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British Education

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          British     Education

                    英语国家概况系列
I     Education




    Educational Policy

    Educational System
      Background Information I

Before 1870 schools set up by churches,
 40% of children aged 10 attended
From 1870 onwards government took
 responsibility for education in response to
 changes caused by industrial revolution and
 movement for social & political reform
The 1944 Act in England& Wales gave all
 children the right to free secondary
 education
The tripartite [trai'pɑ:tait] system – at the
 end of primary education children are
 selected by means of streaming.
Those on the top stream (20%) went to
 grammar schools文法学校 . The rest went to
 secondary modern and technical schools
 二战期间,英国教育遭受严重破坏。为了恢
 复教育,1943年,政府发表《教育改革》白
 皮书。它的中心建议是,法定的公共教育体
 系应该组织成初等教育、中等教育和继续教
 育三个阶段。 1944年,教育大臣R.A.巴特
 勒在议会提出了教育法案,得到通过,称
 《1944年教育法》,亦称《巴特勒教育法》。
 《1944年教育法》的颁布,为战后英国教
 育发展提供了一个总的法律框架,具有划时
 代的意义。
       Background Information II

1960s introduction of comprehensive schools综
 合中学 – early selection & streaming not fair,
 equal educational opportunities & meritocracy精
 英制度
In 1999 85% of children attended
 comprehensive schools while 16% went to
 remaining grammar schools or private schools,
 problems of streaming still remain, holding back
 of brighter students, unjustified未被证明其正确
 的 labeling
 Types of Secondary Schools today

Comprehensive schools +85%
Grammar schools           4%
secondary modern schools现代中等学校
 4%
City Technology Colleges (CTCs )城市技术
 学校(英国在城市贫民区提供科技教育的一种
 中学)
Specialist schools (England only)
     Background Information IV

Recent reforms -- 1988 Education Reform
 Act
National Curriculum for 5 – 16 year-olds and
 regular exams -- National Tests at 7, 11, 14
 (p58)
Introduction of CTCs -- sponsors & main
 focus of curriculum
More power given to schools to run their
 affairs within the framework of national
 curriculum
1988年7月29日,英国国会通过《1988教育改革
 法》。分为学校、高等教育和继续教育、内伦敦的
 教育、其他一般性的规定四个部分.
1.设立全国统一课程2;建立与课程相联系的考试
 制 度;3改革学校管理体制;4.加大家长的权力;
 5.建立一种新型的城市技术学校。
《1988教育改革法》是英国1944教育法颁布以来最
 重要的一项教育法,是英国教育史上里程碑式的教
 育改革法案,强化了中央集权式的教育管理体制,
 是一部有深远意义的法令。
          1988教育改革法

最引人注目的改革措施是推行国家统一课程
 (national curriculum)。规定:在义务教育期
 间,学生必须学习国家统一课程,包括10门基础
 学科,即数学、英语、科学、历史、地理、技术
 学、音乐、艺术、体育和现代外语,其中数学、
 英语、科学为核心学科。此外,该法还规定为每
 门国家课程制定统一的成绩目标和教学大纲,并
 在7、11、14和16岁时分别对学生进行全国性评估。
 在英国教育史上首次以立法的形式规定了学校的
 基本教学内容,使英国学校课程走向统一。
          Educational Policy

Compulsory education for all children between
 the ages of 5 and 16
Comprehensive schools introduced in the
 1960s
National Curriculum introduced in 1988
Four stages:
   primary
   secondary
   further education
   higher education
            Educational System
Elementary and Secondary Education
  Two parallel school systems:
    • State system:11-year compulsory
    education
    • Independent system—Public schools
Higher Education
Famous Universities
Elementary and Secondary Education

 Two parallel school system:
  State system—local authority maintained 94%
     •(Free to all children between the ages of 5—16)
  Independent system—Public schools 6%
     •(Parents pay for their children's education)

 National curriculum:
    Compulsory in state school
    Optional in independent school
 Elementary and Secondary Education

                    State System

state system—11-year compulsory education
   5-11: primary schools (co-educational/ mixed
    schools)
   11-16: secondary schools
   (90% are comprehensive schools)
   GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education
 普通中等教育证书)
  Elementary and Secondary Education

                State System (Cont.)

“sixth form” (英国中学里的)六年级(2 years)
   A-levels (General Certificate of Education—
    Advanced)
    —for universities admittances
   GNVQs (General National Vocational
    Qualifications)
    —for vocational training
Elementary and Secondary Education

             Independent System
 the most famous
 — Eton伊顿 , Harrow哈罗 and Winchester温切斯特
 6 percent of all British children

 A privilege for the rich
   Better funded
   Better teachers
   Better facilities
   Better chance to enter famous universities
     School Today Public School
                  -- Eton College

 Eton               Stay with the tutor
        Schools Today Public School
            -- Eton College

Eton Pupils
  Schools Today Public School
        -- Eton College

The royal family thinks the
 school is just the place for
 Willam.
 “William is as near to normal at
 Eton... Many people there are
 richer than he is. There are
 many people whose family
 relationships are even more         Prince William
 complex than his."
Schools Today    Public Schools

Harrow School     East Ham Grammar
                    School for Boys
      Institutions of Higher Education
                 Universities

110 universities in UK. 93 in England, 13 in
 Scotland, 2 in Wales and 2 in N. Ireland
Over 42% of pupils become university
 students on leaving school at 18
Two other universities. University of
 Buckingham (800 students) Open University
 英国开放大学 (over 20,000 students). The
 latter non-residential university offers
 courses to adults of all ages.
Higher Education (Cont.)


        Buckingham University
      is the only privately-
      financed university in UK,
      where students can
      finish 3 years’ courses in
      two years, and its
      curriculum changes
      flexibly according to
      market demands
白金汉大学创建于1976年,是英国唯一的
 一所私立大学。
白金汉大学的800名在校学生分别来自世界
 80多个国家,使校园里充满了多元文化的
 气氛。
       Institutions of Higher Learning
             Entrance Procedures

In the third term of Year 12 students prepare
 their applications to university
Applications are then made in the first term of
 the Year 13 through one centralized
 organization known as UCAS (Universities and
 Colleges Admissions Service )英国大专院校招
 生委员会
Students can apply to a maximum of six
 universities/institutions.
Admission –selection on basis of A level
 results, schools &an interview
         Institution of Higher learning
             Entrance Procedures

If a university or institution is impressed by
 the student’s UCAS form they will send an
 offer of a place conditional upon obtaining
 certain stated A Level grades
The final decision on which institution the
 student will actually attend will be taken
 when the A Level results are published in
 mid-August.
In the case of Cambridge applicants may
 be asked to obtain a good mark in an extra
 exam (called the STEP), which they can
 sit just after the A Level exams.
Applications through UCAS to Oxford and
 Cambridge also have to be sent by a
 special early deadline accompanied by a
 special extra form.
       Institutions of Higher Education
                  Cambridge

Cambridge University was founded in 1209 by
 students fleeing from Oxford after one of the many
 episodes of violence between the university and
 the town of Oxford.
Institution of Higher Education
       Oxford University
       Institution of Higher Education
              Oxford University

Oxford University. Legend has it that
 Oxford University was founded by King Alfred
 in 872. The University as we know it actually
 began in the 12th century as gatherings of
 students around popular masters.
         Institution of Higher Education
                    Oxbridge

The Boat Race between Oxford &
 Cambridge started June 10, 1829
The event is now a British national institution,
 and is televised live each year. The race has
 been won by Cambridge 77 times and
 Oxford 71, with one dead heat平手 in 1877.
The race is currently run over a four mile and
 374 yard stretch of the River Thames
 between Putney and Mortlake in London.
    Institution of Higher Education
               Oxbridge


The Dark Blue Crew   Oxford won the 2003
                       Boat Race, and with
                       it the Aberdeen Asset
                       Management Trophy,
                       by the narrowest of
                       margins after one of
                       the most exciting
                       finishes of all time.
Institution of Higher Education
           Oxbridge
     Institutions of Higher Education
                 Oxbridge

The Light Blues & Dark Blues
       Institution of Higher Education
               Open University

The Open University is ranked in the top five
  of UK universities for the quality of teaching,
  according to a newly-published national table.

     Institution of Higher Education
             Open University

The University         Milton Keynes
                            Pagoda
                Higher Education

Recruitment base on:
   Grades of AS, A-levels, GNVQs
   School references
   Interview


Mostly funded by central government grants
      Except Buckingham University
            Higher Education (Cont.)

Q: What’s the difference between time
range required for degrees in British higher
 education system and the time range in
Chinese higher education system?

     Degrees        Time range       Time range
     Awarded        required in UK   required in China
    B.A. / B.S.         3 years          4 years
   M.A. / M.S.        1 or 2 years     2 to 3 years
 Doctoral degree      3 to 5 years      3 to 5 years
       How to evaluate a university?

1.   Student Satisfaction
2.   Research Quality
3.   Student Staff Ratio
4.   Services & Facilities Spend
5.   Entry Standards
6.   Completion
7.   Good Honors
8.   Graduate prospect
       Top 10 Britain University in 2010

                          8. Durham杜伦大学
1. Oxford                 9. Exeter艾克斯特大学
                          10. Bristol布里斯托大学
2. Cambridge
3.    Imperial College帝国理工学院
4.    St Andrews圣安德鲁斯大学
5.    University College London伦敦大学学院
6.    Warwick华威大学
7.    London School of Economics and Political
     Science伦敦政治经济学院
         Famous Universities (Cont.)

Oxford University and Cambridge University
 are sometimes referred to collectively as
 Oxbridge.




      Oxford Crest        Cambridge Crest
  Famous Universities (Cont.)




         The Mathematical Bridge
(at Queens’ College, Cambridge University )
      年龄          教育制度
初等教育         小学    (某些情况包含十二岁儿童)小学通常分
                   为幼年部和少年部,有些学校会将学习
                   场所分开。有些地区则采三级制,区分
                   为初级、中级和高级小学,结业年限分
                   别是八或九岁和十二或十三岁。
                   通常于十一或十二岁入学,而离校最低年纪为
中等教育 11-17   中学    十六岁,此时学生可以参加GCSE考试。高中
                   在完成中学教育后,学生选修为期一年的学科
                   进修课程AS-Level。通过考试后,再修读一年
                   的进阶级课程A-Level,通过考试后才能申请大
                   学。

                   英国的学士学位一般就读期间为三年。
高等教育。18-20   大学    学生若未具备就读资格,可申请由国际
                   指导学院所提供的大学预科课程以取得
                   大学就读资格


                   硕士课程通常包含课堂教学与座谈会,并须缴
。      21+   研究所   交论文。通常就读一年即可取得学位

             硕士
 GCSE
   学生通常用两年学习八至十二门的GCSE课
 程。大多数学生都会学习学校规定的必修课程,
 并加修几门选修课。必修课程包括英语、数学、
 设计与技术、语言课程、自然科学课程、信息
 与通讯技术及体育等。选修课程有艺术与设计、
 商务、戏剧、经济学、工程学、卫生与社会护
 理、休闲与旅游、音乐、物理及宗教等。学生
 可以自由选择GCSE的必修和选修课程。
AS-Level和A-Level
   是专为16岁以上学生开设的课程,在AS-Level
 和A-Level的课程中学生有更广泛的选课自由,通
 常学校会建议学生选择有助于就业或申请大学的
 课程。在范围广泛的可选课程中,除了GCSE课程
 中所包含的科目外,还涵括地质学、运动研究、
 电子学、摄影、戏剧研究、媒体研究等其它课程。
 AS-Level和A-Level课程是为两年课程,第一年学
 习四门至五门AS-Level的课程,到了第二年,从
 中选择二至四门(通常为三个)科目作为A-Level
 课程继续学习。

								
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