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AMANDA and IceCube neutrino telescopes at the South Pole

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AMANDA and IceCube neutrino telescopes at the South Pole Powered By Docstoc
					   AMANDA and
      IceCube
neutrino telescopes
 at the South Pole
       Per Olof Hulth
    Stockholm University
     Members of the AMANDA SU
               group
   Senior members
       Christian Bohm
       Per Olof Hulth
       Klas Hultqvist
       Christian Walck
   Forskarassistent
       Stephan Hundertmark
   Resarch students
       Thomas Burgess
       Patrik Ekström (Wuppertal)
       Yulia Minaeva
       Julio Rodriguez Martino
       Christin Wiedemann
   Electronic engenieer
       Lars Thollander
              Scientific goal
   Detect High Energy cosmic neutrinos by
    using the ice sheet at The South Pole as a
    target.

   Method:
    Detect the emitted Cherenkov light from
     neutrino induced interactions in the ice.
                Activities
   Mainly analysis and software development
   Preamplifiers designed and built in
    Stockholm (SWAMPS)
Neutrino interaction


                                  
                 < 1 degree




                The muon can travel
                several km in e.g. ice
                   South Pole

     Dark sector
                    Skiway
     AMANDA

                                Dome


IceCube
             Hot water heaters

   -50 m
           -55 C



1400 m     -42C




-2400 m    -20 C
Photomultipliers:
Hamamatsu 20 cm 14 dynodes
Gain 109
         AMANDA electronics
   Three different cable types (2400 -2600 m)
     Strings 1-4 coax cable, rise time 250 ns
     Strings 5-10 twisted pair rise time, 50-70 ns

     Strings 11-19 twisted pair rise time 100-150
      ns
   Analog signal at surface about 1-10 mV
   Amplified 100 times by Stockholm
    “SWAMP” (Lars Thollander)
      Technical requirements
   Absolute timing <7 ns from any OM
   Geometrical position uncertainty < 1m
   Electronic in ice should stand -50 C
   Low noise
Building AMANDA: The Optical
     Module and the String
       Evolution of read-out strategy




               - timing
               - dyn. range                   - cost
               - no x-talk                    - robustness
               - easy                         - dynamic
                   calibration                      range


Strings 1-10               Strings 11-17,19                  String 18
          New Project IceCube
   Increase volume to 1 km3
   80 strings with 60 modules each
   Photomultiplier 25 cm (10 inch) 10 dynodes
    (preliminary Hamamatsu)
   Air shower detector on top (IceTop)

   Transport drill to Pole 03/04
   First 1-7 strings in 04/05
             IceTop      AMANDA

                                  South Pole

                      Skiway
IceCube
80 Strings
4800 PMT
        1400 m




        2400 m
               IceCube:Top View

                                                                   Grid
                                                                   North

                                                         100 m


80 strings                                AMANDA

60 modules/string
Volume 1 km3               Counting
                            House
Depth 1400-2400 m                                            South Pole
                                      SPASE-2




                                                                     Dome
                                                Skiway
                 µ-events in IceCube
            Eµ=10 TeV                             Eµ=6 PeV

AMANDA-II




                                                    1 km


              Measure energy by counting the number of fired PMT.
              (This is a very simple but robust method)
                1. Digital Optical Module

   Self-triggers on each pulse
   Captures waveforms
   Time-stamps each pulse
   Digitizes waveforms                        DOM
   Performs feature extraction
   Buffers data
   Responds to Surface DAQ
   Set PMT HV, threshold, etc    Photomultiplier
   Noise rate in situ: ≤500 Hz


                                       33 cm
    1400 m

             OM Spacing: 17 m
IceCube
 String


    2400 m
    Experimental Requirements
            IceCube
   Time resolution:  <5 ns rms
   Waveform capture:
    >250 MHz - for first 500 ns
    ~40 MHz   - for 5000 ns
   Dynamic Range:
    >200 PE / 15 ns
    >2000 PE / 5000 ns
   Dead-time:     < 1%
   OM noise rate: < 500 Hz (40K in glass sphere)
  2. DAQ
 Network
architectu
     re
In-Door deployment
                                    Hose Winch for the Ice Cube Project
ENGINEERING AND INSTRUMENTATION
UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MADISON
Receiving drum weldment
                     POSITION OF DRILL
                    (30HOUR ANALYSIS)
           0
                0    5   10   15      20       25   30   35   40

         -500



        -1000



        -1500



        -2000
DEPTH




        -2500



        -3000
                                   TIME(hrs)

				
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posted:3/20/2012
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