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NHTSA Distracted Driving Program

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NHTSA Distracted Driving Program Powered By Docstoc
					  Distracted Driving
U.S. Federal Initiatives
               Amy Schick, MS, CHES
Office of Impaired Driving and Occupant Protection
Distracted Driving Defined

                                                        Three Types of
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                                                         Distraction:

                                                      Visual - Eyes off the
                                                              road

                                                      Manual - Hands off
                                                         the wheel
NHTSA broadly defines driver distraction as
anything that can take visual, manual or cognitive
                                                      Cognitive - Mind off
resources away from the driving task.
                                                        the driving task


Distraction occurs when drivers divert their
attention from the driving task.
           Distracted Driving Problem




   In 2010, an estimated 3,092 motor vehicle fatalities were
    distraction affected.

   The percentage of drivers holding cell phones to their ears while
    driving stands at 5%. This rate translates in 660,000 vehicles driven
    by someone using a hand-held cell phone at a typical daylight
    moment in 2010.
Distracted Driving
Equal Opportunity Problem                             Driver Distraction
                                                      impacts:


   People of all ages are using a variety of hand-   •Men and women
    held devices, such as cell phones, mp3
    players, personal digital assistants, and         •People of all
    navigation devices, when they are behind the      ages
    wheel.
                                                      •All Vehicle types
Data Unknowns and Limitations
   While the numbers are significant, they may not state the true size
    of the problem

   Documentation of distraction can be complex

   Distraction incidence is not consistently recorded across the U.S.,
    as there is variation in both the data collected on Police Accident
    Reports (PARs) and the quality of police reporting

   Inconsistencies between self reported behaviors vs. behaviors
    reported to authorities
Improved Reporting and Data Collection
   NHTSA is taking steps toward to align driver distraction reporting in
    PARs in a pending revision of the Model Minimum Uniform Crash
    Criteria (MMUCC). These revised guidelines are being developed
    in cooperation with State officials and are expected to be published
    in the spring of 2012.

   In addition to using PARs, NHTSA uses a variety of other methods
    to collect information on driver distraction, including intensive on-
    scene crash investigations as used in the NHTSA’s National Motor
    Vehicle Crash Causation Study, simulator studies, and naturalistic
    driving studies (Strategic Highway Research Program-2).
Growing Popularity of Cell Phones

    About 302 million Americans owned cell phones in 2010,
     compared to only 1 million in 1987.

    The National Health Interview Survey found that nearly one in
     four households were wireless only (no land line), up nearly 2
     percentage points from the year before.

    The popularity of text messaging has increased to 2 trillion in
     2010, a 31% rise.

    Multiple media service (MMS) increased 64% since 2009 to 56.6
     billion annually. MMS allows users to send videos, pictures and
     text pages. At the same time, minutes of use increased to 2.2
     trillion.
    National Phone Survey on Distracted
    Driving Attitudes and Behaviors
   The survey found that 18% of drivers said they have sent text
    messages or e-mails while driving; about half (49%) of those 21
    to 24 years old reported doing so.

   More than half believe that using a cell phone and or sending a
    text message/e-mail makes no difference on their driving
    performance, yet as passengers, 90% said they would feel very
    unsafe if their driver was talking on a handheld cell phone or
    texting/e-mailing while traveling with them.

   One-third of drivers 18 to 24 years old feel they can take their
    eyes off the road for 3 to 10 seconds or more before driving
    becomes significantly more dangerous.
Relative Risk

Most crashes involve a relatively
unique set of circumstances that make
precise calculations of risk for engaging
in different behaviors very difficult.


Available research does not allow us to precisely determine what
is the riskiest behavior. Different studies and analyses have
arrived at different relative risk estimates for different tasks.
However, they all show elevated risk when the driver is distracted.



             Greater Exposure = Greater Risk
NHTSA Driver Distraction Program Plan

NHTSA has implemented a multi-year Distraction
Plan and Research Agenda that will further
examine driver communications and
entertainment devices, including cell phones, and
will also continue to monitor the research of
others on this subject.
 NHTSA’s Driver Distraction Program Plan




NHTSA Goal: Eliminate Crashes Due to Distraction
          Distracted Driving Initiative 1




Improve the understanding of the problem: Improve police
reporting, analyze additional crash data, continue observational,
awareness, hazard anticipation, and naturalistic studies, etc.
           Distracted Driving Initiative 2




Reduce workload from interfaces: Develop test procedures to
evaluate in-vehicle and nomadic devices.

   NHTSA will release voluntary Driver Distraction Guidelines that apply to
    in-vehicle device tasks performed by the driver through visual-manual
    means.
Proposed Distraction Guidelines for
Automakers
   On Feb. 16th the US DOT proposed the 1st of 3 phases of guidelines
    to encourage automobile manufacturers to limit distraction risk for
    in-vehicle electronic devices

   The guidelines recommend criteria manufacturers can use to
    ensure system or devices provided in their vehicles are less likely to
    distract the driver with tasks not directly relevant to safely
    operating the vehicle

   The guidelines are geared towards light vehicle rated less than
    10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight

   The proposed guidelines will apply to communications,
    entertainment, information gathering and navigation devices
    Distraction Guidelines for Automakers
   The proposed phase 1 of the distraction guidelines include
    recommendations to:

    ◦ Reduce complexity and task length required by the device

    ◦ Limit device operation to one hand only (leaving the other hand to
      remain on the steering wheel)

    ◦ Limit individual off-road glances required for device operation to no
      more than 2 seconds in duration

    ◦ Limit unnecessary visual information in the drivers field of view

    ◦ Limit the amount of manual inputs required for device operation
    Distraction Guidelines for Automakers –
    Public Comment Period
   The Phase 1 guidelines are available in the U.S. Federal Register.

   There will be a 60 day comment period and NHTSA will also hold
    public hearings on the proposed guidelines to solicit public input.
    These hearings will take place in March and will be held in Los Angeles,
    Chicago and Washington, D.C.
         Distracted Driving Initiative 3




Keep distracted drivers safe: Improve crash warning systems.
        Distracted Driving Initiative 4




Recognize risks and consequences: Assess the effect of high-
visibility law enforcement and targeted media campaigns.
                State Text Messaging Bans
                                                                                                              ME
      WA
                                    ND                                                             VT
                         MT                                                                              NH
                                               MN                                             NY         MA
     OR
                                                          WI
               ID                   SD                               MI
                                                                                                        CT RI

                          WY                                                             PA        NJ
                                                IA
                                     NE                                   OH                        DE
                                                                    IN
          NV                                                   IL                                  MD
                                                                                WV                            DC
                    UT
                                                                                         VA
                               CO
                                                    MO                    KY
CA                                       KS
                                                                                         NC
                                                                     TN
                AZ                        OK
                          NM                         AR                             SC
                                                                    AL         GA
                                                               MS

                                     TX
AK                                                   LA
                                                                                    FL



                                                                                                                   PR
                                                      Primary Enforcement
                                                      (all drivers)
                                                      Secondary Enforcement
               HI                                     (all drivers)

                                                      Novice Drivers Only
Distracted Driving Laws
   All Driver Hand-held Cell   Except for
    Phone Bans in the U.S.     Maryland, all these
                               laws are primary
                               enforcement—
             California
            Connecticut
                               An officer may cite
              Delaware
                               a driver for using a
               Hawaii
                               handheld cell
             Maryland
               Nevada
                               phone without any
            New Jersey         other traffic
             New York          offense taking
               Oregon          place.
            Washington
        District of Columbia   *30 States and D.C.
           Virgin Islands      ban all cell phone
                               use by novice
                               drivers.
Distracted Driving High Visibility
Enforcement Demonstration
   In 2009, NHTSA initiated distracted driving demonstration
    programs in two communities to test whether a high visibility
    enforcement (HVE) model could reduce two specific instances
    of distracted driving -- talking or texting using a hand-held cell
    phone.

   Syracuse, New York, and Hartford, Connecticut, conducted the
    demonstrations.

   The demonstrations spanned over four waves:
    (March 2010, July 2010, October 2010 & March/April 2011)
Click It or Ticket Model
The approach used in distracted driving demonstration project
was based on the proven Click It or Ticket (CIOT) model.

 This model involves aggressive enforcement activities that are
  readily apparent to motorists.

 The enforcement activity is coupled with paid and earned media
  developed to alert the public of the enforcement with the end
  goal being deterrence.

 These techniques have been highly successful in increasing
  safety belt use and reducing impaired driving nationwide in the
  past decade.
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                   23
Evaluation

   Before and after each wave, NHTSA conducted observations of
    driver cell phone use and collected public awareness surveys at
    driver licensing offices in each test and comparison site.

   Albany, New York, served as the comparison area for Syracuse.
    Bridgeport and Stamford, Connecticut, were selected as control
    areas to match the demographics of the three Hartford area
    cities.

   No media was purchased in the control sites and law
    enforcement officers continued their usual enforcement
    activities without special emphasis on cell phone laws.
Observational Surveys
   Cell phone use observations were taken at 15 sites in each intervention
    area, plus 15 sites in Albany, NY 15 in Stamford, CT and 7 sites in
    Bridgeport, CT.

   Sites were selected from road
    segments based on traffic volume
    estimates.

   The main goal of site selection was
    to capture the bulk of the traffic
    streams in the given area.
Distracted Driving Demo Final Results
(Hartford, CT)
Observed Hand-held Phone Use

   The percentage of drivers
    observed holding their phones to
    their ears decreased from
    baseline to the end of the fourth
    wave.

   The reduction was significantly
    greater in Hartford (from 6.8% to
    2.9%) than the control site (from
    6.6% to 5.6%).

   These changes represent a 57%
    drop in observed cell phone use
    for the Hartford site compared to
    a 15% drop at the control site.
Distracted Driving Demo Final Results
(Hartford, CT)
    Observed Phone Manipulation (texting/dialing)
    At the end of each individual
     wave, observers counted
     significantly fewer Hartford
     drivers manipulating their phones
     compared to the beginning of
     each wave.

    Overall there was a significant
     decrease in observed phone
     manipulation, from 3.9% to 1.1%
     in Hartford. This represents a 72%
     decline.

    There was no significant
     difference in observed cell phone
     manipulation in the control sites,
     from 2.8% to 2.4%.
Distracted Driving Demo Final Results
(Syracuse, NY)
 Observed Hand-held Phone Use

   Fewer drivers in Syracuse were
    observed holding cell phones
    to their ears at the end of the
    fourth wave (from 3.7% to
    2.5%). This 32% decrease was
    statistically significant.

   In the control site, there was
    also a significant 40%
    reduction in observed hand-
    held cell phone use from 5.0%
    to 3.0%.
Distracted Driving Demo Final Results
(Syracuse, NY)
    Observed Phone Manipulation (texting/dialing)

    Syracuse showed an overall
     decrease of 32% in observed
     phone manipulation from the
     baseline to the end of the fourth
     wave (2.8% to 1.9%).

    Albany’s observed rate of
     manipulating a phone while
     driving was much higher than
     Syracuse at the baseline period.
What We Learned…

   Awareness about cell phone use and texting was remarkably
    high.

   The messaging campaigns were successful in disseminating
    enforcement message.

   Enforcement was strong; police in both sites issued a large
    number of tickets in both sites, many times above previous
    benchmark levels.

   Officers are developing best-practices for enforcement (e.g.,
    observing texting violations is difficult for an officer who is
    standing on the side of the road but successful from higher
    observation points or SUVs, developing easy to use reporting
    forms).
What We Learned…


“…Good laws coupled with
 tough enforcement can reduce
 deadly distracted driving
 behavior” – Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood
       Behavioral Approach



                                                         “Every time we climb
Public Awareness Campaign                             into the driver’s seat, we
                                                       all have a responsibility
Federal Employee Texting Ban                            for keeping our roads
                                                      safe by putting away cell
                                                           phones and other
Federal Ban on Texting for Commercial Truck Drivers          distractions.”

                                                          - Transportation
Sample Law to Prohibit Texting While Driving           Secretary Ray LaHood


FRA Distracted Operator Final Rule

PHMSA Texting Rule
Next Steps
   NHTSA will build upon the success of the community-based pilot
    demonstration projects and will evaluate its widespread application
    by initiating two high visibility enforcement distracted driving
    campaigns on a larger “statewide” level.

   NHTSA is collaborating with FMCSA to incorporate commercial
    motor vehicle components into the statewide demos.

   NHTSA is conducting a 2nd National Distracted Driving telephone
    survey of a randomly selected sample of drivers ages 16 and older.
    The survey will assess and monitor attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
    related to distracted and unsafe driving practices. The results will
    be compared to the baseline survey conducted in Fall 2010.
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      Thank you

  For more information visit:
www.distraction.gov
             Amy Schick
     Email: amy.schick@dot.gov
       Phone: 202-366-2764

				
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posted:3/19/2012
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