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					The Muscular System
Functions of the Muscular System

Movement
 – Voluntary
 – Involuntary (digestion, blood flow, breathing)
Posture
Heat Production

 – Related Combining Forms
     my/o, myos/o



                                                    2
Structures of the Muscular System

Muscles are groups of muscle fibers that
are held together by connective tissue
 – Each muscle is enclosed in a sheet of fibrous
   connective tissue called fascia (fasci/o)
 – The fascia protects and separates the
   muscles




                                                   3
Structures of the Muscular System
Muscles are attached to bones
by tendons (ten/o, tend/o,
tendin/o)
 – Bands of non-elastic fibrous
   connective tissue
Aponeurosis
 – Flat sheet of fibrous connective
   tissue that attaches muscle to
   bone or other tissues



                                      4
           Types of Muscle
Skeletal
– Voluntary, Striated
Smooth
– Involuntary, Visceral
Cardiac
– Myocardium




                             5
           Characteristics

Antagonistic vs Synergistic
Contraction vs Relaxation
– Muscle tone (tonus): normal state of partial
  contraction that maintains balance and
  coordination




                                                 6
              Movement
Range of Motion
– The natural distance and direction of
  movement of a joint
– Produced by various muscle movements

Abduction vs Adduction
– Abduction is movement away from the midline
– Adduction is movement towards the midline
    Ab- means away, ad- means towards


                                            7
              Movement
Flexion vs Extension
– Flexion is decreasing the angle between two
  bones by bending a limb at the joint
– Extension is increasing the angle between
  two bones by straightening a joint
    Flex means to bend, ex- means away from, tens/o
    means to stretch out
    Hyperextension is overextension of a body part



                                                      8
Movement




           9
               Movement
Elevation vs Depression
– Elevation is raising or lifting a body part
– Depression is lowering a body part
Rotation and Circumduction
– Rotation is circular movement around a joint
– Circumduction is circular movement of a limb
  at the distal end



                                                 10
                 Movement
Supination vs Pronation
– Supination is moving the hand (or foot) so the palm
  (or sole) is turned upwards
– Pronation is rotating the hand (or foot) so the palm (or
  sole) is turned downwards
Dorsiflexion vs Plantar Flexion
– Dorsiflexion bends the foot upwards at the ankle
– Plantar Flexion bend the foot downwards at the ankle




                                                         11
         Naming Muscles
Many ways to create the names of
muscles
– Origin and Insertion
    Origin (where the muscle begins) is more fixed and
    usually nearer the midline
    Insertion point (where the muscle ends) is more
    moveable or further from the midline
      – Ex sternocleidomastoid, brachioradialis



                                                    12
           Naming Muscles
– Action
     Ex flexor, levator, extensor, masseter
– Location
     Supra-, sub-, infra-, lateralis, brachii, pectoralis
     Internal vs External
– Fiber Direction
     Rectus means straight
     Oblique means diagonal
     Transverse means crosswise
     Orbicularis is circular
       – A Sphincter is a ringlike muscle that closes off
         a tube or duct                                   13
          Naming Muscles
– Number of Divisions
    Ex the biceps brachii has two origins (bi- means
    two, -ceps means head)
     – Also triceps, quadriceps
– Size
    Maximus means large, longus means long,
    minimus means small, brevis means short, etc
– Shape
    Rhomboid, latissimus (wide), teres (round), etc
– Other
    Hamstrings, Sartorius

                                                       14
               Pathology

Tissues
– Fasciitis (fascitis)
– Tenodynia
– Tendinitis (or Tendonitis)
    Due to excessive or unusual use




                                      15
                Pathology
Muscles
– Adhesion
    Band of fibrous tissue that holds structures
    together
    Forms as a result of surgery or injury
– Atrophy
    Weakness or wearing away
    Caused by disease or disuse
    A- means without, -trophy means development,
    nourishment
                                                   16
               Pathology
– Myalgia
– Myolysis
– Myomalacia
– Myorrhexis
– Myosclerosis
– Myositis
    Polymyositis
– Sarcopenia
    Sarc/o means flesh, -penia means deficiency

                                                  17
                 Pathology
Muscle Tone
– Atonic
     Lacking normal tone or strength
     Ton/o means tone
– Dystonia
     Abnormal muscle tone
– Hypertonia
     Excessive muscle tone
– Hypotonia
     Diminished muscle tone
– Myotonia
     Delayed relaxation of a muscle after contraction

                                                        18
                Pathology
– Contracture
    Permanent tightening of tissue that occurs when
    nonelastic tissue replaces elastic tissue
    Often due to scarring or lack of use
– Spasm
    Sudden, violent, involuntary contraction




                                                      19
              Pathology
– Cramp
   Localized spasm
   Named for cause


– Myoclonus
   Spasm or twitching of a muscle or group of
   muscles
   Nocturnal myoclonus
   Singultus (hiccups)


                                                20
               Pathology
– Myasthenia Gravis
    Autoimmune disease
    Affects neuromuscular junction
    Produces severe weakness
     – -asthenia means weakness
– Muscular Dystrophy
    Inherited
    Duchenne’s X-linked
    Becker’s


                                     21
               Pathology
Fibromyalgia
– Chronic
– Idiopathic
– Uncontrollable fatigue and widespread
  muscle, ligament, and tendon pain




                                          22
               Pathology
Repetitive Stress Disorders
– Overuse (minor injuries not given time to heal)
– Stress fractures
– Myofascial damage
    Tenderness and swelling of the muscle and
    surrounding fascia




                                                23
                 Pathology
– Rotator Cuff Injuries
    Rotator Cuff describes a group of muscles that
    hold the head of the humerus in place in the
    shoulder
    Rotator Cuff Tendinitis – if left untreated can result
    in a torn tendon
    Impingement Syndrome – inflamed and swollen
    tendons become caught in the space between
    bones in the shoulder



                                                         24
                  Pathology
– Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
   Carpal tunnel describes the location where nerves
   and tendons of the hand pass under the carpal
   ligament




                                                       25
– If the tendons become inflamed through
  overuse they swell and press on the median
  nerve
– Causes pain and paresthesia
    Par- means abnormal, -esthesia means feeling or
    sensation
– Fixed by Carpal tunnel release surgery




                                                      26
                  Pathology
– Ganglion Cyst
    Fluid-filled swelling that develops on the
    outer surface of the wrist (painless)
– Epicondylitis
    Inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
    Epi- means on, condyl/o means condyle
    Lateral epicondylitis is tennis elbow
    Medial epicondylitis is golfer’s elbow




                                                        27
                Pathology
– Plantar Fasciitis
    Inflammation of the plantar fascia that causes foot
    pain when walking
– Heel Spurs
    Hardened deposits in the plantar fascia near the
    heel
    Develop from overuse




                                                          28
              Sports Injuries
Sprain
– Stretched or torn ligament
Strain
– Injury to the muscle or tendon attachment
Shin Splint
– Muscle tears away from the tibia
Achilles tendinitis
– Inflammation of the Achilles tendon



                                              29
              Treatment
Medication
– Anti-inflammatory
– Muscle Relaxant




                          30
               Treatment
Fasciotomy           Tenoplasty
Fascioplasty         Tenorrhaphy
Tenodesis            Myectomy
Tenolysis            Myoplasty
Tenectomy            Myorrhaphy
Tenotomy             Myotomy




                                   31

				
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