will seek to de-      ber States having a total of more         forms of wildlife, including
rious food security challenges of      termine future action on mitiga-      than 15,000 km of coastline, the          plants and animals.
the 21st century in the country,”      tion, adaptation, the global car-     region would also be affected by a            The Southern Africa Environ-
said Francis Nhema, Zimbab-            bon market and financing re-          rise in the sea level, estimated to       ment Outlook projects crop yields
we's Minister of Environment           sponses to climate change after       reach 15-95 cm by 2100. Much of           to drop by as much as 10-20 per-
and Tourism and current chair of       the expiry of the Kyoto Protocol.     the global rise in sea levels will be     cent in some parts of southern
the UN Commission on Sustain-             Commenting on proceed-             due to the melting of ice cover in        Africa as the region becomes
able Development.                      ings, the UN Secretary-General,       the Greenland ice sheet.                  more arid, and predicts the
    Nhema called for the setting       Ban Ki-moon, said, “I sensed              Mountain glaciers around the          spread of the malaria-carrying
up of a 'Special Adaptation Fund       something remarkable happen-          world also continue to melt. South-       Anopheles female mosquito to
for Africa' in order to build adap-    ing, something transformative -       ern Africa's beacon in this regard is     parts of Namibia and South
tive capacity on the continent.        a sea-change, whereby leaders         Mt Kilimanjaro in northern Tanza-         Africa where it has not been
    A number of countries con-         showed themselves willing to          nia. The total area covered by snow       found before.
firmed that they have completed        put aside blame for the past and      on Mt Kilimanjaro decreased by                The report cautions that it is
their National Adaptation Plans        pose to themselves more for-          six-fold from about 12 sq km in           not possible to predict with any
of Action (NAPAs) on climate           ward-looking questions.”              1900 to two sq km in 2000.                degree of certainty the exact tim-
change. These include Lesotho,            “Our job is to translate the           With increasing atmospheric           ing, magnitude and nature of ex-
Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia.           spirit of New York into deeds in      emissions of greenhouse gases             pected climate changes under the
The NAPAs identify priority            Bali,” said Mr. Ban. ❒                such as carbon dioxide and result-        effects of global warming. ❒

                                                                                                                 October 2007          SADC TODAY            5
SADC 10 no 3 eng                01/01/70   3:52 AM     Page 6


            Madagascar elects legislators as economy resurges
            by Mukundi Mutasa
                                                     The September elections          Democratic Elections since they            The landslide victory in the
            MADAGASCAR WENT to the               came a month after SADC lead-        were adopted in 2004.                   referendum allowed the govern-
            polls on 23 September to choose      ers met during an ordinary Sum-          Madagascar was formally ad-         ment to go ahead with the aboli-
            parliamentary representatives as     mit in Lusaka, Zambia, where         mitted to SADC at the 25th Sum-         tion of the six provinces replac-
            the country's economy registered     they expressed satisfaction with     mit in Botswana in 2005.                ing them with 22 smaller devel-
            yet another remarkable improve-      a growing culture of multiparty          Under the principles and            opmental administrative areas.
            ment in five years.                  democracy in the region. Most        guidelines, SADC member states             English was also added as a
               The elections held in Septem-     Member States are holding regu-      seek to uphold full participation       third official language in Mada-
            ber were to choose 127 national      lar elections.                       of all their citizens in their coun-    gascar after the referendum in
            assembly representatives in 119          According to the SADC Sum-       try's political processes.              April. Malagasy and French are
            districts.                           mit 2007 Communiqué, the lead-           The guidelines also call on         the other official languages. ❒
               The number for parliamen-         ers noted the peaceful and order-    the countries to ensure that their
            tary seats was reduced from the      ly manner in which the people of     citizenry has equal opportunity
            previous 160.                        the DRC, Lesotho, Madagascar         to exercise the right to vote and       2007 Regional
               President Marc Ravalo-            and Zambia exercised their dem-      be voted for.                           Schools Essay
            manana's ruling party, I Love        ocratic right in the elections.          Using the guidelines, a SADC        Competition
            Madagascar (TIM), captured all           Madagascar held its presiden-    Election Observation Mission is
            the seats in the capital Antana-     tial elections in December 2006 in   dispatched to observe an elec-
            narivo, as it claimed 106 out of     which President Ravalomanana         tion in the region, made up of
            the 127 seats in parliament.         was elected, defeating 13 other      representatives from govern-
               The election was observed by      presidential candidates to retain    ment or opposition parties in
            teams from the Southern African      the position he won in 2002.         various Member States and
            Development          Community           It was during these presiden-    headed by a Minister from the
            (SADC), and the African Union        tial elections that Madagascar       country that chairs the SADC
            (AU). South Africa also sent an      first embraced the SADC Princi-      Organ on Politics, Defence and          Diana Kawendu reads her winning
            observer team.                       ples and Guidelines Governing        Security, currently Angola.             essay at the Summit
                                                                                          Since coming to power in
                                                                                                                              SADC CONTINUES with its
            Mozambique leads the way to visa-                                         2002, Ravalomanana has em-
                                                                                      barked on widespread economic           programme of involving the
            free region                                                               and social reforms that stirred         youth in regional integration
                                                                                                                              with winners of the 2007 SADC
                                                                                      the southern African country out
            MOZAMBIQUE IS moving rap-            well as the host country of the      of decades of recession.                Secondary Schools Essay Com-
            idly towards visa-free borders and   SADC headquarters, Botswana.             Speaking during the UN              petition receiving their prizes
            leading the way to meet SADC             The agreement is in line with    General Assembly in New York            during the 27th Summit in Au-
            targets for easing the movement      the spirit of the SADC Protocol      on 26 September, Ravalomanana           gust.
            of people and goods in the region.   on the Facilitation of Movement      said his country recorded five             The winners of the regional
               Over the past few years,          of Persons, adopted in a water-      percent economic growth five            competition were presented with
            Mozambique has shed visa re-         shed decision by the 2005 SADC       years ago, six percent over the         prize money of US$1500,
            quirements for neighbouring          Summit in Botswana.                  last few years, rising to seven         US$1000 and US$750 for first,
            countries, with the final agree-         The protocol still needs to be   percent in 2007.                        second and third prizes respec-
            ment for Zimbabwe taking effect      ratified by two-thirds of the 14         “Poverty rates are dropping         tively.
            on 1 November.                       Member States to come into ef-       dramatically. In 2002, 80 percent of       The top prize was won by
               Mozambique and Zimbabwe           fect, and countries have been en-    our population was living in            Diana Kawendu of Zimbabwe.
            signed a visa waiver agreement       couraged to sign visa waiver         poverty, last year this rate stood at      Diana's winning essay ad-
            for the citizens of both countries   agreements bilaterally.              67 percent,” said Ravalomanana.         dressed various issues that affect
            in a move seen as “the re-meet-          Certainly the move will bene-        The parliamentary elections         poverty in southern Africa, in-
            ing of the two peoples.”             fit     small-and-medium-scale       are the third to be held since          cluding HIV and AIDS as well as
               The agreement was signed in       businesses. However, another         President Ravalomanana, was             the colonial legacy. She also dis-
            Maputo by the Minister of the        group that the agreement seeks       given his second mandate in the         cussed the measures being taken
            Interior, José Pacheco, and his      to target is women who account       December 2006 presidential elec-        by southern African countries to
            Zimbabwean counterpart, the          largely for the thriving informal    tions.                                  address these challenges.
            Minister of Home Affairs,            trade in border areas.                   Madagascar held a constitu-            The prizes were presented
               Kembo Mohadi.                         The no-visa agreements en-       tional referendum in April 2007         by Lesotho Prime Minister
                       Mozambique has no-        able citizens of each country who    that subsequently led to the na-        Pakalitha Mosisili, the outgoing
                   visa agreements with its      are holders of valid passports to    tional assembly being dissolved         Chairperson of SADC.
                     immediate neighbours        enter and settle temporarily or      close to a year before the time the        In its ninth consecutive year
                      of Malawi, South           transit through the territories of   legislators' term was supposed to       running, this year's competition
                      Africa, Swaziland, Tan-    both countries without any hin-      expire. The National Assembly           was sponsored by Southern
                      zania and Zambia, as       drance, for a period of 30 days. ❒   was dissolved on 24 July 2007.          Africa Trust. ❒

     6        SADC TODAY              October 2007
SADC 10 no 3 eng            01/01/70             3:52 AM           Page 7

                                 THE   SOUTHERN AFRICAN                                                                                    EVENTS DIARY 2007
                                 DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY TODAY
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                                                                                                                                                October 2007            SADC TODAY            7
SADC 10 no 3 eng                       01/01/70        3:52 AM        Page 8


                 by David Martin
                 IN OCTOBER 1959, speaking to the Legislative Assem-                  Neither man trusted the other. Kissinger wanted the
                 bly two years before Tanganyika's independence, Julius           negotiations kept secret. Nyerere wanted transparency,            “IN HIS 77 years of mortal life, Mwalimu did
                 Nyerere expressed the essence of his beliefs:                    and as Africa correspondent of the London Sunday                  much for our nation, for the African continent,
                     “We, the people of Tanganyika, would like to light a         newspaper, The Observer, I had the benefit of his strate-         and for the world. He made us free and con-
                 candle and put it on top of Mount Kilimanjaro which              gic briefings. That year, thanks to Mwalimu, Africa was           tributed to the freedom of others beyond our
                 would shine beyond our borders giving hope where there           the main story on the front page of the newspaper on an           borders. Like Nkrumah he believed the indig-
                 was despair, love where there was hate, and dignity where        unprecedented 16 occasions, as one political fox tem-             nity of one African was the indignity of all
                 before there was only humiliation.”                              porarily outwitted the other.                                     Africans; and that as long as there was an
                     Faced with a choice between teaching and politics, Ny-           Nyerere's distinctive grey hair atop a slight but athletic    African country under colonial domination, the
                 erere had chosen the latter, though he remained commit-          body always stood out from the crowd. When he was in              freedom of one African country was meaning-
                 ted to both. He was nominated to the Tanganyika Legisla-         his seventies, young security officers had to run to keep up      less. He mobilised our national will, spirit and
                 tive Council in July 1957, but resigned in December in           with him and the sound of his mercurial voice, raised and         resources for the total liberation of Africa. …
                 protest at Britain's delaying of independence.                   then whispered, was still resonant and haunting.                      His view of freedom was all-encompassing.
                     In Tanganyika's first elections in 1958, he was elected to       I was fascinated by the man who was to become my in-          It was not restricted to political independence,
                 Parliament and was returned unopposed in the 1960 gen-           formal professor, teaching me the principles of African lib-      but extended to a vision of a totally liberated
                 eral election. He formed the first Tanganyika Council of         eration, non-racialism, and “thinking South”.                     human being - in political, economic, social
                 Ministers and became the first Chief Minister.                       South, he said, was not a geographical description            and cultural terms. ...
                     In May 1961, Nyerere became Prime Minister, re-              but a way of thinking. Nyerere, as his record testifies,              I am sure if Mwalimu could speak to us
                 signing six weeks after independence to bridge the po-           recognised the equality of all human beings irrespective          now, he would be exhorting us to pick up his
                 tential gap between government and party.                        of race, ethnicity, gender or religion.                           mantle and carry on the struggle against pover-
                     Tanganyika became independent on 9 December 1961                 It was a year after my arrival in Dar es Salaam in Jan-       ty, against injustice, against bigotry. … He
                 and a year later when the country became a republic, Ny-         uary 1964 that I met Nyerere for an interview and when
                 erere, elected by over 96 per cent of the voters, became its     I did so it was strictly on his terms.                            would urge us to move much more quickly to
                 first President. He had offered to delay independence for            I learned two things about the man from that meet-            integrate African economies, and promote
                 the sake of unity with Kenya and Uganda, and was deeply          ing. The first was that he was a master media manager,            African unity. He would appeal for collective
                 committed to the unity of Africa, a reality that is coming to    a quality some other contemporary leaders could well              South-South self-reliance. ”
                 pass after his death.                                            emulate. He spoke to journalists on his terms when he             HE Benjamin Mkapa, then President of the United
                     He was a founding father of the Southern African             had something to say.                                             Republic of Tanzania, speaking at the State Funeral
                 Development Community, the East African Community                    At another meeting I recall commenting on the num-            for Mwalimu Nyerere, on 21 October 1999 in Dar
                 and the Organisation of African Unity (OAU).                     ber of African countries who were not paying their dues           es Salaam.
                     While those in the developed world walked, his brisk         to the OAU Liberation Committee, which was based on
                 and sprightly stride implied, as he repeatedly said, that        Dar es Salaam. He looked at me, thoughtfully chewing
                 Africa had to run to catch up. Once political freedom was        the inner corner of his cheek in the characteristic way he
                 attained, unity and development, coupled with hard work,         had when concentrating.
                 were essential pre-requisites in nation building.                    Having made his decision, he passed across a file
                     He was the champion of the liberation of southern            swearing me to secrecy as to its details. It contained Tan-
                 Africa becoming the first chairman of the Front Line             zania's budget for that year for the liberation move-
                 States. In Tanzania, Africa and the world he was regarded        ments fighting colonialism and minority rule in Angola,                       Public Holidays in SADC for the period
                 almost with awe.                                                 Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia,                                             October - December 2007
                     Such reaction was contrary to that which Nyerere             South Africa and the Comoro islands.
                 wanted. He was above all a simple man combining this                 I was astounded by just how much Tanzanians were             1 October  Public Holiday                  Botswana
                 with formidable discipline.                                      paying; a sum well beyond the country's publicised con-          4 October  Independence Day                Lesotho
                     Apart from his simplicity and piercing intellect, one        tribution.                                                       4 October  Peace Day                       Mozambique
                 of Nyerere's most endearing traits was his honesty.                  Therein lies Nyerere's greatest contribution. All of         8 October  Mother's Day                    Malawi
                                                                                                                                                   12 October Eid - Ul Fitr*                  Mauritius, Tanzania
                 Today it is no longer fashionable among journalists to           the countries of the continent, with the exception of Sa-        14 October Mwalimu Nyerere Day             Tanzania
                 take politicians at their word or even imagine in advance        harawi, are now fully independent. When Nyerere had                         and Climax of “The Uhuru
                 what those words might be.                                       spoken to the Legislative Assembly in 1959 only nine                        Torch Race”
                     Yet if you applied obvious logic, Nyerere was highly         countries were independent; today the number is 54.              24 October Independence Day                Zambia
                                                                                                                                                   1 November All Saints Day                  Madagascar
                 predictable. Once I said on the BBC that he would take the           All of southern Africa's liberation movements at one         2 November All Saints Day                  Angola
                 extreme step of leaving the Commonwealth if British Prime        time had their headquarters in Dar es Salaam. In the             2 November Arrival of Indentured           Mauritius
                 Minister Edward Heath resumed arms supplies to South             heady days of the 1960s through to the somewhat                                                             Labourers
                 Africa. Some days later Nyerere asked me how I knew that         calmer 1980s, Tanzania was to be the crossroads of               9 November         Divali                  Mauritius
                                                                                                                                                   11 November        Independence Day        Angola
                 was his decision. To this day I have never been sure whether     Africa.                                                          9 December         Independence Day        Tanzania
                 he was flattered or not at being told he was that obvious.           Domestically, Nyerere's most enduring legacy must            10 December        International Human     Namibia
                     For the next 24 years Nyerere filled the African and in-     be Tanzania's unity and stability. From over 120 ethnic                                                     Rights Day
                 ternational stage like a colossus, before stepping down as       groups, Nyerere forged a united nation bonded by a sin-          16 December        Day of Reconciliation   South Africa
                                                                                                                                                   22 December        National Unity Day      Zimbabwe
                 President in 1985 to concentrate on development of the           gle language, Swahili, and he united the sovereign states        25 December        Christmas Day           All SADC
                 South Centre, of which he was the first chairman.                of Tanganyika and Zanzibar into the single country now           26 December        Boxing Day              Botswana, Lesotho,
                     When he met the astute US Secretary of State, Henry          called the United Republic of Tanzania. (                                                         Swaziland, Malawi,
                 Kissinger, for the first time in Dar es Salaam in 1976, the                                                                       26 December Family Day                     Mozambique, Namibia
                 two men began a mental verbal fencing match of mam-              David Martin (1936-2007) was a journalist and photogra-          26 December Day of Goodwill                South Africa
                 moth proportions, often using quotations from Shake-             pher who lived in Tanzania for 10 years from 1964 before         26 December Public Holiday                 Zimbabwe
                 speare (several of whose works Nyerere had translated            moving to Zambia and then Zimbabwe, and he talked fre-           * Depends on sighting of the new moon
                 into Swahili setting them in an African context).                quently with Nyerere during the next 35 years.

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