FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS OF MATHEMATICS IN Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) HIGH SCHOOL IN THE CITY PALEMBANG Yuliani Indrawati Master of Management Alumni University of Sriwijaya ABSTRACT This research was related to the factors affecting the mathematics teachers' performance in Applying the Competence Based Curriculum at the high schools in Palembang. The factors investigated covered the components of knowledge / abilities, skills, and motivation. This research was aimed at: 1) Investigating the effect of knowledge / abilities, skills, and motivation toward the performance of mathematics teachers, 2) Investigating the most dominant factor affecting the performance of mathematics teachers. The method used was Causality method. The number of samples used was 66 mathematic teachers from seven state-owned high schools and 13 private high schools in Palembang. The data collected in this research were primarily through questionnaires. The data were analyzed through linear regression analysis model. The Research Findings That showed simultaneously components of knowledge / abilities (X1), skills (X2), and motivation (X3) significantly affected the performance of mathematics teachers (Y) of high schools in Kilkenny in the which R = R2 = 0491 and 0241. The most dominant factor toward the performance of mathematics teachers was the component of motivation. The results of this research were based on the developments of Gibson's theory (Ability / Knowledge, Skills, and Performance) and MC Clelland Theory (Motivation). Keywords: Knowledge / Ability, Skills, Motivation, Performance I. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background Education in Indonesia has not been as expected, due to educational institutions at all levels have not been able to produce the Human Resources (HR) quality. Even national education was considered to have failed to build the nation's character. This is evident from the low value of the results of national exams, especially the value of mathematics. Yet mathematics is a field of study that underlies all disciplines. Based on data from the Institute of Education (2003), the results of statistical research carried out internationally in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) showed that Indonesia ranked 34th of 45 countries for mastery learning in mathematics. Score Indonesia (411) is still below Singapore (605) and Malaysia (508), but remained in the Philippines (378). According Zulkardi (2003:2), two main issues in mathematics education in Indonesia is low student achievement (low competitiveness and low student International diajang average value EBTANAS national pure mathematics in particular) as well as their lack of interest in learning mathematics (mathematics is considered difficult and taught with methods that are not interesting because the teacher explained, while the students just noted). Presumably, this approach mathematics learning in Indonesia are still using traditional or mechanistic approach. An emphasis on practice work on the problems or drill and practice, procedures and the use of the formula. Students are less accustomed to solving problems or applications that many around them. While many countries have reformed the system of mathematics education from the traditional approach towards curricular-based user application, which is closer to the real mathematics for students through the application or meaningful contextual issues and processes that build students' attitudes toward positive about mathematics. For example: Japanese use "indeed open approach" approach that emphasizes the matter of an application that allows multiple solutions and strategies. United State of America (USA) with a standard made Teache National Council of Mathematics (NCTM), which is well-known standards with the five process skills that mathematics is' communication ',' reasoning ',' connection ',' problem solving ', and' understanding '; Netherlands developed the' RealisticMathematics Education (RME) 'since 1970. Approach taken by the three countries are relatively close together, such as: emphasis on the application materials or everyday life, focusing on active student (student-centered), and the emphasis on a matter that has a variation of strategies and solutions. Upon consideration of the success of other countries in improving the quality of learning mathematics, the Indonesian government since 1998 began to prepare for curriculum changes in 1994 to Competency-Based Curriculum. Conceptually, the 1994 curriculum-based achievement objectives (Objective Based Curriculum) and a competency-based Curriculum 2004 (Competency Based Curriculum) That is, private education is directed to establish the child as an individual who has the potential, different and varied talents that need attention and different life experiences children is an important capital in the learning. Simply the act of competence is intended as a smart, full responsibility of a person as a condition to do the tasks in a particular field of work. Competence is the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values embodied in the habit of thinking and acting that can be recognized through a number of student learning outcomes and indicators can be measured and observed. In mathematics learning, critical thinking, systematic, logical, creative is indispensable for the attainment of life skills to be achieved by a competency based curriculum and students are able to do after going through the learning process. The characteristics of Competency-Based Curriculum by Nurhadi (2004:18) are: (a) Emphasis on achievement of competencies students individually and in the classical style, (b) the results-oriented learning (learning outcomes) and diversity; (c) Achievement in learning using a variety of approaches and methods, (d) The source of learning not only teachers, but also other learning resources that meet the educational element, (e) Assessment of emphasis on process and learning outcomes in order to achieve a competency. Research and Development (Balitbang) Ministry of Education (2003:2) proposes two improvement agenda, among others, the improvement of teachers and learning facilities. Improving the quality of teachers is important for the improvement of knowledge transfer to students. While the improvement of learning facilities need to be considered in order to avoid a too wide gap between the quality of education students are Indonesia and other countries. According to Nurhadi (2004:12-13) in the implementation of competency based curriculum teachers must have special qualifications and competence to support the achievement of competency in the education unit. Achievement of the implementation of competency based curriculum in the is determined by the performance of good teachers so as to improve the quality of national education and in particular the learning of mathematics. According to Gibson, who was quoted by Elias (1999:57) to achieve good performance there are three groups of variables that influence work behavior and performance are: • First, individual variables, which include: The ability and skill; Family background, social level, experience, age, ethnicity, gender; • Second, organizational variables, which include among others: Resources: Leadership; Remuneration Structure: Job design; • Third, psychological variables, which include: perceptions; attitude; Personality; Learning: Motivation. Based on the principles of competency based curriculum development, then the variables directly related to the behavior and performance of teachers, especially teachers of mathematics are individual variables: ability / knowledge and skills and psychological variables: motivation. Figure 1 Schematic diagram of Background Research Pure EBTANAS value Average - average 97/98 s / d 00/01 Nas = 3.67 Prop = 3.28 City = 3.27 -Achievement -Interest Quality of Pend Mathematics (KoG, Af, Psi) Competency Curriculum Facilities Learn Quality Teacher Platform for Development of Education Policy Education Student Learning Approaches Learning Cooperation in Science and Technology Progress TEACHER PERFORMANCE Interpretation Affiliate Power Learning Plan for Assessing Learning Achievement Learning Follow-up Appraisal 1.2 Formulation of Problem A. Is the factor of knowledge / abilities, skills and motivation affect the performance of mathematics teachers in the implementation of competency based curriculum in Palembang City High School? 2. How big is the influence of these factors on the performance of teachers of mathematics in the implementation of competency based curriculum in high school Palembang 1.3 Research Objectives A. To determine the effect of ability / knowledge, skills, and motivation on the performance of mathematics teachers in the implementation of competency based curriculum in high schools or the city of Palembang. 2. To determine the factors affecting the performance of the most dominant teachers of mathematics in the implementation of competency based curriculum in high schools or the city of Palembang. 1.4. Benefits of Research A. As input for further research references. 2. To add insight to apply the science researchers who have obtained so far. 3. As input for the city of Palembang High School in an effort to improve the performance of teachers of mathematics. 4. As input to the Education Office at Palembang in order to improve the quality of mathematics education. II. REVIEW REFERENCES 2.1. Curriculum Curriculum in the narrow sense is defined as a collection of various subjects are given to students through a process called learning. 2.2. Competence and Competency-Based Curriculum Mulyasa, (2004:37-38) defines competence as the knowledge, skills and abilities are controlled by a person who has been a part of himself, so he can perform cognitive behaviors, affective and psychomotor as well as possible. Competency-based education, emphasizing the ability to be possessed by the graduates at a certain level of education so as to competence to global level 2.3. Teacher Performance According to Elias (1999: 112), the performance is the appearance of the work of both quantity and quality of personnel within an organization and an individual or group work performance of personnel. Description of performance regarding three important components, namely: (1) Purpose: Determination of the goals of each organizational unit is a strategy used to improve the work.; (2) Size: It takes a measure of whether a personnel have achieved the expected performance, for the quantitative and qualitative performance standards for each task and office personnel play an important role, (3) Assessment: Assessment of performance on a regular basis is associated with the achievement of the performance of each personnel. Understanding the performance with a description of objectives, operational measures, and regular assessments have an important role in caring for and improving the motivation of personnel. Illyas (1999: 56) also argues that the professional is the best resource of an organization so that their performance evaluation to be one of the variables that are important to the effectiveness organisasi.Dalam education, it is important to have an effective performance appraisal instrument for a professional workforce that is part cornerstone of management efforts to improve the performance of an effective organization. According to the theory cited by Illyas Gibson (1999: 55-58), there are three groups of variables that influence work behavior and performance, namely: individual variables, organizational variables and psychological variables. Schematic diagram of the variables that influence the behavior and performance as in figure 2. Figure 2 Schematic Diagram Theory of Behavior and Performance of Gibson VARIABLE INDIVIDUAL: * Ability and skills: mental physical * Background: - Family - Level of social - Experience * Demographic - Age - Ethnicity - Gender INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR (What is done) Performance VARIABLE ORGANIZATION • Resources • Leadership • Rewards • Structure • Design work PSYCHOLOGICAL - Perception - Attitude - Personality - Study - Motivation Individual variables are grouped in sub-variable abilities and skills, backgrounds and demographics. Sub- variable abilities and skills are the main factors that influence individual behavior and performance. Demographic variables, had indirect effects on behavior and individual performance. Psychological variables consisted of sub-variables of perception, attitude, personality, learning, and motivation. These variables are heavily influenced by family, social level prior work experience and demographic variables. Psychological variables such as perception, attitude, personality, and learning is a complex and difficult to measure. Indirect effect of organizational variables on behavior and individual performance. Organizational variables are classified in the sub-variable resources, leadership, rewards, structure, and design work. According to Spencer and Spencer, quoted by Idawati (2004:5), there are five types of competence, namely: First, Knowledge. Individuals who have knowledge in the field of employment or a particular area; Second, Skill. The ability to show any physical or mental performance; Third, Self Concept. Individual attitudes, values - values embraced self-image, Fourth Traits. Physical characteristics and consistent response to the situation or specific information; Fifth, Motives. Thoughts or intentions a constant basis and encourage individuals to act or behave in particular. Skill and knowledge is often referred to as hard competence, while the competence of self concept, traits and motives are called soft competence. There are similarities between Gibson and the theory of Spencer and Spencer's opinion about the main factors affecting the performance of individuals related to the competencies that must be owned by individuals, namely: competence knowledge / skills, competencies or skills expertise and competence motivation. 2.4. Teacher Competence in the performance dimension in the implementation of Competency-Based Curriculum 2.4.1. Ability (Knowledge) and Skill Competence dimension is luas.Menurut Nurhadi (2004:15) Competence is the knowledge, skills and basic values are reflected in the habit of thinking and acting. Habit of thinking and acting consistently and continuously allows a person to be competent in the sense of having the knowledge, skills and values fundamental to do something. While knowledge (knowledge) is owned by individual studies in the field of employment, in this case is individual teachers as professionals. According to Robbins (2001: 51-52), is the ability of an individual's capacity to do various tasks in a pekerjaan.Dalam implementation of competency based curriculum, capacity is needed to support the knowledge possessed by a teacher. Figure 3 Achievement depends on the exact combination of effort, ability and skill. Ability Knowledge Business Motivation Achievement Performance Skills Expertise Skill is the capacity to manipulate physical objects. Achievement depends on the right combination of effort, ability, and skill. Pioneer psychologist Charles Spearman cited by Kinicki, Kreitner (2003:185-187) proposes that all cognitive performance was first classified as a mental skills needed for all cognitive tasks, the two unique tasks performed. Siagian (2003:127) argues that the level of education and training have been followed reflect intellectual ability and the type of skills possessed by the person concerned. 2.4.2. Motivation Motivation is the willingness to issue a high level of effort for the purpose of which is conditioned by the ability of the organization's efforts in meeting the multiple needs of individuals. Here are three specific theory which is the best explanation for the motivation of employees, quoted by Robbins (2003:209-216): A. Theory of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs Consists of physiological needs, safety, social, awards and self-actualization. Physiological needs, safety, social is a need for low-level (external factors) and the need for respect, self-actualization is the need for high-level (internal factors). This theory assumes that people attempt to meet the needs of a more basic (psychology) before meeting the highest needs (self actualization) 2. Two Factor Theory Two factors are called the factors that make people feel dissatisfied and the factors that make people feel satisfied (Dissatisfier-satisfiers) or factors that make people feel healthier and factors that motivate people (hygiene-motivators), or extrinsic and intrinsic factors (extrinsic -Intrinsic). 3. McClelland theory of needs: Mc Clelland provides three levels of motivation as the following requirements: The need for achievement (Need for Achievement), affiliation (Need for Affiliation). power (Need for Power) 2.5. Conceptual Framework for Research Figure 4 Conceptual Framework for Research Teacher performance (X) A. Ability and Knowledge (X1) - The cornerstone of education (X1A) - Education Policy (X1b) - The development of students (X1c) - Approach to learning (X1d) - Cooperation in the work (X1e) - Advancement of Science & Technology (X1f) 2. Skills (X2) - Lesson Plan (X2a) - Learning (X2b) - Assessing learning achievement (X2c) - Follow-up assessment (X2d) Performance of Mathematics Teachers (Y) - Achievement of competence (Y1) - Implementation of the task (Y2) - Quality of work (Y3) - Responsibility (Y4) - Discipline (Y5) - Honesty (Y6) - Loyalty (Y7) - Initiative (Y8) - Creativity (Y9) - Cooperation (Y10) Independent variables: Ability / Knowledge (X1), Skill (X2), Motivation (X3). Dependent variable: Teacher Performance (Y) 2.6. Research Hypothesis Based on the above, then the hypothesis established in this study are the factors the ability / knowledge, skills, motivation, affect the performance of teachers of mathematics in the Implementation of Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) in Palembang City High School. III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1. Draft Research This research is causality using multiple regression analysis technique to directly see the influence of several independent variables on the dependent variable. 3.2. Operational definitions of variables 3.2.1 Components of Ability / Knowledge (X1) with sub-sub-components as follows - The cornerstone of education (X1A) - Education Policy (X1b) - The development of students (X1c) - Approach to learning (X1d) - Cooperation in the work (X1e) - Advancement of Science & Technology (X1f) 3.2.2. Skills Component (x2) with sub-sub-components as follows: - Lesson Plan (X2a) - Learning (X2b) - Assessing learning achievement (X2c) - Follow-up assessment (X2d) 3.2.3. The motivation component (X3) with sub-sub-components as follows: - Achievement (X3a) - Affiliate (X3b) - Power (X3c) 3.2.4. Teacher Performance Component (Y) with sub-sub-components as follows: - Achievement of competence (Y1) - Implementation of the task (Y2) - Quality of work (Y3) - Responsibility (Y4) - Discipline (Y5) - Honesty (Y6) - Loyalty (Y7) - Initiative (Y8) - Creativity (Y9) - Cooperation (Y10). 3.3. Measurement of variables In this study to analyze the variables used Likert scale with five levels of assessment, ie Strongly Agree (SS), Agree (S), Neutral (N), Disagree (TS) and Strongly Disagree (STS). Score given start number 5 for the answer to number 1 SS to answer STS. 3.4. Population and study sample The population consists of all math teachers at 20 high school that has implemented the CBC. The sampling technique was purposive sampling is to choose the teachers who have taught with implementing competency-based curriculum amounted to 66. (CBC applied to grade 2 SMA / SMA Class XI, except for 5 high school who have been carrying out trials CBC since the school year 2003/2004, the CBC has applied to grade 3 school / high school class XII). 3.5. Time and Location of Research The experiment was conducted at seven senior high school and 13 private high school in the city of Palembang in: October 2005 - November 2005. 3.6. Data Collection Method A. Primary data obtained through field research by distributing a list of questions (questionnaire) to the respondent to be completed and returned to the researcher in accordance with the stipulated time. 2. Secondary data are needed in the form of supporting data such as educational background of teachers is concerned, age, length of work and interviews with the Principal. 3.7. Data Analysis Techniques Mechanical analysis of data (data processing assisted by SPSS 11.5) using multiple regression analysis as follows: Where: Y = a + b1X1 b2X2 + + b3X3 Y = a mathematics teacher performance (the dependent variable / dependent variable) X1 = Ability (knowledge), (independent variable / independent variable) X2 = Skills (independent variable / independent variable) X3 = Motivation (independent variable / independent variable) a = constant b1, b2, b3, b4 = regression coefficient Significance tested by t test at alpha 0.05 IV. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Characteristics of Respondents Table 1 Characteristics of Respondents Sex a. Male - male b. Female Number of 31 35 66 46.97% 53.03% 100.00% Age a. <25 years b.25-40-year c. > 40 years Number of 4 38 24 6:06 66% 57.58% 36.36% 100.00% Education Finally a. D3/Sarjana Young b. S1 Math c. S1 Non Matemtk Number 3 58 5 66 4.54% 87.88% 7.58% 100.00% A group. IV b. III c. Non Rank Number of 11 17 38 66 16.67% 25.77% 57.58% 100.00% Experience teach a. 1-3 years b. 4-6 years c. 7-9 years d. 10-12 years e. 13-15 years f. More than 15 years Number of 14 10 6 7 5 24 66 21.21% 15.15% 9.09% 10.61% 7.58% 36.36% 100.00% Training ever followed a. Never b. One-time c. D twice. Thrice e. Four times f. More than 4 times Number of 18 19 9 8 6 6 66 27.27% 28.79% 13.64% 12.12% 9.09% 9.09% 100.00% Source: Research Data Processed There is still an educated respondents D3 and S1 4.54% 7.58% Non-Mathematical. 21.21% of respondents experienced under 4 years old and 36.36% of respondents experienced more than 15 years: 27.27% of respondents had never attended training and only 9.09% who had attended training more than 4 times. This shows a lack of training followed by mathematics teachers. 4.2. Test Validity and Reliability Testing Based on the validity of test results shows that all of the questions on each questionnaire item is valid, because the value of r count> r table (table r = 0.2042) Table 2 Validity of Test Results Sub-sub-components of R Count Description The knowledge component (X1) X1A X1b X1c X1d X1e X1f 0.4666 0.5197 0.6233 0.5790 0.5274 0.4667 Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Reliability Alpha: 0.8312 Skills Component (x2) X2a X2b X2c X2d 0.6333 0.6973 0.7191 0.7704 Valid Valid Valid Valid Reliability Alpha: 0.9622 Motivational components (X3) X3a X3b X3c 0.6469 0.6642 0.7420 Valid Valid Valid Reliability Alpha: 0.8938 Normal distributed test Normality Test Source: Research Data Processed Reliability test results showed that the alpha value of each component of> 0.6 and can say the data is reliable. 4.3. Percentage of Respondents Answers Figure 5 Percentage of Respondents Answers PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS ANSWER COMPONENTS OF KNOWLEDGE / SKILLS (X1) 0% 2% 4% 41% 53% Strongly Agree (SS) Agree (S) Neutral (N) Disagree (TS) Strongly Disagree (STS) PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS ANSWER COMPONENT SKILLS (X2) 0% 3% 40% 57% Strongly Agree (SS) Agree (S) Neutral (N) PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS ANSWER OF MOTIVATION (X3) 0% 2% 2% 41% PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS ANSWER THE TEACHER PERFORMANCE (Y) Strongly Agree (SS) 1% 0% 4% 27% Agree (S) Neutral (N) Strongly Agree (SS) Agree (S) Neutral (N) Disagree (TS) Strongly Disagree (STS) 68% Disagree (TS) Strongly Disagree (STS) Source: Research Data Processed Overall percentage of respondents' answers to the components of the knowledge / skills (X1), skills (X2), motivation (X3), and teacher performance (Y)-dominated response agreed (S) and strongly agree (SS), this suggests that respondents accept variables for each component as the demands of the application of competency based curriculum in teaching mathematics in high school. 4.4. Correlation Analysis To determine the relationship of the independent variables (Ability / Knowledge, Skills, Motivation) on the dependent variable (Teacher Performance) used linear regression analysis. Table 3 Regression C X1 X2 X3 Correlations Pearson Correlations Y X2 X3 - - - 0.369 0.728 0,525 0,244 0,443 0.585 Sig (1 - tailed) - 0.01 0.024 0.00 Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients B 20.001 0.302 to 0.089 0.391 t sig 3.569 0.01 - 0.060 - 0.200 - 0.05 Source: Research Data Processed Correlation of output, the most significant relationship only between motivational variables (X3) with the Teacher Performance variables (Y) because the value of significance (Sig I-tailed) = 0.000 <0.05 Relationship of independent variables that most strongly with the performance of teachers is the motivational variables of 0.443. The relationship between the independent variables are the most powerful variable knowledge / capability with variable skills of 0.728. From the table 3 regression equation is obtained as follows: Y = 20.001 + 0.302 X1 - X2 + 0.89 X3 0.391 Constants of 20.001 states that if there is no ability / knowledge, skills and motivation of teachers (in math X1, X2, X3 is 0) then the teacher's performance is only 20.001. Regression coefficient for X1 + 0.302 each additional knowledge that a teacher would improve teacher performance. Regression coefficient of -0.89 X2 states that the skills of a teacher does not affect the performance improvement teachers. Regression coefficient of + .391 X3 states that the increased motivation of teachers will improve teacher performance. Sig value / significance of the knowledge factor (X1) = 0.060> 0.05 so Ho is accepted, or teacher knowledge factor was not significantly influence the performance of teachers of mathematics. The value of sig / significance for skill factor = 0.200> 0.05 so Ho accepted or skills of teachers was a factor not significantly affect the performance of teachers of mathematics, the value of sig / significance for motivation = 0.005 <0.05 then Ho is rejected or motivational factors influence the significant effect on the performance of teachers of mathematics. Partial (t test results) are only motivating factor that affects the performance of teachers of mathematics. Table 4 Regression Model Summary R Square Adjusted R Square 0.241 0.205 Anovab F Sig 6.579 0.001 a Source: Research Data Processed R square = 0241 are adjusted to the Adjusted R Square = 0.205 means that about 20.5% of teacher performance dependent variable can be determined by the independent variables Knowledge / Ability (X1), Variable Skills (X2), Variable Motivation (X3) while the remaining 79, 5% is determined by other variables not included in this study. Of the test or ANOVA F test, obtained F calculated = 6.599 with significance level of 0.001 <0.05. Means knowledge / ability, skills, motivation together affect the performance of teachers of mathematics. The hypothesis of this study states "The factors of knowledge / abilities, skills and motivation affect the performance of teachers of Mathematics in the implementation of CBC in Palembang city high school" not proven true and the hypothesis was rejected because only the variables that affect motivation alone. V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1. Conclusion A. F test results indicate that the factors of knowledge, skills, motivation simultaneously affects 20.5% of the performance of teachers of mathematics, the remaining 79.5% influenced by other factors not included in this study. 2. Factors attitude, initiative, creativity, innovation strongly support the successful implementation of the CBC as it approaches and methods used vary, contextual and teachers are not the only source of knowledge. 3. Partial test results (t-test) shows only the variables that affect the motivation of teachers' performance, while the variable ability / knowledge and skills variable had no effect. This shows the low competence of mathematics teachers in the city of Palembang and the result of low student achievement. 4. There are many math teachers do not understand the learning characteristics of the CBC system, not change the nature of mathematics from the "teacher-oriented" to "student-oriented". 5. Educational background is not suitable and not called to be teachers and teacher educators so that less effort to make the change for the improvement of mathematics learning systems as a form of responsibility for improving the quality of mathematics education. 6. Required the responsible management of schools and principals who have the ability, skill and understanding the characteristics of the CBC is required to improve the efficacy learning of Mathematics. 5.2. Suggestion A. Need to increase knowledge / abilities, skills and motivation in mathematics teacher by the Ministry of National Education and the city of Palembang each school through the organization of training, coaching and Subject Teachers Council (MGMP) on an ongoing basis. 2. Needed to be a teacher competency test to determine eligibility as a teacher of mathematics teachers in particular. 3. In the selection of teachers of mathematics for admission to come to go through proper procedures, free of corruption, according to background disciplines of education you have, have the ability in accordance with the demands of teacher competency standards, so that student achievement can compete at international level and to improve the quality of human Indonesia. 4. Need for further research development with other variables that support the implementation of the CBC for learning mathematics for example: the factors of attitude, initiative, creativity, innovation and more.
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