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					Musical Theatre History
        FIVE Fundamental
    Qualities of Musical Theatre

 Theatre of Romance
 Total Theatre
 Popular Theatre
 Presentational
 Theatre of Conventions
            Theatre of Romance
   The average and ordinary can aspire to be more than
    himself. He can quest and adventure, risk and achieve.

   Intellectual attitudes give way to emotion, passion
    prevails over decorum, and above all, romantic love
    radiates from the center of all things.

   Romantic love meant as an ideal love: selfless, spiritual,
    eternal, without human fetters.
           Theatre of Romance
   Song and dance serve the romantic ideals.

   Song invest its ideas with a radiant emotional
    power that gives sentiment the wings to soar
    above reality.

   Song enriches human life by raising the ordinary
    to the exceptional; thereby making it more real
    than reality.
               Total Theatre

   Musical theatre is an artistic system that
    not only encourages the use of techniques
    beyond the spoken word for projecting
    dramatic ideas, but relies upon them.
                    Total Theatre
   Musical theatre is the most collaborative form in all the
    arts: librettist, composer, lyricist, director, choreographer,
    designers, actors, singers, dancers, etc…

   Each component is essential to the composition of the

   The majority involve arts and skills that are nonverbal.
                   Total Theatre
   The sublime message of any musical show must
    ultimately me: LIFE IS WORTH IT.

   The process of musical theatre is life-affirming.

   Movement, Song, Dance--each distinguishes moments
    when we are truly alive!
            Popular Theatre

   American Musical Theatre is
    entertainment created for the masses.
   Presentational nature evolved from exposure to
    consistent audience reaction and applause generated by
    song, dance and scenic elements.

   Presentationalism defines the philosophy of musical
    theatre. The potential of the show as a catalyst for the
    total presentation of the show’s idea (Cabaret).
        Theatre of Conventions
   The elements of song and dance are

   Accepting these can be difficult at first, but
    once accepted, music and dance hold a
    rich foundation for subtext, feelings,
    moods and attitudes.
          Musical Theatre

 Theatre of Romance
 Total Theatre
 Popular Theatre
 Presentational
 Theatre of Convention
   American Musical Theatre is the nation’s
    most visible modern contribution to the
    world of theatre.
      Foundations: French and
         Viennese Operetta
    By the 1700s, two forms of comic opera
     were thriving:

1.   Low comedies
2.   High comedies
              Low Comedies
   Borrowed popular songs of the day and
    rewrote lyrics to suit a particular plot.

   Characters more “earthly” than
           High Comedies
 New scores
 Romantic plot lines
 Usually upper class characters
 Music was almost grand-opera in tone, but
  was aimed at popular taste.
        Jacques Offenbach
 Bridged the gap between low and high
 Fought against the government-sponsored
  grand opera.
 Presented one-act comic musicals that he
  called “operettes.”
 Lighter than opera, but with some serious
  musical intentions.
          Johann Strauss II
 Admired Offenbach’s operettas and made
  no secret of his desire to write one of his
 Die Fledermaus (“The Bat” - 1874)
 Would write ten more operettas, but
  Fledermaus remains his theatrical
   European forms of entertainment dominated
    musical theatre in colonial America.

   FIRST RECORDED musical theatre
    performance in the colonies was the ballad
    opera, Flora--arguably--in 1735. This was
    performed without stage, scenery, costumes or
    footlights in a courtroom in Charleston, South
America would have too wait over 100 years
 (1866) for what most people consider to
 be the first “real” musical theatre
During the 1700s, there were three main
types of musical entertainments performed
in America:
1. Ballad Opera
2. Comic Opera
3. Pasticcio
                Ballad Opera
   The ballad opera is not a true opera.
     Opera  is a play entirely sung to original music
      created by the composer to extend the
      dramatic value of the libretto.
     It was customary in 18th century England to
      apply the “opera” to almost any dramatic work
      with music.
 The ballad opera permitted composers to
  use new music; however, the
  characteristic procedure was to set new
  lyrics to old familiar tunes--usually popular
  ballads, airs and folk songs of the day.
 “Ballad” was a song commonly sung up
  and down the street.
                Comic Opera
   Comic opera stands for a dramatic work on a
    light or sentimental subject with music.
   Happy ending, a must.
   Spoken dialogue instead of recitative. This
    called for good actors who could sing.
   Original music composed specifically for the
    dramatic action.
   English--Comic Opera; French--Opéra Bouffe;

 An intermediate form between ballad
  opera and comic opera.
 Combined both new and old music.
        The Beggar’s Opera
 1728, by John Gay
 The most popular theatrical work of the
  18th century.
 Fundamentally challenged present day
  musical entertainment by stressing the
  importance of the book.
 Utilized both new and old music.
• A strong book
  - Filled with ideas to engage the brain.
  - Diction to approximate the speaking voice.
• Controversial
  - Satirical view of corruption of both thieves and
  whores, lords and ladies.
• A strong score
  - 69 songs originally to be sung a cappella, but was
  changed (thankfully) for a simplistic orchestral
Other types of English Musical
Entertainments which had influence on the
development of American Musical
 Burletta: a burlesque comic opera (“a poor
  relation to opera”).
 Shadow shows: a form of puppetry with
 Pantomimes: staged ballets, mythology,
 Masques: dramatic entertainments in
  verse; usually mythical or allegorical.
         British Music Hall
 Provided plenty of musical entertainment
  and booze.
 Inexpensive, unpretentious variety shows.
 Material was never more than mildly
 Comedy prevailed.
Musical Theatre History
      Musical Theatre History
   Theatre of Romance
   Total Theatre
   Popular Theatre
   Presentational
   Theatre of Convention
     European Precursors
Ballad Opera

Comic Opera
       Low comedies
       High comedies

            The Beggar’s Opera, 1728
            John Gay
         American Variety
 Variety was America’s most popular
  entertainment in the early to mid-1800s.
 Variety was not out to attract a family
  audience. The audience was primarily all
 Nudity and verbal obscenity were
  forbidden, but “blue” acts and songs
  depicting sexual situations were common.
           American Variety
Jokes had to be sledge-hammered home. The days of
personalities, subtlety, wit, expert dancing and superb
technique were to come.

In the late 1880s variety evolved into the cleaner, more
sophisticated revue format known as vaudeville.
             Minstrel Shows

   Minstrel shows developed in the 1840s.

   It was the most popular form of
    entertainment in the US from
    approximately 1840 - 1880.
              Minstrel Shows
   The minstrel show
      Crude, low-grade style of song, dance and
      comedy entertainment.
     Impersonation of Negro life and manners by
      white men in black face.
     The music, songs, dances and comic chatter
      reflected a plantation experience that never
           Minstrel Shows
 The first to popularize blackface acts was
  Thomas D. Rice in 1828. He sang the
  patter song, “Jim Crow” which created the
  craze for blackface performers.
 Jim Crow became a synonym for any
  black man.
             Minstrel Shows

   Two main types of Negro impersonation:

    1. The happy-go-lucky plantation hand.
    2. The white dandy.
             Minstrel Shows

   First solo teams dominated, but then
    specialists formed bands and troupes.
            Minstrel Shows
 1843
 Dan Emmet opened the Virginia Minstrels
 Billed as “novel, grotesque, original and
  surpassingly melodious Ethiopian band.”
 Not just an act, but a self-sufficient show.
 Emmet and Virginia Minstrels set the
  format for the early minstrels.
           Minstrel Shows
 1846
 Edwin Christy establishes the Christy
 Most famous and successful minstrel man
  of his time.
 Christy’s actors were known for their skill
  in improvisation in both acting and music.
 Instituted the format and content of the
  minstrel show.
              Minstrel Show
   Christy Minstrels implemented:

   Three-Act format (different from text):
       First act: variety entertainment
       Second act: the fantasia or specialties
       Third act: burlesque of previous act or
             timely event
           Christy Minstrels
   Introduced the characters:
        Mr. Tambo, who played a tambourine.
        Mr. Bones, who played a bone-like
        Mr Interlocutor, literally means
           Christy Minstrels

   Commissioned original music.
              Minstrel Shows
   The songs were vital to the success of the
    minstrel shows.

   Minstrelsy contributed the most popular
    and historically visible songs of the period-
    -folk songs.
     Minstrel Show Composers
   Dan Emmet
      “Jimmy Crack Corn”
      “Polly Wolly Doodle”
      “Buffalo Gals”

   Lived and worked in the North.
     Minstrel Show Composers
   Stephen Foster
       “Way Down Upon the Swanee River”
       “Camptown Races”
       “O, Susanna”

 Lived and worked in the North.
 Wrote over 200 songs.
     Minstrel Show Composers
 James A. Bland
       “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny”
       “In the Evening by the Moonlight”
       “O Dem Golden Slippers”
 Most important black writer and composer.
 Born and bred in the North.
 Is credited with over 600 works--did not write his
  compositions down. King of improvisation.
           Minstrel Shows
 Dance was another important element in
  the minstrel show.
 These dances avoided the polite dances
  of society.
 The dances were much more free and
  open; a liberated face and body.
    “Cake Walk”
             Minstrel Shows
   Minstrelsy initiated the American idea and
    practice of big time show business.
       Charging $.25, one minstrel show
       grossed $317,598.00 for a single run.

   Minstrelsy remained all-male until 1890,
    when The Creole Show offered a female
    interlocutor and women in the ensemble.
           Minstrel Shows
 The most famous graduate of minstrelsy
  was Al Jolson.
 Jolson immortalized his blackface routines
  in several films, including the talking
  landmark The Jazz Singer (1928).
 He advocated equal rights for blacks.
             Minstrel Shows
   By 1870, the minstrel show began to fade;
    however, minstrel traditions were
       The variety acts evolved into
    vaudeville. The specialties led to the
       The burlesque paved way for others in,
       what else, burlesque.
Musical Theatre History

 The origins of the term vaudeville are still
 For our purpose, it comes from the French
  phrase, “voix de ville” or “songs of the

   There were two fundamental men in the
    creation and evolution of vaudeville:
                Tony Pastor
                E. F. Albee
             Tony Pastor
 Former minstrel man.
 In 1865, he opened Tony Pastor’s
 He removed all objectionable material and
  directed the commercial operation towards
  women and children.
 This family geared entertainment would be
  all the rage for the next 50 years.
               E. F. Albee
 In 1925, he opened the Albee Theatre.
 Described as “the most beautiful theatre in
  the world.”
 The theatre boasted “3” spectacular
  chandeliers, twenty dressing rooms (each
  w/private bath) and a nursery for the
 Built a chain of ornate theatres across the
  Northeastern United States.
 Show business entered a gold age of new
  and gaudy showplaces.
 Nearly 2,000 theatres featured weekly
 By 1924, management became very
  sophisticated. The vaudeville bill may
  have look like a melange of entertainment,
  but it was skillfully put together.
            The Vaudeville Bill
   According to George A. Gottlieb, booker for the
    Palace Theatre, the vaudeville nine-act was:
        1. Dumb Act: designed not be spoiled by
             late arrivals.
       2. Vaudeville Act: Designed to “settle”
             down the audience.
       3. Comedy-Drama Sketch: Designed to
             wake up the audience.
       4. “Name” Act: Rouse the audience to
             expect still better things.
    The Vaudeville Bill
5. Big act with “name”: Must crown off the
      first half of the program.
6. Vaudeville specialty/Comedy dumb act: A
      difficult spot to fill.
7. Full stage act with “name.”
8. “The” place of the evening: The headliner.
9. Big, flashy, show act: People are leaving
      and should not want to stay around.

   Vaudeville gave women equal opportunity
    to rise to stardom:
        Kate Smith
        Nora Bayes
        Sarah Bernhardt

 Strict adherence to decency standards.
 Risqué numbers were very rare.
      Became known as “blue” material
      because of blue envelopes demanding
      a cut line. There was no arguing the
      blue notes.

   Three main levels of touring circuits for
    vaudeville performers:
      1. “Small time”
      2. “Medium time”
      3. “Big time”

“Small time” - small town houses and
cheaper theatres in largers towns.
Performers made as little as $15.00 a

“Medium time” - good theatres in most
towns and cities, with salaries in the

“Big time” - the finest theatres in the best
cities, all using a two performance-a-day
format. Top star at this level made well
over $1,000.00 a week.
   Songs became a stronghold of vaudeville.
       Easy songs of lilting melody.

      Family audiences loved songs that glorified
      home, morality, friendship and the like.

      “After the Ball” became the first popular song
      to sell several million copies of sheet music.

   Another stronghold of vaudeville was the
    comedy acts:
        1. Monologue
        2. Two-act
        3. Vaudeville sketch
         Vaudeville - Comedy

   Monologue: A 10-15 minute speech
    delivered by actor or comic
    unaccompanied by any other form of
         Vaudeville - Comedy

   Two-act: Two performers engaged in
    humorous conversation for about 10-15
    minutes. The most successful depended
    on a lot of physical business, usually
         Vaudeville - Comedy

   Vaudeville Sketch: Two or more
    performers in dramatic, melodramatic or
    farce lasting approximately 20 minutes.
       Vaudeville - The Decline

   Vaudeville declined in the late 1920s/ 30s.
        The depression.
        Talking motion pictures
     Vaudeville - Contributions
1.   The first cheap and popular musical theatre in
     America to be available to the entire family.
2.   It confirmed the ingredient of variety in
     maintaining audience attention.
3.   America’s only true system of apprenticeship.
4.   It bred discipline into artists (do you need five
     or ten minute?).
5.   Over 2,000 new theatres were built during the
     vaudeville heyday.
     Theatre of Romance • Total Theatre • Popular
       Presentational • Theatre of Convention

Ballad Opera   •    Comic Opera     •   Pasticcio
                    Low comedies         The Beggar’s Opera
                    High comedies        John Gay, 1728
        Minstrel - Overview

 Most popular form of US entertainment
  between 1840-1880.
 Songs became stronghold of minstrelsy.
 Three-act format.
 Dance important aspect.
    A copy of these lecture
    notes may be found at:
Musical Theatre History
   In the 19th Century, the term “burlesque”
    was applied to a wide range of comic

   By the 1860s, British burlesque became
    increasingly reliant on the display of
    shapely, underdressed women to keep
    audiences interested.
   Michael Leavitt produced burlesque
    variety shows using something similar to
    the three-act minstrel show format:
       ACT ONE: The ensemble entertains
       with songs and gags, dressed formally.
       ACT TWO: An “olio” of variety acts.
       ACT THREE: A complete one-act
       musical burlesque--”Much Ado About a
       Merchant of Venice”; “Bend Her.”

   “Extra Added Attraction” was tacked on
    the end of the show, a finale which
    featured the “hootchie kootchie” dance.
   By the early 1900s, burlesque had
    vaudeville-style circuits of small, medium
    and big time theatres.

   These circuits became known as “wheels”
    because of regular rotations between

   The “wheels” improved the commercial
    organization of the industry.
     - Gave performers security of 40 weeks of
       employment each season.
     - Instituted quality and standard controls.

   It was common for burlesque stars to
    graduate into vaudeville.

   Vaudevillians considered it a fatal disgrace
    to appear in burlesque--”washed up.”
   Burlesque’s richest legacy in found in

   Introduced many comic legends:
    Jackie Gleason
    W.C. Fields
    Red Skelton
    Bob Hope
          Burlesque - Comedy
   The “top comic” was referred to as the “top
    banana.” The second, was referred to as
    the second banana…

   The lower you were in the “bunch” the
    more likely you were to suffer the worst of
    the physical humor.
          Burlesque - Comedy
   Most of the comedy skits revolved around
    settings and situations familiar to lower
    and working class audiences.

   Sexual innuendo was always present, but
    the focus was on making fun of sex, and
    what people were will to do in pursuit of it.
        Burlesque - Comedy

( Minister walks up to a beautiful woman.)
  Minister: Do you believe in the hereafter?
  Woman: Centainly, I do!
  Minister: (Leering) Then you know what
  I’m here after.
          Burlesque - Comedy
   Many burlesque routines spoofed social
    conventions and linguistic idiosyncrasies.

   The most famous was Bud Abbott and Lou
    Costello’s glorious “Who’s on First.”
         Burlesque - Comedy

   In 1912, Weber and Fields outlined
    essentials needed to make an audience
          Burlesque - Comedy
   When a man sticks one finger into another
    man’s eye.
   When a man sticks two fingers into another
    man’s eye.
   When a man chokes another man and shakes
    his head from side to side.
   When a man kicks another man.
   When a man bumps up suddenly against
    another man and knocks him off his feet.
   When a man steps on another man’s foot.
     Burlesque - Comedy

“The greatest laughter, the greatest
comedy, is divided by a hair from the
greatest tragedy. Always remember that.”
              - Weber and Fields

   In the 1920s, the burlesque circuits closed

   The strip tease was introduced to compete
    with vaudeville, film and radio.
    Burlesque - The Strip Tease

   Strippers had to walk a fine line--too much,
    and you could get arrested.

   Some combined artistry and titillation.
    Most notably, Gypsy Rose Lee.
    Burlesque - The Strip Tease
   A classy striptease program would revolve
    around three sections:
       1. “Parade” - A promenade of beautiful
       girls in outlandish costumes.
       2. “Peel” - The gradual removal of
       clothing (the infamous bump and grind
       accompanied the peel).
       3. “Flash” - A mini-second reveal of
       nudity ala G-string.

   While burlesque is gone, its legacy
        Saturday Night Live
        Animal House
        Jerry Springer

   Burlesque and its bold and sexually frank,
    comic challenge to the status quo remains
    a key element in popular entertainment.
         Vaudeville - Overview

   Stronghold of vaudeville was the comedy:
    Monologue • Two-act • Vaudeville sketch

   Touring circuits for vaudeville performers:
    “Small time” • “Medium time” • “Big time”
     Vaudeville - Contributions
1.   The first cheap and popular musical theatre in America
     to be available to the entire family.
2.   It confirmed the ingredient of variety in maintaining
     audience attention.
3.   America’s only true system of apprenticeship.
4.   It bred discipline into artists (do you need five or ten
5.   Over 2,000 new theatres were built during the
     vaudeville heyday.
        Minstrel - Overview

 Most popular form of US entertainment
  between 1840-1880.
 Songs became stronghold of minstrelsy.
 Three-act format.
 Dance important aspect.
     Theatre of Romance • Total Theatre • Popular
       Presentational • Theatre of Convention

Ballad Opera   •    Comic Opera     •   Pasticcio
                    Low comedies         The Beggar’s Opera
                    High comedies        John Gay, 1728
                  Next class:
   Musical Show-and-Tell

   Each student will present (5 minutes maximum)
    an overview of their favorite musical.
    Presentation must include composer/lyricist
    team and a song example that we will listen to in
             Patrick McColley - Monday
             Sarah Devries - Wednesday
             Lucy Wadnizak - Friday
 Next class:

The Early Musical
  1796 - 1879
    A copy of these lecture
    notes may be found at:
Musical Theatre History
Muscial Show-and-Tell

    Patrick McColley
The Early Musical
             The Early Musical
   The popular stage in America was a musical

   Almost every theatrical production interpolated
    musical numbers—even Shakespearean

   As early as 1796, New York’s American
    Company, an early theatre company, musical
    entertainments accounted for 45% of their
           The Early Musical

   The first homegrown American musical
    was the comic opera, The Archers by
    William Dunlap. (1796)

   Based on the William Tell legend.
         The Early Musical
 Early 1800s, melodramas with music
  became increasingly popular.
    Only a few scripts have survived.
    None would pass for entertainment
    Very little plot.
    Music not integrated.
           The Early Musical

   By the 1860s, minstrelsy and variety
    created a ready supply of experienced
    native talent, but musicals as we know
    them were still nowhere in sight.
Broadway’s First Blockbuster:
      The Black Crook

 1866
 Niblo’s Garden, a 3,200 seat theatre that
  boasted the most well equipped stage in
  New York.
 Elaborately staged melodrama with
  pasticcio music.
    Broadway’s First Blockbuster
         The Black Crook
 Featured more than 100 ballet dancers.
 Lasted around 5 1/2 hours.
 The initial run grossed $1,000,000.00 and
  ran 475 performances.
 It was the most popular musical production
  of the 19th Century.
The Black Crook

It was all a mistake!
              The Black Crook
   William Wheatley, Niblo’s manager, was in
        - His planned production had fallen through.
        - He needed a quick replacement.
        - He held rights to a mediocre melodrama
        with some so-so songs.
        - He was hoping to buck up the melodrama
        with stunning technical support.
            The Black Crook

   A French ballet troupe was in town to
    perform at the Academy of Music.
       - Dazzling sets.
       - The building burned to the ground.
       - The promoters were desperate.
            The Black Crook
   The producers of the ballet proposed a
    merger with Wheatley’s melodrama.
      - No major alterations were made to
      the script or score.
      - The ballet was performed in sections,
      the melodrama was performed in
      sections, and very little was done to
      integrate them.
             The Black Crook

   It was a huge success!

   It was condemned by the pulpit and the
    papers as a sinful display of bare flesh,
    and it sold like hotcakes.
            The Black Crook
 At this time most New York shows ran a matter
  of weeks.
 The Black Crook ran for over a year.
      - A London production ran for an impressive
      204 performances.
      - The show was revived on Broadway an
      astounding fifteen times and touring
      companies remained in operation through
    Extravaganza and Spectacle

   Paralleling burlesque in character and
    popularity was the Extravaganza and
    Extravaganza and Spectacle

   Theatre pieces loosely adapted from
    European models.
       Beautiful women
       Beautiful costumes
       Beautiful scenery, lights and musical
    Extravaganza and Spectacle
 1866, The Seven Daughters of Satan
 …”replete with Grand Marches, Dances, and
  Choruses, concluding with the last Grand Scene,
  the Most Magnificent ever presented upon any
  Stage, representing the Birth of Cupid in the
  Bower of Ferns, produced at an immense out-
  lay…Mirrors of Plate Glass are used, forming a
  Lake of Silver. Moving Fairy Cars, Revolving
  Gems, …concluding with the Magnificent
  Shower of Gold.”
    Extravaganza and Spectacle
 The Hippodrome
 Theatre built to establish spectacle.
        Capacity of 5,200 - 110 feet deep by 200 feet wide (Hansen
         35 1/2 feet deep by 36 feet wide).

        600 actors could dance comfortably.

        Staged many spectacles including: floods and fires; elephant
         acts, water ballets; cavalry charges and base ball games.

        It was demolished in 1939--on same site is the Hippodrome
         Garage of an office building.
                 The Revue

 Revue: a satirical entertainment of fashionable
  Parisian life.
 In America would mirror the fast paced energy
  warranted by the American audience.
 Lively non-book show with musical numbers,
  comedy, sketches and specialty routines
 The revue brought a sense of unity to variety--
  unlike vaudeville.
        The Spectacular Revue
   The "Spectacular" American Revue is the child
    of four influences:
        1. Minstrelsy - fantasia section.
       2. Vaudeville - self-contained variety entertainment.
       3. Burlesque - satirical sketches.
       4. Spectacle - artful blending of physical
       beauty with sumptuous surroundings.
      The Spectacular Revue

 1894
 The Passing Show
 The first spectacular revue.
 Potpourri including opera bouffe, ballet,
  farce and vaudeville.
       The Spectacular Revue

   The most influential man who worked with
    spectacular revue Florenz Ziegfeld.

   Produced 23 editions from 1907 – 1931.
           The Ziegfeld Follies

   Ziegfeld formula call for:
       1. Glamour--the glorification of the most beautiful
       American girls. (Burlesque)
       2. Pace--with all elements leading to first act curtain
         and finale. (Vaudeville)
       3. Decency--nothing suggestive or unclean.
       4.Spectacle. (Duh!)
          The Ziegfeld Follies

   Ziegfeld commissioned over five hundred
    songs from such composers:
       Jerome Kern
       Victor Herbert
       Irving Berlin
          The Ziegfeld Follies
   The initial cost of mounting was $13,000 in
    1907; $289,000 in 1930.

   Ziegfeld dies in 1932 and with him the
    Spectacular Revue dies.

   More than 100 revues opened in the
    1920's emulating Ziegfeld.
           The Intimate Revue

   The Intimate revue placed imagination
    over budget; intellect over the spectacle;
    and originality over box-office formula.
            The Intimate Revue
   The Grand Street Follies (1924)
       - The first Intimate revue

   The Garrick Gaieties (1925)
       - Music and Iyrics done by Rodgers and Hart
       in their first musical pairing
       - Hart introduces bright and cultivated Iyrics -
       though the Iyrics needed to mirror the
       complexities of the music - introduced the
       beginnings of the "theatre song."
        The Intimate Revue
Pins and Needles (1937)
 The most famous intimate revue
    - Ran for 1,108 performances--the longest
      Broadway run to date (will be beat in 1943 by
    - Produced and performed by members of the
      International Ladies Garment Workers Union
    - Some of the songs were banned from the radio
    due to shocking lyrics: lockout and arbitrate.
   The revue has never really died. It is still present
    in cabaret etc.
      Musical theatre influences:
       1. The spectacular revue refined the use of spectacle in
       2. The intimate revue asserted the value of subtly.
       3. The introduction of "meaty" lyrics.
       4. Stimulated new songwriters Rodgers and Hart, Irving Berlin,
         Cole Porter, George Gershwin and many more.
       5. (Ziegfeld) raised the creative standards of writers,
         composers and lyricists.
    Next class…

  Musical Show-and-Tell
     Sarah Devries

The First Musical Comedies
Musical Theatre History
Musical Show-and-Tell
   Sarah Devries
The First Musical Comedies
     The First Musical Comedies

   Another form to rise on Broadway was the
    full-length burlesque.
      The First Musical Comedies

   These had nothing to do with the bump-
    and-grind girlie shows of the 20th Century.

   They aimed for laughs, not naughty thrills.
      The First Musical Comedies
   The man of full-length burlesques was
    Edward E. Rice.

   He is known as America’s first prominent stage
    composer and musical producer.

   He turned out scores for two of Broadway’s most
    popular burlesques:
       Evangeline (1874)
       Adonis (1884)
     The First Musical Comedies

   The form we know as musical comedy
    was introduced by Edward (Ned) Harrigan
    and Tony Hart.

   Their shows were produced on Broadway
    between 1879 and 1884.
      The First Musical Comedies

   Harrigan performed, produced, and
    directed while writing the scripts and lyrics.
     The First Musical Comedies

   The plots focused on New York’s
    immigrant-based lower and middle

   This overlooked group enjoyed seeing
    themselves depicted on stage.
      The First Musical Comedies

   Plots revolved around such real-life
    problems as interracial tensions, political
    corruption and gang violence.

   Nonetheless, there was always enough
    clownish humor to keep everyone
      The First Musical Comedies

   George M. Cohan (another Harrigan-
    esque man) immortalized this famous
    team in his “H-A-double R-I-G-A-N spells
      The First Musical Comedies

   Farcical musical comedies were standard
    Broadway fare in the 1890s.

   The plots were loosely constructed, joke-
    filled excuses to get from song to song,
    and it was not unusual for several different
    composers to contribute one score.
      The First Musical Comedies
   The most successful Broadway musical of
    this period was A Trip to Chinatown (1891-

   Composer, lyricist, director, producer—
    Charles Hoyt.

   Included the musical number
    “After the Ball.”
      The First Musical Comedies
   A Trip to Coontown (1898)

   New York’s first full-length musical
    comedy written, directed, and performed
    exclusively by blacks.

   It relied heavily on minstrel stereotypes.
    The First Musical Comedies
 Joe Weber and Lew Fields
 Comedy team which enjoyed immense success
  in burlesque and vaudeville.
 Produced and co-starred in more than a dozen
  Broadway musicals.
      Whirl-i-gig (1899)
      Fiddle-dee-dee (1899)
      Twirly Whirly (1902)
The Book and Song Structure
                  The Book
   The book – also called the libretto – is the
    least appreciated and yet, most
    dramatically important element of a

   It is the narrative structure that keeps the
    score from being nothing more than a
    disjointed medley of songs.
                    The Book
   For many years, the main point of most shows
    was to showcase a score and/or a major star.

   As a result, the books of most Broadway
    musicals were a series of scenes, jokes and
    sight gags designed to get from song to song.
    As long as the script provided excuses for Al
    Jolson to sing a few hits or Marilyn Miller to do a
    dance routine, theatergoers were satisfied.
                 The Book

   Not until the 1940s, were audiences ready
    for something more, and shows like Pal
    Joey, Lady In the Dark and Oklahoma!
    made it imperative that the book and score
    interweave to tell a cohesive story.
          Key Book Elements
A musical book must do the following:
     1. Keep the story line clear and easy to follow.
     2. Create characters that are easy to relate to,
     without resorting to stereotypes. (Good luck!)
     3. Create situations that call characters into song.
     4. Move in and out of songs as smoothly as
     5. Hand over much (and sometimes all) of the plot
     and character development to the songs and
     6. Make the audience care at all times. (If the action
     gets dull, nothing guarantees an audience will stay
     to learn the ending!)
                    The Book
   All this must be done within a script that seems
    skeletal compared to a full length drama.

   At least fifty percent of a musical's running time
    belongs to the songs and dances.

   Small wonder that so few playwrights are willing
    to attempt musical librettos – they are a separate
    art form.
              Song Structure

   Most showtunes have a verse and a
    chorus (or "refrain").

   The verse sets up the premise of a song
    and can be of most any length, while the
    chorus states the main point of the lyric.
             Song Structure

   Since the early 1900's, the choruses of
    American popular songs have traditionally
    been thirty-two bars long, usually divided
    into four sections of eight bars apiece –
    the AABA form.
               Song Structure
   A is the main melody, repeated twice – in part,
    so that it can be easily remembered.

   B is the release or bridge, and should contrast
    as much as possible with A.

   Then A is repeated a third time, usually with a
    melodic twist to give the final bars more interest.
           Next class:

       Musical Show-and-Tell
          Lucy Wadnizak

Chapters IX & X: Gilbert and Sullivan
Musical Theatre History
Musical Show-and-Tell

     Lucy Wadnizak

   Gilbert and Sullivan revolutionized the
    world of comic opera—thereby, changing
    the world of musical theatre.

   They came at a psychological moment —
    an hour when English Comic Opera had
    practically ceased to exist. London had
    Offenbach (and others); and as cheerful
    and tuneful as he was, his libretti were
         William S. Gilbert
 William S. Gilbert had been an attorney.
 He had several comic poems published—
  opening the way for his career as
 Gilbert wanted most to be recognized as a
 He was truculent, caustic and inclined to
                Arthur Sullivan
   Arthur Sullivan was one of Britain’s most promising
    serious composers.
   He was the son of a well-known bandmaster and
    teacher of music.
   By the age of eight he could play every wind
    instrument in his father's band.
   Had wanted to be a composer of serious choral and
    orchestral works.
   Not above composing light music to finance his life.
   Sullivan was easy-going, popular and gregarious.
   Much of their success is directly related to
    producer Richard D’Oyly Carte.
          The beginnings…

 Their first collaboration, Trial By Jury (their
  one and only opera), premiered the same
  year as The Black Crook came to London.
 Today, The Black Crook is almost
  impossible to revive, but Trial By Jury
  continues to delight audiences.
      G & S more popular works

   Trial By Jury (1875)

   H.M.S. Pinafore (1878)
       “Buttercup’s Song”
       “I am the Captain of the Pinafore”
       “When I Was a Lad”
   The Pirates of Penzance (1880)
       “The Pirate King’s Song”
       “Oh, Is There Not One Maiden Breast?”
       “Poor Wandering One”
       “I Am the Very Model of a Modern
       Major General”

   Iolanthe (1882)
   The Mikado (1885)
       “A Wandering Minstrel I”
       “Three Little Maids from School”
       “Tit Willow”

   It remains one of the most frequently produced
    musicals of all time.
   Ruddigore (1887)

   The Yeoman of the Guard (1888)

   The Gondoliers (1889)
              G & S - Tidbits
   H.M.S. Pinafore
      Within one year there were 90 Pinafore
      company touring the U.S. -- 5 of them
      enjoying success in NY alone!

   The Pirates of Penzance
      The only G & S title to premiere in
What made, and continues
 to make, G & S popular?
   Gilbert and Sullivan focused on the book.

       Created scenes intimately tied to the
       action of the play.

       They made conscious effort to develop
       relatively believable characters.
   Set new standards for music and lyrics.
       Started the idea of songs being
       designed for character and situation.
 Created   new theatrical standards.

  No interpolations by other composers.

  Each of them (G & S, Carte) had joint say
  in casting and production.

  Split all expenses and profits three-ways.
   Created popular music that lived beyond
    the stage.
   Noel Coward gives us a sense of what it was like
    to grow up in Britain at the turn of the 20th

    "I was born into a generation that still took light music
    seriously. The lyrics and melodies of Gilbert and Sullivan
    were hummed and strummed into my consciousness at
    an early age. My father sang them, my mother played
    them, my nurse, Emma, breathed them through her teeth
    while she was washing me, dressing me and undressing
    me and putting me to bed. My aunts and uncles, who
    were legion, sang them singly and in unison at the
    slightest provocation."
          G & S Contributions

 Gilbert and Sullivan focused on the book.
 Set new standards for music and lyrics.
 Created    new theatrical standards.
   Created popular music that lived beyond
    the stage.
             G & S Examples:

   “I Am the Very Model of a Modern Major
    General” (1983)
        Kevin Kline as The Pirate King
        Angela Lansbury as Ruth
        Linda Ronstadt as Mabel
        George Rose as Major-General Stanley
        Rex Smith as Frederic
              G & S Examples:

   A scene from the film Topsy Turvy. (1999)
       Jim Broadbent as William S. Gilbert
       Allan Corduner as Arthur Sullivan
       Ron Cook as Richard D'Oyly Carte
     Next class…

 Review day for first exam.
First exam next Wednesday.
  Study over the weekend!
    A copy of these lecture
    notes may be found at:
Musical Theatre History
   At the start of the 20th Century the
    Broadway musical was attaining a new
    sense of artistic and commercial value.
British Imports
             British Imports
 Next to Gilbert and Sullivan comic operas,
  Florodora (1900 – 553) was the most successful
  British import staged in New York.
 The show featured a sextet of chorines—each
  standing five foot four and weighing a unison
  130 lbs.
 They quickly became the toast of New York.
 Allegedly, they all married into wealthy families.
           British Imports

 The Merry Widow (1907 – 718)
 Composed by Franz Lehár.
 Created the biggest cultural phenomenon
  since H.M.S. Pinafore.
 “Vilia”
 Still is produced today.
American Show “Business”
             The Schuberts
 Lee and Jacob Schubert
 By the 1920s, they controlled 75% of the
  professional theatres in America.
 Instilled the “business form” of the theatre—
  art vs. business.
 All shows had to appeal to a broad range of
  people—hence, most shows revolved around
  upbeat and funny celebrations of American
  know-how and decency.
“Mr. Broadway”
         George M. Cohan
 George M. Cohan
 Irish immigrant.
 He is considered one of vaudeville’s most
  famous showmen.
 Major hyphenate—actor, songwriter,
  dancer, playwright and manager.
            George M. Cohan
   Friend and fellow performer William Collier
    put it this way,

    “George is not the best actor or author or
    composer or dancer or playwright. But he
    can dance better than any author,
    compose better than any manager, and
    manage better than any playwright. And
    that makes him a very great man.”
         George M. Cohan

 Known as “Mr. Broadway.”
 He wrote, directed, produced and starred
  in jingoistic musical comedies.
          George M. Cohan
 Little Johnny Jones (1904 - 56) featured
  Cohan as an American jockey who loses
  the English Derby but triumphs over false
  charges that he threw the race.
      "Yankee Doodle Dandy"
      “Give My Regards to Broadway"
 Made Cohan’s name a household word
             George M. Cohan
   Forty-five Minutes From Broadway (1906 - 90)
       “Forty-five Minutes From Broadway”
       "Mary’s a Grand Old Name"

   George Washington Jr. (1906 - 81)
      The showstopper was "You’re a Grand Old
      Rag," a tribute to the Stars and Stripes (the
      word "Rag" was quickly switched to "Flag"
      after a journalistic outcry).
           George M. Cohan

   In 1911, he opened the George M. Cohan
    Theatre in New York City.
            George M. Cohan
   There are two theatrical endeavors based on
    Cohan’s life.

   Yankee Doodle Dandy (1943)
       Movie musical
       Starred James Cagney as Cohan

   George M! (1968)
      Broadway musical
      Starred Joel Grey as Cohan
            George M. Cohan

   In 1940, President Roosevelt presented
    Cohan with a Congressional Medal for
    writing wartime song “Over There” and “It’s
    a Grand Old Flag.”
            George M. Cohan

   Ironically, George M. Cohan could not
    write music and had to whistle his tunes to
    a transcriber.
Mr. “Style”
              Victor Herbert

   Victor Herbert
       Irish immigrant
       Acclaimed cellist and classical
            Victor Herbert

 Herbert’s scores called for classically
  trained singers.
 Strong European influences, but decidedly
  American in sound.
 Composed everything from musical
  comedies to operettas.
              Victor Herbert
   He composed more than 40 Broadway musicals
   Babes in Toyland (1903 - 192)
   Mlle Modiste (1905 - 202)
   The Red Mill (1906 - 274)
   Naughty Marietta (1910 -136)
        Produced by Oscar Hammerstein (Oscar
        Hammerstein II’s grandfather.)
Black Pioneers
           Black Pioneers
 In Dahomey (1903 – 53)
 This show pushed characterizations
  beyond minstrel stereotypes.
 Bert Williams and George Walker starred
  in this musical comedy.
 The show begins to introduces the
  precursor of a new style of music, ragtime.
   Who would be able to combine:
      Cohan’s American flair
      Herbert’s stylistic versatility
      Lehár’s call to romance
      The African American rhythmic,
Read on….
Next class…

 Chapter 12
 1910 - 1920
  Next week…

Musical Show-and-Tell

 Josh Braun - Monday
Sam Pudil - Wednesday
  Abbi Noah - Friday
Musical Theatre History
Musical Show-and-Tell

     Josh Braun
 On Stage:
1910 - 1920
        On Stage: 1910 - 1920

   Between 1910 and 1920 musical theatre
    experienced limited, but crucial,
       On Stage: 1910 - 1920

 The “book” musical was still not popular.
 The audience/producers’ taste revolved
  around what was safe—not earth-
  shattering theatre.
         On Stage: 1910 - 1920
   At this point, when there was a “creaky”
    moment on stage, producers and writers
    often relied upon:
         On Stage: 1910 - 1920
   At this point, when there was a “creaky”
    moment on stage, producers and writers
    often relied upon:
        Bring on the girls!
         On Stage: 1910 - 1920
   At this point, when there was a “creaky”
    moment on stage, producers and writers
    often relied upon:
        Bring on the girls!
        Hire the leading comic!
         On Stage: 1910 - 1920
   At this point, when there was a “creaky”
    moment on stage, producers and writers
    often relied upon:
        Bring on the girls!
        Hire the leading comic!
        Reprise the hit song!
         On Stage: 1910 - 1920
   At this point, when there was a “creaky”
    moment on stage, producers and writers
    often relied upon:
        Bring on the girls!
        Hire the leading comic!
        Reprise the hit song!
        Rush in the star!
Irving Berlin
              Irving Berlin

 Irving Berlin was born Israel Berlin in May
 When his father died, Berlin, just turned
  13, took to the streets in various jobs,
  working as a busker, singing for pennies,
  then as a singer / waiter in a Chinatown
              Irving Berlin

 In 1907 he published his first song, “Marie
  From Sunny Italy.”
 By 1911 he had his first major international
  hit, “Alexander's Ragtime Band.”
           Irving Berlin

Over the next five decades, Irving Berlin
produced an outpouring of songs that
defined American popular song for much
of the century.
                Irving Berlin

   A sampling of some of the Irving Berlin
    standards include:
       “Blue Skies”
       “White Christmas”
       “Anything You Can Do, I Can Do Better’
       “There's No Business Like Show Business”
       “Puttin' On The Ritz”
                Irving Berlin

   In a class by itself is his beloved paean to
    his beloved country, “God Bless America. “
              Irving Berlin

   He was equally at home writing for
    Broadway and Hollywood. He wrote
    seventeen complete scores for Broadway
    musicals and revues, and contributed
    material to six more.
               Irving Berlin

   Broadway debut:
       Watch Your Step (1914 - 175)
       Featured Vernon and Irene
       Castle—dance team.
       Introduced ragtime to the stage.
            Irving Berlin

 Yip, Yip Yaphank (1918)
 Written while he was stationed at Camp
  Upton—Yaphank, Long Island.
 Presented at the Century Theatre in NY—
  complete with its soldier cast.
 “How I Hate to Get Up in the Morning.”
             Irving Berlin

 An intuitive business man, Irving Berlin
  was a co-founder of ASCAP.
 A founder of his own music publishing
 With producer Sam Harris, built his own
  Broadway Theatre, The Music Box.
             Irving Berlin
 An unabashed patriot, his love for, and
  generosity to, his country is legendary.
 Through many of his foundations,
  including the God Bless America Fund and
  This Is The Army Inc. he donated millions
  of dollars in royalties to Army Emergency
  Relief, the Boy and Girl Scouts and other
                 Irving Berlin

   Irving Berlin's centennial in 1988 was celebrated
    world-wide, culminating in an all-star tribute at
    Carnegie Hall featuring such varied luminaries of
    the musical world as Frank Sinatra, Leonard
    Bernstein, Isaac Stern, Natalie Cole and Willie
    Nelson. On September 22nd 1989, at the age of
    101, Berlin died in his sleep in New York City.
               Irving Berlin

   With a life that spanned more than 100
    years and a catalogue that boasted over
    1000 songs, Irving Berlin epitomized
    Jerome Kern's famous maxim, that "Irving
    Berlin has no place in American music - he
    is American music".
Jerome Kern
               Jerome Kern

   Jerome Kern (1885-1945) is often credited
    as being America’s first great theatre
               Jerome Kern

   He insisted that the song and book be
    joined throughout.

   He believed that the composer’s job is to
    reveal character, thought or feeling to the
    audience in suggestive musical images.
The Princess Theatre
    The Princess Theatre Shows
   The Princess Theatre was a smaller theatre in
    NY. (299-seat house.)

   Introduced scaled-down, small cast musicals
    (30 including chorus).

   All occurring in contemporary America.

   Brought about a natural treatment of everyday
    people and situations to the American musical
    The Princess Theatre Shows

   The Princess Theatre Shows important in
    3 ways:
      1. Put the “book” show on the road.
      2. Aimed for believable comedy/humor which flowed
            from characters in logical and laughable
      3. Crafted lyrics which were smart, fresh, precise
            and theatrical.
    The Princess Theatre Shows

   The Princess Theatre shows:
      Nobody Home (1915)
      Very Good Eddie (1915 – 341)
      Oh, Boy! (1917 – 463)
      Oh, Lady! Lady! (1918 – 219)
  Next class:

Musical Show-and-Tell
     Sam Pudil


     Chapter 13
     The 1920s
Musical Theatre History
Musical Show-and-Tell
     Sam Pudil
“. . . the 1920s as a whole saw the form
refine and transform itself that, by the
decade's finish, the "Tee-Oodle-Um-Bum-
Bo" chorus line, the Bubble Dances, the
nineteenth-century comedy, and the
unmotivated star shot would be virtually
extinct, unknown to the better writers and
unpopular even with second raters.”
The American musical begins to develop
along two main lines:
The American musical begins to develop
along two main lines:
        Traditional in style but focused on
        AMERICAN themes.
The American musical begins to develop
along two main lines:
        Traditional in style but focused on
        AMERICAN themes.
        Incorporating the increasingly
        popular rhythms of the day.
    to riches stories - dominated the early 1920's
    musical theatre stage.
     IRENE (1919)
    SALLY (1920)
    MARY (1920)
 The first successful musical written,
  directed and performed by blacks.
 Song: "I'm Just Wild About Harry" sung by
  Aubrey Lyles c/l: Blake & Sissle.
 Starred Paul Robeson (Joe in
  SHOWBOAT film).
   Spurred three sequels:
    SHUFFLE ALONG OF 1933 (1932)
    SHUFFLE ALONG (1958)

   None were as successful as the original.
 RUNNIN' WILD (1923)
 Another black musical.
 Introduces the dance craze—the
   Although there is no racial integration on
    stage--the black musical had a definite
    influence on white composers.
   The "jazzy" musical is also pivotal in
    spurring new dances:
       The Charleston
       Pickin Cotton
       The Black Bottom
       The Varsity Drag
 Good News (1927 - 557)
 Composed by Ray Henderson with lyrics
  by Buddy DeSylva and Lew Brown. Their
  dance-happy songs included "The Varsity
  Drag," a Charleston-style number that
  became an international dance craze.
   The trio wrote other hit songs, but Good
    News was their most successful book

   Good News remained popular for
    decades, with a film version in 1932, a hit
    Technicolor remake in 1947, and a stage
    revival in the 1970’s.
   A crucial moment came in 1924, when ASCAP
    won a long battle to give American composers
    creative control over their scores. Unauthorized
    interpolations by other composers became a
    thing of the past, and the musical began to grow
    in ways that no one had previously envisioned.
   Frederick Nolan suggests that the golden age of
    the American musical began in September
    1925, when four hits opened within a space of
    four days:
 No, No Nanette (321), the most lasting musical comedy
  hit of the decade.
 Rudolf Friml's romantic operetta The Vagabond King
 Jerome Kern, Otto Harbach and Oscar Hammerstein II's
  Sunny (517).
 Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart's Dearest Enemy
   These shows were written by craftsmen
    who took musical theatre seriously, trying
    to provide quality entertainment and make
    a nice profit at the same time.
The Composers and
          Sigmund Romberg and
          Oscar Hammerstein II
   Hungarian-born Sigmund Romberg contributed to more
    than fifty Broadway scores as staff composer for the
    Shubert Brothers. His long-lasting hits include:
   The Desert Song (1926 - 432).
   The New Moon (1928 - 509).
    Book and lyrics by Hammerstein.
    Songs:"Lover Come Back to Me" and the stirring
    "Stouthearted Men."
   Romberg's lush scores exemplify Broadway operetta at
    its grandest. Sure his shows were corny, but they were
    tremendously entertaining too.
Rodgers and Hart
               Rodgers and Hart
   The Garrick Gaieties (1925 - 211).
        Catchy melodies by Richard Rodgers and
        crackling lyrics by Lorenz Hart caused a

   Rodgers and Hart's first long-running hit was A
    Connecticut Yankee (1927 - 418). Based on Mark
    Twain’s tale of a modern American who dreams that he
    has been transported to King Arthur's legendary court, it
    featured amusing combinations of courtly speech and
    1920’s slang ("Methinks yon damsel is a lovely broad").
    The score included "My Heart Stood Still" and the
    scintillating "Thou Swell."
Cole Porter
               Cole Porter
 A brilliant composer and lyricist.
 Porter's melodies ranged from bright to
  sensual, and his witty lyrics featured witty
  rhymes and daring sexual innuendo.
 The first Broadway lyricist to discuss sex
  openly in his work, he would fulfill his
  potential in the 1930's.
George and Ira Gershwin
       George and Ira Gershwin
   Those who say they love "a Gershwin
    song" often forget that Ira Gershwin's
    ingenious rhymes are just as important as
    his brother George Gershwin's unique
    blend of jazz and classical melody.

   Both men occasionally collaborated with
    others, but their joint scores are their most
   LADY BE GOOD (1924)
    The first of 14 Gershwin musicals.
    Introduces and established the jazzy style for the
    20's musical.
    Introduces the brother/sister dance team of Fred
    and Adele Astaire.
    Song: "Fasinatin' Rhythm."

   OH, KAY! (1926)
    Song: "Someone to Watch, Over Me."
 FUNNY FACE (1927)
  2nd musical for the Astaires
  Song: "'S Wonderful.”
 In 1983 six songs were used from FUNNY
  FACE with a new book to create My One
  and Only.
 1927
 Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II
 The First "popular" and "serious" show that
  featured blacks.
 Introduced controversial themes which
  were considered impossible for the
  musical stage.
 Brought with it a new level of literacy--
  based on Edna Ferber's novel.
 Opened w/ the largest ticket sale advance
  to date.
 Solidified the accomplishment/genius of
  Kern and Hammerstein--Oscar also
  adapted the book--the show was produced
  by Florenz Ziegfeld.
 Songs:"Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man Of
  Mine”; "Ol' Man River.”
   Most important for bringing new and
    meaningful themes to the musical stage--it
    set a precedent for the musical of the

   The foremost critical and popular
    achievement of the 1920s.
Musical Contributions

   Leit-motif theory - the theory of assigning a
    melody to a given character; a musical theme for
    the characters.

   Music began to personify character, foreshadow
    mood, underscore dialogue and parallel the
Showboat originated the musical play.
                 The Musical Play
   The musical play invites the audience to take the
    story, characterization and performance

   The musical play unfolds through dialogue that
    approximates sounds and rhythm of natural

          Musical comedy was to brassy and too witty, always "on-
           stage" quality and operetta was way too emotionally broad.
            The Musical Play

   The musical play organizes everything
    around an interesting and well motivated
   The 1920s top three shows

1. IRENE 670 performances
2. SHOWBOAT 572 performances
3. SALLY 570 performances
Next class:

Musical Show-and-Tell
     Abbi Noah


     Chapter 14
     The 1930s
Musical Theatre History
Musical Show-and-Tell
     Abbi Noah
   No musical will run over 500
       The Depression.
       Radio, records, talking motion pictures,
   Two main types of musical theatre being

    1. Escapist musical comedy - in the
    tradition of revues and star vehicle shows.

    2. Biting, Satirical Musical Plays - following
    in Kern's footsteps.
Cool man, Cole Porter
   His compositions appeared in 27
    musicals/revues, including:
   Gay Divorce 1932
   The first musical to play the Ethel
        Barrymore Theatre.
   First production to star Fred Astaire without his
    sister, Adele.
   Ironically, marked his final appearance on the
    Great White Way.
   1934 film version, The Gay Divorcee, starred
    Astaire and Ginger Rogers.
 Anything Goes 1934
 Stars Ethel Merman.
           "I Get a Kick Out of You”
           "You're the Top”
           "Blow, Gabriel, Blow"
 Leave it to Me! 1938
  Featured Broadway debut of Mary Martin
  (South Pacific, Peter Pan) singing her
  signature song "My Heart Belongs to
 Features Gene Kelley making his chorus
     All are examples of
"escaptist musical comedies."
The Golden Gershwins

  Mish-mash of Old and New
 Strike Up the Band 1930
 Satrical view of politics and high finance.
 Originally to have opened in 1927, but the
  original George S. Kaufman book was so
  grim in it's antiwar sentiment that the show
  closed on the road.
 A new book-writer watered down content and
  used musical theatre conventions made it more
  palatable to the audience. (most of the action
  was placed in a "dream.")
 Songs: "Strike Up the Band”
             "I've Got a Crush on You"
 Pit band included such greats as: Benny
  Goodman, Glenn Miller, and Jimmy Dorsey.
 Girl Crazy 1930
 Back to escapist traditions.
 The Broadway debut of Ethel Merman singing
  her signature song "I Got Rhythm."
 Songs: "Embraceable You”
             "But Not for Me.”

   1992 the score/book were reworked for the
    Broadway smash Crazy for You.
 Of Thee I Sing 1931
 Back to satire - politics, Washington-life,
  marriage, foreign affairs.
 Book by George S. Kaufmann.
 The first musical to be awarded the
  Pulitzer prize for drama.
 Porgy and Bess 1935
 Arguably the most popular opera written
  by an American composer.
 Based on the novel Porgy by DuBose
 DuBose is credited with a majority of the
  musical Iyrics.
   Although is was not much of a commercial
    success, it offered many musical hit
    songs: "Summertime"
    "I Got Plenty O' Nuttin"
    “It Ain't Necessarily So”
    "Bess, You Is My Woman Now"
It is considered one of America’s
   musical theatre masterpieces.
Richard Rodgers and
    Lorenz Hart
   Collaboration lasted from 1918-1943,
    producing 27 musicals/8 motion picture scores -
    created nearly 1,000 songs.

   Track Record: of their first seventeen shows
    (Garrick Gaieties to American Sweetheart) 7
    were major successes. Of their last ten shows, 8
    were highly successful with 7 smashes coming
    in succession.
 Both Rodgers and Hart wanted to
  "experiment" rather than worship formula.
 They both seemed to be guided by what
  musical comedy "could" be, not what it
 They had a fundamental respect for
  theatre, more specifically dialogue.
 Before R&H, musical scores had an
  average of 18 numbers, the average R&H
  show had 13--giving at least 15 more
  minutes of dialogue.
 Thereby, giving the story more validity.
 They did not get along all that well as far
  as personalities were concerned.
 Rodgers was reserved and methodical.
 Hart was erratic and irresponsible.
   Collaboration style: usually the melody
    was written first (so Rodgers would not
    have to wait.)
 Jumbo 1935
 Opened in the Hippodrome.
 The show marked the debut of the director
  George Abbott--who will go on to direct 33
  more shows.
 Spectacular circus musical - cost an
  unprecedented $340,000 to open.
 Starred Jimmy Durante.
 1962 film version stars Durante, Doris Day
  and Martha Raye.
 Act one finale a dream--featured an entire
  circus and all the entertainers.
   On Your Toes 1936
   Introduces Ray Bolger (Scarecrow).
   Introduces ballet as integral to the plot.
   Choreographer is the famous ballet dancer
    George Ballanchine.
   Featured the famous "Slaughter on Tenth
    Avenue" ballet sequence.
   Originally written for Astaire--but declined, fearful
    of public not accepting him without his "top hat''
 Babes in Arms 1932
 Debuted Alfred Drake (Kiss Me,
 Songs: "My Funny Valentine" "Johnny
  One-Note" "The Lady is a Tramp."
 Revived in the mid-90s by the Guthrie in
 The Boys from Syracuse 1938
 First musical based on the work of
  Shakespeare (The Comedy of Errors).

    1. Pins and Needles 1,108

    2. Of Thee I Sing 441 performances

    3. Anything Goes 420 performances
   1930's Fond Farewells:
       George Gershwin (1937)
     Next week:

  Musical Show-and-Tell
Rachel Ballanger - Monday
 Sam Olsen - Wednesday
  Becky LaDuke - Friday
Next class…

  Chapter 15
  The 1940s
Musical Theatre History
Musical Show-and-Tell

    Rachel Ballanger
   Musical Comedies/Musical Plays/Musical

   The "book" musical establishes itself.

   1948 was the last year in which traditional
    revues found large and receptive

 He’s Too Darn Hot!
   Two star vehicles and winning show.

 1940 Panama Hattie
     Starred Ethel Merman.
 1941 Let’s Face It
     Starred Danny Kaye in his first big role.
 1948 Kiss Me, Kate
 His biggest hit.
 Play within a play--featuring a company
  both backstage and performing a musical
  version of Shakespeare's The Taming of
  the Shrew.
 Starred Alfred Drake in his first leading
   Songs:
      "Too Darn Hot"
      "Always True to You in My
      "Brush Up Your Shakespeare"
      "Another Op’nin"'
   Kiss, Me Kate receive the first Antoinette
    Perry (Tony) Award for the Best Musical.

   In 1953, a film version was produced.

    The final years
 1940 Pal Joey
 Their most critically acclaimed work.
 The 2nd "musical play"-first was Showboat
  in 1927.
 Starred Gene Kelley in his only leading
  role on Broadway.
   It revolves around the seedy story of a nightclub
    performer--a major breakthrough in the more
    adult form of musical theatre.

   Songs:
    "I Could Write a Book"

   1957 film stars Frank Sinatra.
 1942 By Jupiter
 The last Rodgers and Hart production.
 With 427 performances it marks the
  longest run of any other R&Hart show.
 The story deals with the conflict between
  the Greeks and the legendary female
  warriors called, Amazons.

There’s No Business,
Like Show Business!
 1946 Annie Get Your Gun
 Berlin's greatest hit.
 Starred Ethel Merman in her most
  memorable role.
 The story of Annie Oakley and Buffalo
  Bill’s Wild West Show.
 The first show business musical
   Songs:
       "Doin'What Comes Natur'lly"
       "There's No Business Like Show Business"
       "Anything You Can Do"

   The show was produced by Rodgers and

   1950 film version starred Betty Hutton.
   The most recent Broaway revival closed
    September 1, 2001. It featured Tom
    Wopat and and Bernadette Peters.
    (Peters snagged a Tony Award, as did the
    show). The other Annies of the run
    included Susan Lucci, Cheryl Ladd,
    Crystal Bernard and the hot-selling Reba
    McEntire. Country-star McEntire will star in
    a CBS-TV movie musical version of the
    show, now in development stages.

 1944 On The Town
 Heralded the arrival of four Broadway
  "soon-to-be" legends:
 Composer- Leonard Bernstein
 Writing partners - Betty Comden and
  Adolph Green (b/l)
 Choreographer- Jerome Robbins
   Based on the Robbins-Bernstein ballet "Fancy
   Revolves around the story of three sailors on a
    24-hour shore leave.
   1997 saw a hugely successful revival.
   Songs:
       "New York, New York"
       "I Can Cook, Too"
   The 1949 film starred Gene Kelley and Frank
 1947 Brigadoon
 Following in the steps of R&Hamm, Alan Jay
  Lerner (l) and Frederick Loewe (c) create a
  special niche.
 Evocative score and emotionally charged dance
  by de Mille.
 A fantasy about two American tourists and a
  Scottish town which reawakens only one day
  every hundred years.
   Songs:
      "Come to Me, Bend to Me"
      "Almost Like Being in Love"

   The 1954 film stars Gene Kelly and Cyd
    Charisse .
 1949 Gentlemen Prefer Blondes
 Jule Styne (c) makes Carol Channing a star.

   Song:
    "Diamonds are a Girl's Best Friend"

   The 1953 film stars Marilyn Monroe and Jane
    Russell, plus a hybrid score.
   1940'S FAREWELLS:
       Lorenz Hart (1943)
       Jerome Kern (1945)
       George M. Cohan (1942)
   The top FIVE musicals of the 1940s:
       1.Oklahoma!            2,212 performances
       2.South Pacific        1,925 performances
       3.Annie Get Your Gun   1,147 performances
       4.Kiss Me, Kate        1,070 performances
       5.Carousel               890 performances

A Composer and Lyricist
   1950 Guys and Dolls
   One of America's most beloved musical
   Originally it was to have been a serious
    romance; fashioned after the love in South
    Pacific. (1949)
   Choreography by the up and coming
    choreographer, Michael Kidd.
   Originally slated to win a pulitzer; however, was
    vetoed do to politics.
   Songs:
       "Adelaide's Lament”
       "Luck be a Lady"
       "Sit Down, You're Rockin’ the

   A 1955 film version starring Marlon Brando and
    Frank Sinatra.
   A 1976 Broadway revival featured an all-
    black cast.

   Most recent Broadway revival in 1992,
    starred Peter Gallagher, Nathan Lane and
    Faith Prince.
 1956 The Most Happy Fella
 Wrote music, lyrics and book.
 Fashioned after an opera--included more
  than 30 musical numbers including arias
  and recitative; as well as big, flashy
  Broadway numbers.
   Establishes Loesser as a dramatic
    composer with Rodgers and Lowe.

   Song:
    “Standing on the Corner”

 “The Team” of the 50s
   1951 Paint Your Wagon

 1956 My Fair Lady
 Most influential musical of the 1950's
 One of the most distinguished productions of all
 Adapted from George Bernard Shaw's 1914
  play, Pygmalion.
   Originally offered to R&H, but they rejected the

   Made a legitimate star out of Julie Andrews
    (Eliza Doolittle)--only 20; who debuted in The
    Boyfriend (1954).

   Serious actor, Rex Harrison, becomes a musical
    star - the Broadway run lasted over nine years.
   Much of the success is credited to the
    inclusion of much of Shaw's dialogue into
    the lyrics--creating a synthesis of music,
    book and lyrics.
   Songs:
    "Wouldn't It Be Loverly"
    "With a Little Bit of Luck"
    "I Could Have Danced All Night"
    "On the Street Where You Live"
    "Get Me to The Church on Time"
   1964 film version starred Harrison and
    Audrey Hepburn.

   A current production of My Fair Lady is
    running in London’s West End, with
    Broadway aspirations for 2004.

  Art versus Commercialism
 1953 Wonderful Town
 Lyricists: Betty Comden and Adolph Green
 The first Broadway revival will open this
  November 23rd.
   1956 Candide
   Based on Voltaire play.
   A somewhat mixed response; however, one of
    Berstein's most captivating scores.
   Not a commercial success.
   1996 revival directed and produced by Harold
   Songs:
        "Glitter and Be Gay"
        "Make Our Garden Grow"
 1957 West Side Story
 First blockbuster musical to break new
  ground since South Pacific (1949).
 A little too advanced for the audience.
 Introduces Stephen Sondheim, 27 years
  old, as lyricist.
 Conceived by director and choreographer
  Jerome Robbins.
 Retelling of Shakespeare's R&J, set
  against New York's lower East Side.
 Advanced choreography and dance
  creates "representational" dance; dance
  which tells the story from beginning to end.
   Songs:
      "I Feel Pretty"
   The 1961 film starred Natalie Wood and
    Rita Moreno.

   West Side Story remains one of the most
    frequently produced musicals of all time.
Musical Theatre History
Musical Show-and-Tell

      Sam Olsen

 The Last Hurrahs!
 1953 Can-Can
 Starred Gwen Verdon in her first major
  Broadway role.

 1955 Silk Stockings
 Cole Porter's last Broadway musical.

 Unexpected hit!
 1954 The Threepenny Opera
 Music by Kurt Weill.
 Most known for his collaborations with
  Bertolt Brecht.
 Based upon John Gay's The Beggar’s
 Originally opened in Germany in 1928-
  200th anniversary of The Beggar’s Opera.
   Song:
    "The Ballad of Mack the Knife"

    Originally written in 1933, however, did not
    succeed the first time out.

   In 1946 The Beggar’s Opera was re-envisioned
    as Beggar’s Holiday with music by Duke
    Ellington. It starred Alfred Drake as Macheath
    and Zero Mostel as Peachum.

 Some new kids score big!
   1954 The Pajama Game

 They wrote the music and lyrics together.
 The team’s mentor was Frank Loesser.
   Stunning artistic staff:
    Director: George Abbott
    Co-director: Jerome Robbins
    Choreographer: Bob Fosse
    Producer: Harold Prince
   Based on Richard Bissell's 71/2 CENTS-Sleep
    Tite PJ factory and the union.

 Featured John Raitt & Carol Haney
  (dancer/choreographer) in their first major roles.
  Also featured understudy, Shirely MacLaine.
 Shirley went on one night and was brisked away
  to Hollywood.
   Songs:
    "Steam Heat"
    "Hernando's Hideaway"
    "Hey, There"

   The 1957 movie starred Doris Day.
   1955 Damn Yankees

 The PJ gang is almost all back; including Abbott,
  Fosse and Prince.
 Story revolves around baseball and FAUST;
  man sells his soul to help his team (the
  Washington Senators) win the national pennant.
  Of course, there is a loop hole and all ends
   Gwen Verdon, as Lola, becomes a big star with
    release of 1958 movie.

   Songs:
    "Whatever Lola Wants"

   The 1994 Broadway revival sees Jerry Lewis as
    the devilish, Mr. Applegate.

   A real music man
 1957 The Music Man
 Broadway newcomer who writes the book,
  music and lyrics.
 Based on his life growing up in lowa.
 Took over 8 years to write-including 30
  drafts and 40 songs.
   Professor Harold Hill first offered to Danny
    Kaye and Gene Kelley. Eventually goes to
    Robert Preston making his musical stage
   Songs:
    "Goodnight My Someone"
    "76 Trombones"
    "Wells Fargo Wagon"
    "Gary, Indiana"
   Trivia: Both Jim Bartruff and I played Harold Hill
    in the same year.

   The 1962 film starred Preston and Shirley

   Most recently, February 2003, a television movie
    of The Music Man starred Matthew Broderick
    and Kristin Chenoweth.

You gotta have a gimmick!
 1959 Gypsy
 Music by Styne.
 Lyrics by Stephen Sondheim.

   Exceptionally strong score, book and
    featured performance by Ethel Merman.
   Based on the life of Gypsy Rose Lee.
    Story revolves around a vaudeville family
    act and the transitions of growing up and
    the change into burlesque entertainment.
    Merman plays the domineering stage
    mother-Mama Rose.

   Director/Choreographer: Jerome Robbins.
   Songs:
    "Let Me Entertain You"
    "Everything's Coming Up Roses”
    Merman's new signature song.

   Gypsy marked Merman's last stage role
    created, and ironically, the first time she
 Film and Revivals:
 1962 film with Rosalind Russell and
  Natalie Wood.
 1974 Broadway revival with Angela
 1989 Broadway revival with Tyne Daly.
 2003 Broadway revival with Bernadette

   Lucky first time out
 1959 Fiorello!
 Team's first Broadway offering.
 Political plot revolved around Fiorello
  LaGuardia-New York's favorite mayor -
  Tom Bosley in the featured role - won the
  Pulizter prize.
 The "ethnicity" portions of the score allude
  to future offerings (FIDDLER).
 1956 Li’l Abner
 Based on Al Capp's comic strip.
 Director/choreographer: Michael Kidd.
 1959 Once Upon a Mattress
 Music by Mary Rodgers (daughter of
  Richard Rodgers).
 Debuted Carol Burnett as Princess
  Winnifred singing "Shy."
 1996 revival sees Sarah Jessica Parker
  doing the same.
   1950s FAREWELLS:
       Kurt Weill (1950)
       Jerry Ross (1955)
   The top FIVE (and a few more) performances of
    the 1950s:
       1. My Fair Lady           2,717 performances
       2. The Threepenny Opera   2,611 performances
       3. The Sound of Music     1,443 performances
       4. The Music Man          1,375 performances
       5. The King & I           1,246 performances
       6. Guys and Dolls         1,200 performances
       7. The Pajama Game        1,063 performances
Frederick Loewe - Music
 Alan Jay Lerner- Lyrics
Richard Rodgers and
Oscar Hammerstein II

 The collaboration that forever
  changed musical theatre…
   Next class:

Musical Show-and-Tell
   Becky LaDuke


     The 1960s
Musical Theatre History
   Since the 1920's, Broadway actors, stage
    hands and production staffers could count
    on annual employment. All one needed
    was good health, a dependable
    professional reputation and enough
    stamina to dazzle through eight
    performances a week.
   But in the mid-1960's the number of new
    musicals dwindled, and actors who
    occasionally worked as waiters gradually
    turned into waiters who occasionally took
    time off to act. According to Jack Poggi,
    "Broadway can no more provide a steady
    income to most professional actors than it
    can to most professional playwrights."
   Suddenly, only 3% of New York's
    professional actors were earning more
    than $2,500 a year from stage acting.
   What had happened? Simple: the world of
    popular culture had turned upside down.
    Beginning in the early 1960's, a chasm
    opened between the rock/youth culture (of
    "drugs, sex and rock and roll") and the
    once dominant "establishment" culture that
    had long included Broadway.
   Producer Hal Prince has explained it this

       “In 1954, when we produced The Pajama Game, the
         week we opened we had a hit song on the radio,
         Rosemary Clooney's version of "Hey There." Of
         course that meant a lot to us at the box office. By
         the early sixties, that kind of cross-over was no
         longer a realistic possibility.”
   It became increasingly rare for a showtune
    to land on the rock-dominated air waves
    and pop charts. With almost no income
    from record and sheet music sales, the
    most that composers and lyricists could
    hope for was the two percent of a show's
    gross allotted to them in a standard
   As a result, new talent went into the more
    profitable fields of pop music, television
    and film. Several veterans like Irving Berlin
    retired in disgust, and those who labored
    on found that styles and formulas which
    had worked for decades were suddenly
   In the 1970s, a three-sided creative battle
    took place between rock musicals,
    “concept” show and conventional post-
    Oklahoma! musicals.
Rock Musicals
            Rock Musicals
 Jesus Christ Superstar
 1971
 Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice
 Broadway’s first full-fledged rock opera.
 Portrayed Jesus as something like a
  contemporary rock star.
 This was a world away from the semi-
  improvisational rock musicals of the late
        Jesus Christ Superstar

   With this hit, Webber and Rice initiate a
    new “golden age” for West End musical
    theatre--one that would stretch through the
    remainder of the century.
           Rock Musicals
 Godspell
 1971
 Composer/lyricist Stephen Schwartz
 Same story as Jesus Christ Superstar (the
  last seven days of Christ’s life).
 Unpretentious and charming in
  comparison with JCS.
 Song: “Day by Day”
            Rock Musicals
 Grease!
 1972
 Music/lyrics/book by Jim Jacobs and
  Warren Casey.
 A surprise runaway hit.
 Set the new record for longest running
 A parody, pastiche of the 1950s.
   Songs:
      “Summer Nights”
      “Greased Lightnin’”
      “We Go Together”

      1978 - Very successful movie starring John Travolta
       and Olivia Newton-John (Travolta played Doody in
       a touring company).

      1994 - Very successful Broadway revival.
              Rock Musicals
   The Wiz
   1975
   Music/lyrics by Charlie Small
   Modern adaptation of The Wizard of Oz.
   Featured an all-black cast.
   Song: “Ease on Down the Road”
   1978 movie starring Diana Ross, Michael
    Jackson, Nipsey Russel and Richard Pryor.
          Rock Musicals
 Evita
 1979
 Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice
 The story of Argentina’s Eva Peron who
  becomes one of the most powerful women
  in South America’s history.
 Another entirely sung-thru piece.
   Song: “Don’t Cry for Me Argentina”
     One  of the last showtunes to reach the pop
     The Broadway version stars Patti Lupone as
      Evita and Mandy Pantikin as Che.
     1997 film version stars Madonna and Antonio
     With this production, the British Mega-Musical
      is born.
Concept Musicals
         Concept Musicals
 Pippin
 1972
 Stephen Schwartz
 Director/choreographer Bob Fosse
 Revolved around concepts of jealousy,
  sex, war, sex, love, sex, life, sex…and
 Songs: “Corner of the Sky,” “Magic to Do”

   Much of the success of this show is
    credited to Bob Fosse’s work.
        He
          created the Leading Player based on the
        Emcee of Cabaret.
         Concept Musicals
 Chicago
 1975
 Kander and Ebb
 Another Bob Fosse creation.
 Concept of social hypocrisy and media-
  based celebrity.
 Stage in a vaudeville format.
 Song: “All That Jazz”
   Overshadowed by A Chorus Line.

 1996 Broadway revival is still running.
 2002 film version.

   Both brought about a new-found respect
    for this overlooked show.
         Concept Musicals
 Dancin’
 1978
 Yet, another Bob Fosse creation!
 Revolved around unrelated dance
  sequences. No book. No composer or
 Fosse’s most profitable production and hit
  last original stage production.
         Concept Musicals
 A Chorus Line
 1975
 Music by Marvin Hamlisch
 Lyric by Edward Kleban
 Conceived, directed and choreographed
  by Michael Bennett.
 Non-linear plot, revolving around 18
  auditioning dancers.
           A Chorus Line
 Becomes the fifth musical to win the
  Pulitzer Prize.
 Songs: “One,” “What I Did for Love.”
 Ran on Broadway for 6,137 performances.
  Which made it the longest running musical
  of all-time until a Lloyd Webber show
  dethrones it in 1996.
Book Musicals
           Book Musicals
 Annie
 1976
 Composer Charles Strouse
 Lyricist Martin Charnin
 Librettist Thomas Meehan
 Inspired by the Little Orphan Annie comic
 The only truly successful book musical of the
 The first Broadway musical to gross over $100
  million dollars (Tickets were $16.00 at the start
  of the run and $45.00 by the end).
 Songs:
    “It’s a Hard-Knock Life”
    “You’re Never Fully Dressed Without a Smile”
   1970s Top FIVE Shows
       1. A Chorus Line
                       6,137 performances
       2. Grease       3,388 performances
       3. Annie        2,377 performances
       4. Pippin       1,944 performances
       5. The Magic Show
                       1,920 performances
   Fond farewells:
      Richard Rodgers (1979)
     Next class:

    Stephen Sondheim

Musical Theatre History
Musical Show-and-Tell

    Christina Lein
 Born March 22, 1930
 He was the son of a successful
 His early years were spent comfortably
  upper middle class.
 At the age of 10 his parents divorced; he
  and his mother moved to PN.
 It was here that he became acquainted
  with Oscar Hammerstein II
   Oscar becomes a surrogate father for

   Sondheim later dedicates the score of
    Forum (1962) to the late Hammerstein
              Other Influences
   Robert Barrow
   Head of the music department at Williams
   It was from Barrow that Sondheim would learn
    music as "craft" not as "art.” (theory, chord
    progressions etc...)
        "Craft" is superior to "Art" and "Inspiration."
   Milton Babbit
   Avant-garde composer who picked up where
    Barrow left off.
   One of the most important lessons he learned
    from his mentors, was from Hammerstein, "write
    only what you believe."

   Sondheim asked Hammerstein why he didn't
    write sophisticated musicals. Hammerstein
    replied, "...sophisticated meaning taking place in
    a New York Penthouse? I'm not interested."
   Hammerstein taught Sondheim how to structure
    a song like a one-act play; with the importance
    of character, story and the inter-relationship
    between Iyric and music.

   Sondheim would carry the Kern-Hammerstein
    /Rodgers-Hammerstein method of a strong
    "book" show. A book which focused on
   Because of this stronghold, much of his
    music does not live outside the context of
    his shows; the music/lyric are so vital to
    the show that it is lost without the show.

   Many of his songs are composed on the
    road--they are dictated through character
    and action; sometimes relying on the
    actors themselves for stimulus.
   Sondheim "Iyric" precepts:

   1. Lyrics must contain subtext--giving the
    actor something to act and the director
    something to direct.

   2. Good Iyrics must "reveal" character to
    the audience.
   Sondheim "song" precepts:

   1. A good song must generate a type of
    theatrical moment that cannot be duplicated in
    the non-lyric theatre; i.e., Billy's "Sililoquy";
    Clara’s "Happiness"--there is no other way to
    express themselves except through song.

   2. The entire score must reflect the concept of
    the show.
   Admirers of Sondheim esteem him as a major
    artist of the American theatre; with whom the
    future of American musical theatre rests.

   His detractors grant him skill, craft and intellect;
    find fault in his choice of characters (troubled,
    unlikable), subject matter (cold, disenchanted),
    the quality of writing (cerebral, cynical) and the
    disposition to shun happy endings preferred
   None of Sondheim's shows have been a
    financial success.
   The popularization of Sondheim to a broader
    audience is credited to:
    1.1975 Grammy-award winning recording of
    "Send in the Clowns.”
    2.1977 SIDE BY SIDE; a Sondheim revue
    created a stir with Broadway audiences and
    3.1985 Barbra Streisand's "The Broadway
    Album" introduced millions to Sondheim for the
    first time.
 A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to
  the Forum
 1962
   Anyone Can Whistle
   1964
   Huge flop; closed after only 9 performances.
   Starred Angela Lansbury and Lee Remick.
   Revolves around a conniving mayoress and a
    bunch of "cookies.”

   According to Hal Prince, only a spectator at the
    time, ``the book was the problem. It was too
    cerebral and a trifle smart-ass, but the score is
   It has been said that Sondheim learned a great
    deal from the experience, he is quoted as
    saying, "I don't mind putting my name on a flop,
    as long as we've done something that hasn't
    been tried before.”

   Song: "Anyone Can Whistle"

   Constantly talked about being revived, but has
   Company
   1970
   The first of six Broadway musicals by the most
    influential and daring teams of
   the 70s-Sondheim and Harold Prince.
   Concept musical. Nonlinear plot; conceived as a
    collection of 11 one-act plays by George Furth.
   Sondheim was able to create an urban feel in
    both his music and Iyrics.
   Songs:
       "The Ladies Who Lunch”
       "Being Alive”
       "Another Hundred People”

   Ran 706 performances--the longest running
    Sondheim show until 1987.

   Broadway revival in 1995.
   Follies
   1971
   Another "plotless" (concept) musical.
   Another Sondheim/Prince collaboration.
   Revolves around a "follies" reunion.
   Used flashbacks to view the "older" generation
    with their "younger" counterparts.
   The score reflected many musical styles.
   Songs:
       "Broadway Baby”
       "Could I Leave You”
       "I'm Still Here"

   Original production ran 522 performances.

 1985 an all-star concert version.
 1987 a London version remakes itself.
   A Little Night Music
   1973
   Sondheim/Prince
   Entire score written in 3/4 time (or multiples
   Contains his most well-known song "Send in the
   Revolves around once disenchanted views of
    love and marriage.
   Original production ran 600 performances.
 Pacific Overtures
 1976
 Sondheim/Prince
 Recounts a 120 year period of Japan's
 Creators relied and incorporated Japan's
  ancient form of theatre, Kabuki. Casting
  was difficult (Flower Drum Song).
 Sondheim incorporated authentic
  Japanese tonality to the score.
 The show opened to disappointing reviews
  and ran for only 193 performances.
 A much more successful Off-Broadway
  run opened in 1984.
 Broadway revival slated for Fall 2004.
   Sweeney Todd
   1979
   Sondheim/Prince
   Book by John Weidman.
   Considered their boldest contribution to musical
   The story revolves around the unjustly
    condemned Benjamin Barker and the
    business entrepreneur Mrs. Lovett.
   It is operatic in nature; contains leit motif.
 Ironically, it is one of Sondheim's most
  hummable scores, includes:
      "Not While I'm Around"
      "Pretty Women"
 One of the evening's most delightful songs
  is "Have a Little Priest."
   Starred Len Cariou and Angela Lansbury.

   Original production ran for 557

   Currently talks are underway about
    bringing this to the big screen.
 Merrily We Roll Along
 1981
 The last of the Sondheim/Prince early
 Considered their "big" flop.
 Starred completely unknown and young
  talent (Jason Alexander) - which was one
  of the major critiques of the show - "kid
   Story concerns a group of successful
    theatre people in 1980--the plot moves
    backwards in time and shows the
    relationship of a composer, a Iyricist and
    an author.

   We watch as the corruption and egoism
    subsides for the youthful ambition of an
    optimistic future.
   Songs:
    "Old Friends"
    "Not a Day Goes By"
    "Our Time"

   Ran a disappointing 16 performances.
 Sunday in the Park with George
 1984
 The first collaboration with author/director James
 A new form of collaboration for Steve:
  He was used to the "Broadway" style--out of
  town tryout then move. Here was a much more
  exploratory system. The show previewed as a
  work in progress at Playwrights Horizons (an
  Off-Broadway nonprofit organization dedicated
  to supporting the work of promising playwrights.)
   Inspired by the painting “Sunday Afternoon on
    the Island of La Grande Jatte.”

   This dot-like technique of Georges Seurat's
    pointillism became the basis for Sondheim's
    beautiful score.

   The show starred Mandy Patikin and Bernadette

   This show wins the Pulitzer--the sixth musical to
    do so.
   Many consider George to be very
    autobiographical of Sondheim--the frustrated
    artist who is never quite accepted.

   The first act takes place in 19th century France,
    act two takes place in contemporary America.
    The plot works to connect the two artists from
    different eras.

   Some consider this show a one act musical--
    don't do the second act.
   Songs:
    "Sunday in the Park with George"
    "Putting It Together"
    "Move On"

   Original production runs 540
   Into the Woods
   1987
   Lapine/Sondheim
   Sondheim's most commerically successful show.
   The original title was Fe Fi Fo Fum.

   Clever combination of various fairy tales: Jack'n
    Bean; Cinderella; The Baker and his Wife; Little
    Red Riding Hood.
   What do all these tales have in common? Their
    travel or journeys into the woods.

   The first act is the quest for a happy ending; the
    second act is the quest to keep up appearances.

   Some consider this show a one act musical--
    don't do the second act.
   Songs:
       "No More”
        "Children Will Listen"
       "No One is Alone"

   Original production runs 764 performances —
    the longest for any Sondheim show.

   2002 Broadway revival runs 279 performances.
   Assassins
   1990
   Book by John Weidman.
   Debuts at Off-Broadway's Playwrights Horizons.
   Centers on nine presidential assassins and
    would-be assassins, including: . Lee Harvey
    Oswald, John Wilkes Booth, John Hinckley and
    Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme.
   His most eclectic score with hybrids of
    Aaron Copland, John Philip Sousa, Karen
    Carpenter and Sondheim himself.

   The original Off-Broadway staging lasted
    71 performances.
   The Roundabout Theatre Company has officially
    announced the upcoming staging slated to open
    in March 2004 at the non-profit's new Broadway
    home, Studio 54.

   The Weidman-Sondheim musical was slated to
    be revived for its Broadway premiere by the
    Roundabout Theatre Company in 2001, but was
    postponed following the Sept. 11 terrorist
   Passion
   1994
   Based on Ettore Scola's Italian film "Passion
   A tale of obsessive love.
   Songs: "Happiness"
              "I Read"
              "I Wish I Could Forget You"
              "Loving You"
 Getting Away with Murder
 1997
 His only foray, thus far, into the world of
  “straight” theatre.
 Murder mystery.
 Collaboration with George Furth.
 Bounce
 2003
 Sondheim/Weidman
 Directed by Harold Prince.

   Beginning the second leg of what may become a
    journey to Broadway, on Oct. 21 Bounce opened
    at the Kennedy Center.
   Inspired by the lives of the colorful, early-
    20th-century, American capitalists-cum-
    con artists, the Mizner brothers— Bounce
    had its world premiere June 20-Aug. 10 at
    Chicago's Goodman Theatre. Since then,
    Sondheim and Weidman have been busy
    working on revisions.
   Chicago notices for the brand new work were
    mixed. Some critics thought the piece needed
    further definition, while others charges the
    creators should give the whimsical piece a more
    serious presentation and the lead characters of
    Addison and Wilson Mizner a more pointedly
    symbolic resonance. Good marks were posted
    for the performers Richard Kind and Michele
    Pawk and several reviewers found much to
    admire in the Sondheim score.
   Bounce has been in earnest development
    for several years under different producers
    and in different versions and with different
 The Kennedy Center presented a
  “Sondheim Celebration” from May through
  September of 2002.
 Passion, Merrily, Night Music, Sunday,
  Sweeney and Company were all
  presented in repertory.

The Return of the Book Show
 42nd Street
 1980
 Music by Harry Warren
 Lyrics by al Dubin
 The first super-hit of the 1980s, a wildly
  old-fashioned musical.
 Based on a classic Busby Berkley movie
 Songs: “We’re in the Money”
          “Lullaby of Broadway”
          “Forty-Second Street”

   Currently enjoying a Broadway revival.
   Barnum
   1980
   Music by Cy Coleman
   Lyrics by Michael Stewart
   Circus-style bio of legendary showman, P.T.
    Barnum. Original production stars Glen Close.
   Songs: “There’s a Sucker Born Every Minute”
              “Bigger Isn’t Better”
              “Come Follow the Band”
   Little Shop of Horrors
   1982
   Off-Broadway hit.
   Music by Alan Menken
   Lyrics by Howard Ashman
   Based on a low-budget 1960 film.
   Songs: “Somewhere That’s Green”
              “Suddenly Seymour”
   Currently enjoying its Broadway debut.
 Nine
 1983
 Maury Yeston
 Musical version of Fellini’s semi-
  autobiographic cinematic masterpiece 8
 Very successful Broadway revival
  currently on Broadway.
 La Cage Aux Folles
 1983
 Jerry Herman
 It was definitely a old-fashioned musical,
  however, it dealt with a guy couple dealing
  with their son’s marriage into a bigoted
 Les Miserables
 1987
 Music by Claude Michel Schonberg
 Lyrics by Alain Boubil
 Based on Victor Hugo’s epic novel.
 Entirely sung-thru piece.
 Songs: “I Dreamed a Dream”
           “Castle on a Cloud”
           “Bring Him Home”
 This Broadway production just closed on
  May 18, 2003; running a total of 6,680
A Concept Show
 Jerome Robbins’ Broadway
 1989
 Concept musical; revue
 Celebrated the life and contributions the
  legendary director-choreographer, Jerome

The Mega-Musical Man
 Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor
 1981
 Lloyd-Webber and Tim Rice
 Originally presented in a London school in
  1968—all of 15 minutes; it was expanded
  and expanded to 90 minutes.
   Mish-mash of musical genres including
    rock, country, vaudeville-song and dance,
    French ballad and calypso.

   Songs: "Go, Go, Go Joseph"
           “Close Every Door”
           “Herod’s Song”
   Cats
   1982
   Becomes the longest running musical of all-time.
   The musical retelling of T.S. Eliot's poems--Old
    Possum's Book of Practical Cats.
   Combination of song and dance; no spoken
    dialogue and the barest thread of a story line—
    could be considered a vaudeville show or revue.
   Song: "Memory"
   Revolutionized Broadway marketing.
 Song and Dance
 1985
 Original production stars Bernadette
 Basically a one woman show--the story of
  the woman is told through song in the first
  act and then through dance in the second
 Song: "Tell Me On a Sunday"
 Starlight Express
 1987
 The costliest Broadway production to
  date--over $8 million.
 Dubbed "Cats on wheels"--basically the
  retelling of the English equivalent of the
  children’s tale, the little engine that could.
   The Phantom of the Opera
   1988
   His most acclaimed show.
   Based on Gaston Leroux’s, "Le Fantome de
   Revolves around the Paris Opera House which
    is haunted by a ghoulish disfigured man, who
    lives in the bowels of the theatre.
 Songs: “Think of Me”
          “All I Ask of You”
          “ The Music of the Night”
 This production is still running of

   Quickly approaching the top-spot!!!
   1980s Fond Farewells:
       Ira Gershwin (1983)
       Meredith Willson (1984)
       Ethel Merman (1984)
       Alan Jay Lerner (1986)
       Bob Fosse (1987)
       Frederick Loewe (1988)
       Irving Berlin (1989)
   Next Class….

 Musical Show-and-Tell
     Megan West

Musical Show-and-Tell

     Laurel Eide
Musical Show-and-Tell

     Chris Lee
   Top FIVE musical of the 1980s
      1. Cats 7,485
      2. Les Miserables 6,680
      3. The Phantom of the Opera 6,100+
      4. 42nd Street 3,486
      5. La Cage Aux Folles 1,761
Musical Theatre History
THE 1990s
   By the 1990s less than five percent of the
    American public attended the theatre
    regularly, and most people went for years
    without even hearing a showtune.
A couple of sure-fire hits!
 Will Rogers’ Follies
 1991
 Music by Cy Coleman
 Lyrics by Betty Comden and Adolph Green
 Had no real substance, but had ingenious
  Ziegfeld-style production numbers.
 Songs: “Our Favorite Son”
          “I Never Met a Man I Didn’t Like”
 Crazy For You
 1992
 Ken Ludwig reworked the Gershwins’ Girl Crazy
  into a giddy musical comedy. Featured
  sensational choreography by Susan Stroman.
 Songs: “Embraceable You”
            “I Got Rhythm”
            “But Not For Me”
He is currently working on another pasticcio, Let
  Yourself Go!, featuring the music of Irving Berlin.
   The Early 90s

Some adventurous shows…
   Secret Garden
   1991
   Music by Lucy Simon
   Book and lyrics by Marsha Norman
   Based on the Frances Hodgson Burnett novel.
   Songs: “A Bit of Earth”
             “Lily’s Eyes”
   Falsettos
   1992
   Music and lyrics by William Finn
   Explored contemporary issues of homosexuality
    and family values.
   Songs: “Four Jews in a Room Bitching”
              “My Father’s a Homo”
              “Father to Son”
 Jelly’s Last Jam
 1992
 Explored the man and the music—Jelly
  Roll Morton.
 Kiss of the Spiderwoman
 1993
 Kander and Ebb
 Mixed the showbiz dazzle of Chita Rivera
  with a gritty tale of homosexual love in a
  South American prison.
 Song: “Kiss of the Spiderwoman”
 Tommy
 1993
 Music and lyrics by Pete Townsend
 A stylish high-tech staging of The Who's
  popular 1969 rock opera.
 Song: “Pinball Wizard”
   Older theatergoers flocked to exquisite revivals

   Guys and Dolls - 1992
   Carousel - 1994
   Showboat - 1994
   Annie Get Your Gun - 1999
   Kiss Me, Kate - 1999
   The British brought in more mega-
    musicals, but the trend was losing
 Aspects of Love
 1990
 Andrew Lloyd Webber’s soap opera lost
  over $8,000,000.
 Song: “Love Changes Everything”
   Sunset Boulevard
   1994
   Webber’s adaptation included divas Glen Close,
    Betty Buckley and Elaine Paige as Norma
   Song: “With One Look”
   The $11,000,000 production had such a high
    weekly running cost that even a three year run
    could not turn a profit.
 Whistle Down the Wind
 Andrew Lloyd Webber
 Failed production
     Shoenberg and Boublil
 Martin Guerre
 Shoenberg and Boublil
 Failed production
        Shoenberg and Boublil
   Miss Saigon
   1991
   Shoenberg and Boubil
   Producer Cameron Macintosh
   Re-set Madame Butterfly in the middle of the
    Vietnam War.
   The last lucrative "Brit hit.”
   Song: “The American Dream”
The Corporate Musical
   Beauty and the Beast
   1994 - still running
   Music by Alan Menken
   Lyrics by Howard Ashman and Tim Rice
   Songs: “Beauty and The Beast”
               “Be Our Guest”
   The first stage effort of Walt Disney Productions.
   Beauty and the Beast was replicated in cities all
    over the world, with carefully typed actors giving
    nifty imitations of the original Broadway cast in a
    rainbow of languages. Kids who loved the
    animated movie were delighted, parents were
    relieved to find a clean show, and the billions
    started rolling in. Souvenirs became a bigger
    money maker than ever. If the British wrote the
    book on auxiliary marketing, Disney built the
   The Lion King
   1997 - still running
   Music by Elton John
   Lyrics by Tim Rice
   Song: “Circle of Life”
   The Disney Corporation purchased and restored
    the theatre, opened a large retail shop next
    door, and planned an ultra-modern Disney hotel
    just up the block.
   People who had never been interested in
    the theatre lined up for The Lion King, and
    even a price hike to $80 a seat didn’t
    prevent the show from selling out for a
    year in advance.
   London soon had an identical production,
    and The Lion King became the most
    desired ticket on both Broadway and the
    West End until well into the next decade.
   By the late 1990’s, almost every show that
    made it to Broadway was a corporate

   With the average musical budget running
    over $8,000,000, it took a lot of people to
    finance a show, and they all wanted some
    say in the production. This left no room for
    amateurs or rebels.
   Rent
   1996 - still running
   Music and lyrics by Jonathan Larson
   Based on Puccini’s La Bohéme
   The production was nurtured for a year by a
   The composer's death on the night of the Off-
    Broadway dress rehearsal made Rent a cultural
   This production wins a Pulitzer prize.
   Song:     “Seasons of Love”
The Century's End
 Frank Wildhorn
 One of the few new American composers to find
  success on Broadway in the 1990's.

 Jekyll & Hyde - 1997
 Songs: “This is the Moment”

 The Scarlet Pimpernel - 1997
 This production was extensively revised twice
  during its run.
 The Civil War - 1999
 An attempt to present America's national
  nightmare in a semi-revue format.
Concept Musicals

 Titanic
 1997
 Maury Yeston
 Concept musical built around the tragic
  1912 sinking of the R.M.S. Titanic.
 Song: “There She Is”
 Ragtime
 1998
 Music by Stephen Flaherty
 Lyrics by Lynn Ahrens.
 The epic story told of a crumbling family, a
  black man seeking justice, and a Jewish
  immigrant father fulfilling the American
  dream for himself an his child.
   As with Titanic, a huge cast of characters
    was brought into focus by a score that
    invoked musical styles from the early 20th
    century and a book that wove seemingly
    disparate lives into a common pattern –
    the concept musical blown up to epic
  A few other 1990s
noteworthy musicals…
 Footloose
 1998
 A stage adaptation of the film.

 Parade
 1998
 Music and lyrics by Jason Robert Brown
 The story of a Jewish factory manager who is
  wrongly accused of murdering a girl in 1913
 Fosse - 1999
 A valentine to the late director/choreographer,
  Bob Fosse.

 Saturday Night Fever - 1999
 It was roundly dismissed by the critics, but still
  racked up a fourteen million dollar advance.

 Marie Christine - 1999
 Music and lyrics by John Michael LaChiusa
   After flourishing through most of the 20th
    Century, the Broadway musical was in sad
    condition at century's end.

   Shows that blatantly appealed to the
    lowest common cultural denominator
    thrived, while wit, melody and originality
    were embodied in revivals.
   Top SEVEN musicals of the 1990s
      1. Miss Saigon 4,097
      2. Beauty and the Beast 3,400+
      3. Rent 2,600+
      4. The Lion King 2,000+
      5. Crazy for You 1,622
      6. Jekyll & Hyde 1,543
      7. Fosse 1,108
   Top TWO revivals of the 1990s
      1. Guys and Dolls 1,144
      2. Annie Get Your Gun 1,046
       Jule Styne 1994
       George Abbott 1995
Musical Theatre History
   The Dead
   2000
   Collaboration between composer Shaun Davey
    and playwright Richard Nelson Off-Broadway
    debut at Playwrights Horizons in 1999 and
    moved to Broadway.
   Based on the short story by James Joyce.
   The story concerns a holiday party in Dublin
    around the turn of the last century. Resulting in
    an evening of various conversation and song.
   Aida
   2000 - still running
   Music by Elton John
   Lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice
   Reworking of the classic Verdi opera.
   Revolves around a slave princess and a war
    hero sharing romance and death in ancient
   Disney scores a tremendous commercial hit.
   Song:            “Elaborate Lives”
 Contact
 2000
 Various composers--pasticcio.
 Director/Choreographer - Susan Stroman
 Revolves around a trio of experimental
  dance pieces.
   The Full Monty
   2000
   Music and lyrics by David Yazbek
   Book by Terrence McNally
   Based on the hit film about a group of
    unemployed men who try to make a few bucks
    stripping in a ladies club.
   Songs: “Big-Ass Rock”
   The Producers
   2001 - still running
   Music and lyrics by Mel Brooks
   The musical adaptation of his screen classic
   Director/Choreographer - Susan Stroman
   Starred Nathan Lane and Matthew Broderick
    who are coming back for a short run in
   Broadway musical comedy, long considered
    extinct, was back and roaring.
   Songs: “The King of Broadway”
              “I Wanna Be a Producer”
   This coincided with a period of creative stasis in
    London's West End.

   The Witches of Eastwick
   Book and lyrics by John Dempsey
   Music by Dana Rowe
   Produced by Cameron Mackintosh
   Based on the film of the same name.
 The Beautiful Game
 Andrew Lloyd Webber
 A musical about British football, did not
  find an international audience.
Dark Times, Fresh Humor
   When terrorist attacks destroyed the World
    Trade Center towers on Sept. 11th, 2001,
    every theater on Broadway went dark for
    several days. While many wondered what
    this calamity meant for the future,
    Broadway soon regrouped and carried on.
 Urinetown
 2001 - still running
 Just ten days after the attacks, the
  outrageous musical satire opened to rave
  reviews, reaching sell-out status and
  reaffirming that the show would go on.
 Music and lyrics by Mark Hollmann
 Book and lyrics by Greg Kotis
 In a drought-plagued city, an impoverished
  populace confronts the monolithic
  corporation that controls waste
 Songs: “Urinetown”
          “It’s a Privilege to Pee”
   Mamma Mia
   2001 - still running
   Music and lyrics by ABBA
   Offers a well-worn comic plot (a mother must
    confront the three men who might be her
    daughter's father) rebuilt around old hit songs by
    the pop group Abba.
   Songs: “Mamma Mia”            “Honey, Honey”
              “Dancing Queen” “S.0.S.”
   Thoroughly Modern Millie
   2002 - still running
   New music by Jeanine Tesori
   New lyrics by Dick Scanlan
   A tap-happy adaptation of the 1960's movie
   A pasticcio, with new songs and vintage
    showstoppers by Gilbert & Sullivan and Victor
   Song: “What Do I Need With Love”
 Hairspray
 2002 - still running
 Music by Marc Shaiman
 Lyrics by Scott Wittman
 Based on a popular film by John Walters.
 Songs: “Good Morning Baltimore”
          “You Can’t Stop the Beat”
 Movin' Out
 2002 - still running
 Music and lyrics by Billy Joel
 A dance musical built around the pop
  songs of Billy Joel.
 Choreography by Twyla Tharp
 Song:          “Movin’ Out”
                 “Goodnight Saigon”
 La Boheme
 2002
 Baz Luhrmann's updated Australian Opera
  production of Puccini's opera.
 Dance of the Vampires
 2002
 Musical flop starring Michael Crawford.
     Avenue Q
   2003 – still running
   Music and lyrics by: Robert Lopez and Jeff Marx
   Sesame Street meets South Park: They may
    look familiar, but these puppets (and their
    human counterparts) have an irreverent take on
    the joys and travails of making it on your own.
   Songs: “If You Were Gay”
              “The Internet is for Porn”
              “Everyone’s a Little Bit Racist”
   Little Shop of Horrors
   2003 - still running
   Music by Alan Menken
   Lyrics by Howard Ashman
   Based on a low-budget 1960 film.
   Songs: “Somewhere That’s Green”
              “Suddenly Seymour”
 2003 – still running
 Music by Stephen Schwartz
 Based on the novel by Gregory Maguire,
  the musical explores the early life of the
  witches of Oz: Glinda and Elphaba.
   According to a press statement, the untold story
    of the witches of Oz takes place "long before
    Dorothy drops in. . . One [witch], born with
    emerald green skin, is smart, fiery and
    misunderstood. The other is beautiful, ambitious
    and very popular. Wicked tells the story of a
    remarkable odyssey in which these two unlikely
    friends grow to become the Wicked Witch of the
    West and Glinda the Good Witch."
   Never Gonna Dance
 2003 – in previews
 Based on the musical offerings of Jerome
 a new stage musical that borrows the style
  and story of the old Fred -and-Ginger RKO
  picture, "Swing Time."
 Previews starting Oct. 27 toward a Dec. 4
 2003 – in previews
 Music and lyrics by Boy George
 Producer O'Donnell summed up the message of
  the musical, which she encountered in London
  and decided to bring to New York. "You have to
  be taught to hate and fear," O'Donnell said, "and
  this show is about accepting others and yourself
  and how we're all the same. I think every great
  musical sort of has that message. That's what
  the show is, and it is, innately, a love story."
   Taboo is set in London in the early
    eighties and focuses on two young men:
    anarchic performance artist-designer
    Leigh Bowery and a young, rough-edged
    boy who becomes a surprising crossover
    star, Boy George. The stories of Bowery
    and George are told against the
    background of the London club Taboo.
 The  Music Man - 2000
 42nd Street – 2001 (still running)
 Flower Drum Song - 2002
 Gypsy – 2003 (still running)
 Nine – 2003 (still running)
 Wonderful Town - Opening 10.23.03
Musical Theatre History

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