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					         UNECE
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURAL
   QUALITY STANDARDS
            Serguei Malanitchev
 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe




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 UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards



• Working Party on Agricultural Quality
  Standards
• Who develops standards?
• How are they developed and for which
  products?
• Who uses them?
• Why are they important for African countries?




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UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards




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  UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


• Working Party + Specialized Sections
  –   Dry and Dried Produce
  –   Seed Potatoes
  –   Meat
  –   Fresh Fruit and Vegetables

• Equal rights for all UN Member States

• 60 years of work

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   UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


• Fruit, vegetables
• Dry produce
• Potatoes
• Meat
• Eggs
• Flowers


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    UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


Purpose of standards
•   Facilitate international trade
•   Create market transparency
•   Promote quality agricultural products
•   Keep unsatisfactory produce out of market
•   Improve profitability
•   Protect consumers




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   UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards

UNECE standards are recommendations

Obligatory
 EU Regulations
 National legislation

Voluntary
 Reference in commercial contracts




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   UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


Users of standards
• Producers
• Traders
• Consumers

• Inspection services



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UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards




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   UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards

               UNECE and E(E)C
1962
• 21 UNECE standards obligatory for intra-
  community trade
2008
• 36 UNECE standards in EC regulations
2009
• 10 UNECE standards in EC regulations (specific
  marketing standards)
• General marketing standard (GMS)

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 UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


Minimum quality requirements (GMS)

  –   Intact
  –   Sound; products affected by rotting are excluded
  –   Clean
  –   Free from pests
  –   Free from damage caused by pest
  –   Free of abnormal external moisture
  –   Free of any foreign smell and/or taste



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   UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


       UNECE and OECD Scheme
Interpreting UNECE standards since 1962

Drawing up standards until 1996

Working on inspection methods, sampling,
 objective tests



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     UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


            OECD Interpretative Brochures
“In all classes, subject to the special provisions for each class and the
tolerances allowed, the tomatoes must be:
-       intact:”
Tomatoes must not have any mutilation or injury spoiling the integrity of the
produce.




     Damaged tomato - Not allowed



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     UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


• Help grading
• Reduce risk of rejection
• Resolve disputes



• Countries invited to
  contribute




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UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards




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UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards




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  UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards

Standard for Seed Potatoes
• Unique reference covering all aspects of
  seed potato certification

• List of Diseases and Pests




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      UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


  List of Diseases and Pests
Disease      Agent        Status in   Recommended       General disease       Tuber      Plant
                          UNECE         diagnostic        description       symptoms   symptoms
                          Standard       method
Potato    Synchytrium    Zero         Visual           Tuber: tumours
wart      endobioticum   tolerance    observation of   Plant: tumours and
disease                               tubers and       galls on stolons
                                      stem base        and stem base




  • 35 Diseases
  • 85 Pictures
          www.unece.org/trade/agr/standard/potatoes/PestPicturesE.htm



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UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards




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   UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


   UNECE and Codex Alimentarius

UNECE standards
 starting point for Codex standards

Regional UNECE vs. global Codex




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      UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


          UNECE, OECD, Codex, EU
How to work together on:
  -   Standards
  -   Explanatory material
  -   Inspection methods
  -   Promotion
  -   Capacity-building



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    UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


Promotion and capacity-building
2009-10: Kenya, South Africa, Kyrgyzstan, Russia
2011:
   - Chile (February)
   - Tajikistan (September)
   - Ghana (September)
   - Moldova (October)
   - Thailand (November)

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   UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards


Draw on regional experience to develop the
   standards and brochures for:
   - Pineapples
   - Chilli peppers




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UNECE Commercial Agricultural Quality Standards




 UNECE
 Agricultural Standards Unit
 CH-1211 Geneva 10
 Switzerland

 agristandards@unece.org
 Tel: +41 22 917 1366

 http://www.unece.org/trade/agr/welcome.htm

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