Demography

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					Demography
         What is Demography?
• Demography is the scientific study of the
  characteristics and dynamics (change) of human
  populations including their size, growth,
  movement, density, and composition.
• Another way to define demography is to say that
  it is the study of statistics about people, how
  these statistics have changed and are changing,
  and the effects of these changes on social,
  economic, and environmental conditions.
• Some of the statistics that demography covers are:
   –   Birth Rates
   –   Death Rates
   –   Age
   –   Migration (including immigration and emigration)
   –   Education
   –   Ethnicity
   –   Religion
   –   Economic Status
   –   Marital Status
     How is Demography Used?
• Most frequently, demography is used in the
  following areas:
  – Marketing and consumer trends
  – Social Planning
  – Human Resources
• Historians, economists, geographers, and even
  epidemiologists use demographics to help them to
  explain changes and trends.
• Politicians, social planners, and health officials use
  demographics to help them predict future trends
  and plan for future needs.
• Demographics are used in making many major
  decisions. Lawmakers use demographics to help
  them decide how many immigrants will be allowed
  to enter Canada; school boards will use
  demographics when they are deciding whether to
  build a new school or hire new staff; car companies
  use demographics in deciding whether to build
  more SUVs or more Smart Cars.
 Demography and the Social Sciences
• Demography is a tool frequently used by social
  scientists to explain and predict specific
  changes and challenges in society.
              Psychologists
• PSYCHOLOGISTS might study demographics in
  order to understand the people they are
  treating and to help them focus psychological
  research, education, and treatment. For
  example, if Canada’s population is growing
  older should psychologists be researching the
  correlation between ageing and depression?
            Anthropologists
• ANTHROPOLOGISTS might use demography
  to help explain and understand why a culture
  behaves the way it does. For example, can
  anthropologists make any connections in
  North American cultures between declining
  birth rates and education?
                Sociologists
• SOCIOLOGISTS might use demography to help
  explain certain stresses on a society, to
  explain why a society has changed or to assist
  in social planning. For example, should
  available money to spend in a community go
  toward a new playground or toward a new
  senior citizens activity centre?
                  EXAMPLE
• Take the demographics of the family…
• The family is the basic unit of social activity.
  Therefore, the sociologist and the
  anthropologist are interested in the status,
  roles, and decision-making of family members.
  In some societies, having many children gives
  prestige to the mother and to the family. Why
  people want children is a question that may
  concern a psychologist.
• Social Scientists study demographics with three
  major questions in mind:
  1. What are the agents (causes) of change?
  2. What are the impediments to change?
  3. What are the effects of change?
• Social Scientists study demographics using a
  variety of research methods (which we will
  explore later in this course). These can include
  interviews, statistics, surveys, observations, and
  reviews of existing literature.
     EXPLORING DEMOGRAPHICS
• Rates of growth are determined by the
  following formula:

       (Birth Rate + immigration) – (Mortality Rate + emigration)
  
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                            _ 
Total Population
• Take a look at the image below. It illustrates population growth
  rate patterns for the world. Growth rates are determined by the
  formula above. Please answer the questions below.
• Take a look at the following demographics.
  Think about the questions a social scientist
  might ask about them. Think about what
  effects these demographics might have on
  society.
• What are some of the changes these
  demographics might prompt in society?
• What are some of the challenges they might
  create for society?
          Our Changing World
• How are world is rapidly changing
• Facts
• Quiz
            The World Today
• In 2006, the world’s population was 6.5 billion
  people.
• China and India made up about 20% of the
  total world’s population.
• The world’s birth rate in 2006 was 20.05 births
  per 1000 people.
• The average number of births in the world in
  2006 was estimated at 2.59 births per woman.
• How does Canada compare?
                    Canada
•   The Canadian population was 33 million
•   39th most populous country
•   10.78 births per 1000 people
•   Average number of Canadian births was
    estimated at 1.61 babies per woman
                Life Expectancy
• Life expectancy at birth is often used as an indicator
  of the overall health of the population
• 1980-1998, the avg life expectancy in the world rose
  from 61-67 years
• In 2006 worldwide life expectancy was 64.77
• In Andorra, a child born in 2006 could expect to live
  until the age of 84
• Lowest life expectancy is in Swaziland – in 2006 life
  expectancy was 33 years
                   Canada
• Life expectancy was 80.22 in 2006
• What does this tell you about the health of
  the Canadian population?
                      Birth Rates
• In the developing world, the average number of births has
  fallen from 5.9 children in the late 1970s to 3.9 in the 1990s.
• The following countries are the ten countries with the highest
  birth rates:
• Mali
• Sierra Leone
• Liberia
• Burkina Faso
• Niger
• Chad
• Angola
• Uganda
• Somalia
• Afghanistan
              Age Structure
• The median age of a population is the age
  where half the people are older and half of
  the people are younger.
• In 2006 median age of world was 27.6 years
                 Canada
• Median age was 38.9 years
               Rural vs. Urban
• Demographers project that the world’s
  population will be more urbanized in the
  future.
• Urban Population
  – 2000 = 2.86 billion
  – 2030 = 4.98 billion
• Rural Population
  – 2000 = 3.19 billion
  – 2030 = 3.29 billion

				
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