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Competency Based Curriculum (CBC)

Yuliani Indrawati
Master of Management Alumni University of Sriwijaya


This research was related to the factors affecting the mathematics teachers' performance in Applying
the Competence Based Curriculum at the high schools in Palembang. The factors investigated covered
the components of knowledge / abilities, skills, and motivation. This research was aimed at: 1)
Investigating the effect of knowledge / abilities, skills, and motivation toward the performance of
mathematics teachers, 2) Investigating the most dominant factor affecting the performance of
mathematics teachers. The method used was Causality method. The number of samples used was 66
mathematic teachers from seven state-owned high schools and 13 private high schools in Palembang.
The data collected in this research were primarily through questionnaires. The data were analyzed
through linear regression analysis model. The Research Findings That showed simultaneously
components of knowledge / abilities (X1), skills (X2), and motivation (X3) significantly affected the
performance of mathematics teachers (Y) of high schools in Kilkenny in the which R = R2 = 0491 and
0241. The most dominant factor toward the performance of mathematics teachers was the component
of motivation. The results of this research were based on the developments of Gibson's theory (Ability /
Knowledge, Skills, and Performance) and MC Clelland Theory (Motivation).

Keywords: Knowledge / Ability, Skills, Motivation, Performance


1.1. Background
Education in Indonesia has not been as expected, due to educational institutions at all levels have not
been able to produce the Human Resources (HR) quality. Even national education was considered to
have failed to build the nation's character. This is evident from the low value of the results of national
exams, especially the value of mathematics. Yet mathematics is a field of study that underlies all
Based on data from the Institute of Education (2003), the results of statistical research carried out
internationally in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) showed that
Indonesia ranked 34th of 45 countries for mastery learning in mathematics. Score Indonesia (411) is still
below Singapore (605) and Malaysia (508), but remained in the Philippines (378).
According Zulkardi (2003:2), two main issues in mathematics education in Indonesia is low student
achievement (low competitiveness and low student International diajang average value EBTANAS
national pure mathematics in particular) as well as their lack of interest in learning mathematics
(mathematics is considered difficult and taught with methods that are not interesting because the
teacher explained, while the students just noted). Presumably, this approach mathematics learning in
Indonesia are still using traditional or mechanistic approach. An emphasis on practice work on the
problems or drill and practice, procedures and the use of the formula. Students are less accustomed to
solving problems or applications that many around them. While many countries have reformed the
system of mathematics education from the traditional approach towards curricular-based user
application, which is closer to the real mathematics for students through the application or meaningful
contextual issues and processes that build students' attitudes toward positive about mathematics.
For example: Japanese use "indeed open approach" approach that emphasizes the matter of an
application that allows multiple solutions and strategies. United State of America (USA) with a standard
made Teache National Council of Mathematics (NCTM), which is well-known standards with the five
process skills that mathematics is' communication ',' reasoning ',' connection ',' problem solving ', and'
understanding '; Netherlands developed the' RealisticMathematics Education (RME) 'since 1970.
Approach taken by the three countries are relatively close together, such as: emphasis on the
application materials or everyday life, focusing on active student (student-centered), and the emphasis
on a matter that has a variation of strategies and solutions. Upon consideration of the success of other
countries in improving the quality of learning mathematics, the Indonesian government since 1998
began to prepare for curriculum changes in 1994 to Competency-Based Curriculum. Conceptually, the
1994 curriculum-based achievement objectives (Objective Based Curriculum) and a competency-based
Curriculum 2004 (Competency Based Curriculum) That is, private education is directed to establish the
child as an individual who has the potential, different and varied talents that need attention and
different life experiences children is an important capital in the learning. Simply the act of competence is
intended as a smart, full responsibility of a person as a condition to do the tasks in a particular field of
work. Competence is the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values embodied in the habit of thinking and
acting that can be recognized through a number of student learning outcomes and indicators can be
measured and observed.
In mathematics learning, critical thinking, systematic, logical, creative is indispensable for the attainment
of life skills to be achieved by a competency based curriculum and students are able to do after going
through the learning process.
The characteristics of Competency-Based Curriculum by Nurhadi (2004:18) are: (a) Emphasis on
achievement of competencies students individually and in the classical style, (b) the results-oriented
learning (learning outcomes) and diversity; (c) Achievement in learning using a variety of approaches
and methods, (d) The source of learning not only teachers, but also other learning resources that meet
the educational element, (e) Assessment of emphasis on process and learning outcomes in order to
achieve a competency.
Research and Development (Balitbang) Ministry of Education (2003:2) proposes two improvement
agenda, among others, the improvement of teachers and learning facilities. Improving the quality of
teachers is important for the improvement of knowledge transfer to students. While the improvement
of learning facilities need to be considered in order to avoid a too wide gap between the quality of
education students are Indonesia and other countries.
According to Nurhadi (2004:12-13) in the implementation of competency based curriculum teachers
must have special qualifications and competence to support the achievement of competency in the
education unit. Achievement of the implementation of competency based curriculum in the is
determined by the performance of good teachers so as to improve the quality of national education and
in particular the learning of mathematics.
According to Gibson, who was quoted by Elias (1999:57) to achieve good performance there are three
groups of variables that influence work behavior and performance are:
• First, individual variables, which include: The ability and skill; Family background, social level,
experience, age, ethnicity, gender;
• Second, organizational variables, which include among others: Resources: Leadership; Remuneration
Structure: Job design;
• Third, psychological variables, which include: perceptions; attitude; Personality; Learning: Motivation.
Based on the principles of competency based curriculum development, then the variables directly
related to the behavior and performance of teachers, especially teachers of mathematics are individual
variables: ability / knowledge and skills and psychological variables: motivation.

Figure 1
Schematic diagram of Background Research

Pure EBTANAS value
Average - average
97/98 s / d 00/01
Nas = 3.67
Prop = 3.28
City = 3.27

Quality of Pend Mathematics

(KoG, Af, Psi)

Competency Curriculum



Platform for Development of Education Policy Education Student Learning Approaches Learning
Cooperation in Science and Technology Progress


Interpretation Affiliate Power

Learning Plan for Assessing Learning Achievement Learning

1.2 Formulation of Problem
A. Is the factor of knowledge / abilities, skills and motivation affect the performance of mathematics
teachers in the implementation of competency based curriculum in Palembang City High School?
2. How big is the influence of these factors on the performance of teachers of mathematics in the
implementation of competency based curriculum in high school Palembang

1.3 Research Objectives
A. To determine the effect of ability / knowledge, skills, and motivation on the performance of
mathematics teachers in the implementation of competency based curriculum in high schools or the city
of Palembang.
2. To determine the factors affecting the performance of the most dominant teachers of mathematics in
the implementation of competency based curriculum in high schools or the city of Palembang.

1.4. Benefits of Research
A. As input for further research references.
2. To add insight to apply the science researchers who have obtained so far.
3. As input for the city of Palembang High School in an effort to improve the performance of teachers of
4. As input to the Education Office at Palembang in order to improve the quality of mathematics


2.1. Curriculum
Curriculum in the narrow sense is defined as a collection of various subjects are given to students
through a process called learning.

2.2. Competence and Competency-Based Curriculum
Mulyasa, (2004:37-38) defines competence as the knowledge, skills and abilities are controlled by a
person who has been a part of himself, so he can perform cognitive behaviors, affective and
psychomotor as well as possible.
Competency-based education, emphasizing the ability to be possessed by the graduates at a certain
level of education so as to competence to global level

2.3. Teacher Performance
According to Elias (1999: 112), the performance is the appearance of the work of both quantity and
quality of personnel within an organization and an individual or group work performance of personnel.
Description of performance regarding three important components, namely: (1) Purpose: Determination
of the goals of each organizational unit is a strategy used to improve the work.; (2) Size: It takes a
measure of whether a personnel have achieved the expected performance, for the quantitative and
qualitative performance standards for each task and office personnel play an important role, (3)
Assessment: Assessment of performance on a regular basis is associated with the achievement of the
performance of each personnel. Understanding the performance with a description of objectives,
operational measures, and regular assessments have an important role in caring for and improving the
motivation of personnel.
Illyas (1999: 56) also argues that the professional is the best resource of an organization so that their
performance evaluation to be one of the variables that are important to the effectiveness
organisasi.Dalam education, it is important to have an effective performance appraisal instrument for a
professional workforce that is part cornerstone of management efforts to improve the performance of
an effective organization.
According to the theory cited by Illyas Gibson (1999: 55-58), there are three groups of variables that
influence work behavior and performance, namely: individual variables, organizational variables and
psychological variables. Schematic diagram of the variables that influence the behavior and performance
as in figure 2.

Figure 2
Schematic Diagram Theory of Behavior and Performance of Gibson

* Ability and skills: mental
* Background:
- Family
- Level of social
- Experience
* Demographic
- Age
- Ethnicity
- Gender

(What is done)

• Resources
• Leadership
• Rewards
• Structure
• Design work

- Perception
- Attitude
- Personality
- Study
- Motivation

Individual variables are grouped in sub-variable abilities and skills, backgrounds and demographics. Sub-
variable abilities and skills are the main factors that influence individual behavior and performance.
Demographic variables, had indirect effects on behavior and individual performance. Psychological
variables consisted of sub-variables of perception, attitude, personality, learning, and motivation. These
variables are heavily influenced by family, social level prior work experience and demographic variables.
Psychological variables such as perception, attitude, personality, and learning is a complex and difficult
to measure. Indirect effect of organizational variables on behavior and individual performance.
Organizational variables are classified in the sub-variable resources, leadership, rewards, structure, and
design work.
According to Spencer and Spencer, quoted by Idawati (2004:5), there are five types of competence,
namely: First, Knowledge. Individuals who have knowledge in the field of employment or a particular
area; Second, Skill. The ability to show any physical or mental performance; Third, Self Concept.
Individual attitudes, values - values embraced self-image, Fourth Traits. Physical characteristics and
consistent response to the situation or specific information; Fifth, Motives. Thoughts or intentions a
constant basis and encourage individuals to act or behave in particular. Skill and knowledge is often
referred to as hard competence, while the competence of self concept, traits and motives are called soft
There are similarities between Gibson and the theory of Spencer and Spencer's opinion about the main
factors affecting the performance of individuals related to the competencies that must be owned by
individuals, namely: competence knowledge / skills, competencies or skills expertise and competence

2.4. Teacher Competence in the performance dimension in the implementation of Competency-Based
2.4.1. Ability (Knowledge) and Skill
Competence dimension is luas.Menurut Nurhadi (2004:15) Competence is the knowledge, skills and
basic values are reflected in the habit of thinking and acting. Habit of thinking and acting consistently
and continuously allows a person to be competent in the sense of having the knowledge, skills and
values fundamental to do something. While knowledge (knowledge) is owned by individual studies in
the field of employment, in this case is individual teachers as professionals. According to Robbins (2001:
51-52), is the ability of an individual's capacity to do various tasks in a pekerjaan.Dalam implementation
of competency based curriculum, capacity is needed to support the knowledge possessed by a teacher.

Figure 3
Achievement depends on the exact combination of effort, ability and skill.





Skill is the capacity to manipulate physical objects. Achievement depends on the right combination of
effort, ability, and skill. Pioneer psychologist Charles Spearman cited by Kinicki, Kreitner (2003:185-187)
proposes that all cognitive performance was first classified as a mental skills needed for all cognitive
tasks, the two unique tasks performed.
Siagian (2003:127) argues that the level of education and training have been followed reflect intellectual
ability and the type of skills possessed by the person concerned.

2.4.2. Motivation
Motivation is the willingness to issue a high level of effort for the purpose of which is conditioned by the
ability of the organization's efforts in meeting the multiple needs of individuals.
Here are three specific theory which is the best explanation for the motivation of employees, quoted by
Robbins (2003:209-216):
A. Theory of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Consists of physiological needs, safety, social, awards and self-actualization. Physiological needs, safety,
social is a need for low-level (external factors) and the need for respect, self-actualization is the need for
high-level (internal factors). This theory assumes that people attempt to meet the needs of a more basic
(psychology) before meeting the highest needs (self actualization)
 2. Two Factor Theory
Two factors are called the factors that make people feel dissatisfied and the factors that make people
feel satisfied (Dissatisfier-satisfiers) or factors that make people feel healthier and factors that motivate
people (hygiene-motivators), or extrinsic and intrinsic factors (extrinsic
3. McClelland theory of needs:
Mc Clelland provides three levels of motivation as the following requirements: The need for
achievement (Need for Achievement), affiliation (Need for Affiliation). power (Need for Power)

2.5. Conceptual Framework for Research

Figure 4
Conceptual Framework for Research

Teacher performance (X)
A. Ability and Knowledge (X1)
- The cornerstone of education (X1A)
- Education Policy (X1b)
- The development of students (X1c)
- Approach to learning (X1d)
- Cooperation in the work (X1e)
- Advancement of Science & Technology (X1f)
2. Skills (X2)
- Lesson Plan (X2a)
- Learning (X2b)
- Assessing learning achievement (X2c)
- Follow-up assessment (X2d)

Performance of Mathematics Teachers (Y)
- Achievement of competence (Y1)
- Implementation of the task (Y2)
- Quality of work (Y3)
- Responsibility (Y4)
- Discipline (Y5)
- Honesty (Y6)
- Loyalty (Y7)
- Initiative (Y8)
- Creativity (Y9)
- Cooperation (Y10)

Independent variables: Ability / Knowledge (X1), Skill (X2), Motivation (X3). Dependent variable: Teacher
Performance (Y)

2.6. Research Hypothesis
Based on the above, then the hypothesis established in this study are the factors the ability /
knowledge, skills, motivation, affect the performance of teachers of mathematics in the Implementation
of Competency-Based Curriculum (CBC) in Palembang City High School.

3.1. Draft Research
This research is causality using multiple regression analysis technique to directly see the influence of
several independent variables on the dependent variable.

3.2. Operational definitions of variables
3.2.1 Components of Ability / Knowledge (X1) with sub-sub-components as follows
- The cornerstone of education (X1A)
- Education Policy (X1b)
- The development of students (X1c)
- Approach to learning (X1d)
- Cooperation in the work (X1e)
- Advancement of Science & Technology (X1f)
3.2.2. Skills Component (x2) with sub-sub-components as follows:
- Lesson Plan (X2a)
- Learning (X2b)
- Assessing learning achievement (X2c)
- Follow-up assessment (X2d)
3.2.3. The motivation component (X3) with sub-sub-components as follows:
- Achievement (X3a)
- Affiliate (X3b)
- Power (X3c)
3.2.4. Teacher Performance Component (Y) with sub-sub-components as follows:
- Achievement of competence (Y1)
- Implementation of the task (Y2)
- Quality of work (Y3)
- Responsibility (Y4)
- Discipline (Y5)
- Honesty (Y6)
- Loyalty (Y7)
- Initiative (Y8)
- Creativity (Y9)
- Cooperation (Y10).

3.3. Measurement of variables
In this study to analyze the variables used Likert scale with five levels of assessment, ie Strongly Agree
(SS), Agree (S), Neutral (N), Disagree (TS) and Strongly Disagree (STS). Score given start number 5 for the
answer to number 1 SS to answer STS.
3.4. Population and study sample
The population consists of all math teachers at 20 high school that has implemented the CBC. The
sampling technique was purposive sampling is to choose the teachers who have taught with
implementing competency-based curriculum amounted to 66. (CBC applied to grade 2 SMA / SMA Class
XI, except for 5 high school who have been carrying out trials CBC since the school year 2003/2004, the
CBC has applied to grade 3 school / high school class XII).

3.5. Time and Location of Research
The experiment was conducted at seven senior high school and 13 private high school in the city of
Palembang in: October 2005 - November 2005.

3.6. Data Collection Method
A. Primary data obtained through field research by distributing a list of questions (questionnaire) to the
respondent to be completed and returned to the researcher in accordance with the stipulated time.
2. Secondary data are needed in the form of supporting data such as educational background of
teachers is concerned, age, length of work and interviews with the Principal.

3.7. Data Analysis Techniques
Mechanical analysis of data (data processing assisted by SPSS 11.5) using multiple regression analysis as


Y = a + b1X1 b2X2 + + b3X3

Y = a mathematics teacher performance (the dependent variable / dependent variable)
X1 = Ability (knowledge), (independent variable / independent variable) X2 = Skills (independent variable
/ independent variable)
X3 = Motivation (independent variable / independent variable)
a = constant
b1, b2, b3, b4 = regression coefficient Significance tested by t test at alpha 0.05

4.1. Characteristics of Respondents

Table 1
Characteristics of Respondents

Sex a. Male - male
b. Female
Number of 31
66 46.97%
Age a. <25 years
b.25-40-year c. > 40 years
Number of 4
6:06 66%
Finally a. D3/Sarjana Young b. S1 Math
c. S1 Non Matemtk
Number 3
66 4.54%
A group. IV
b. III
c. Non Rank
Number of 11
66 16.67%
teach a. 1-3 years b. 4-6 years
c. 7-9 years
d. 10-12 years e. 13-15 years
f. More than 15 years
Number of 14
66 21.21%
ever followed a. Never
b. One-time c. D twice. Thrice
e. Four times
f. More than 4 times
Number of 18
66 27.27%
Source: Research Data Processed

There is still an educated respondents D3 and S1 4.54% 7.58% Non-Mathematical. 21.21% of
respondents experienced under 4 years old and 36.36% of respondents experienced more than 15
years: 27.27% of respondents had never attended training and only 9.09% who had attended training
more than 4 times. This shows a lack of training followed by mathematics teachers.

4.2. Test Validity and Reliability Testing
Based on the validity of test results shows that all of the questions on each questionnaire item is valid,
because the value of r count> r table (table r = 0.2042)
Table 2
Validity of Test Results

Sub-sub-components of R Count Description
The knowledge component
(X1) X1A X1b X1c X1d X1e X1f
Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid Valid
Reliability Alpha: 0.8312
Skills Component (x2)
X2a X2b X2c X2d
Valid Valid Valid Valid
Reliability Alpha: 0.9622
Motivational components (X3)
X3a X3b X3c
Valid Valid Valid
Reliability Alpha: 0.8938
Normal distributed test Normality Test
Source: Research Data Processed

Reliability test results showed that the alpha value of each component of> 0.6 and can say the data is

4.3. Percentage of Respondents Answers

Figure 5
Percentage of Respondents Answers






Strongly Agree (SS) Agree (S) Neutral (N) Disagree (TS) Strongly Disagree (STS)



Strongly Agree (SS) Agree (S) Neutral (N)





Strongly Agree (SS)
1% 0%

4% 27%

Agree (S)

Neutral (N)
Strongly Agree (SS) Agree (S)
Neutral (N) Disagree (TS) Strongly Disagree (STS)


Disagree (TS)

Strongly Disagree

Source: Research Data Processed

Overall percentage of respondents' answers to the components of the knowledge / skills (X1), skills (X2),
motivation (X3), and teacher performance (Y)-dominated response agreed (S) and strongly agree (SS),
this suggests that respondents accept variables for each component as the demands of the application
of competency based curriculum in teaching mathematics in high school.

4.4. Correlation Analysis
To determine the relationship of the independent variables (Ability / Knowledge, Skills, Motivation) on
the dependent variable (Teacher Performance) used linear regression analysis.
Table 3

C X1 X2 X3

Correlations Y
X3 -
- 0.369
0,525 0,244 0,443
Sig (1 - tailed) - 0.01 0.024 0.00

Unstandardized Coefficients
Coefficients B 20.001 0.302 to 0.089 0.391
sig 3.569
0.01 -
0.060 -
0.200 -
Source: Research Data Processed

Correlation of output, the most significant relationship only between motivational variables (X3) with
the Teacher Performance variables (Y) because the value of significance (Sig I-tailed) = 0.000 <0.05
Relationship of independent variables that most strongly with the performance of teachers is the
motivational variables of 0.443. The relationship between the independent variables are the most
powerful variable knowledge / capability with variable skills of 0.728. From the table 3 regression
equation is obtained as follows:

Y = 20.001 + 0.302 X1 - X2 + 0.89 X3 0.391

Constants of 20.001 states that if there is no ability / knowledge, skills and motivation of teachers (in
math X1, X2, X3 is 0) then the teacher's performance is only 20.001. Regression coefficient for X1 +
0.302 each additional knowledge that a teacher would improve teacher performance. Regression
coefficient of -0.89 X2 states that the skills of a teacher does not affect the performance improvement
teachers. Regression coefficient of + .391 X3 states that the increased motivation of teachers will
improve teacher performance. Sig value / significance of the knowledge factor (X1) = 0.060> 0.05 so Ho
is accepted, or teacher knowledge factor was not significantly influence the performance of teachers of
mathematics. The value of sig / significance for skill factor = 0.200> 0.05 so Ho accepted or skills of
teachers was a factor not significantly affect the performance of teachers of mathematics, the value of
sig / significance for motivation = 0.005 <0.05 then Ho is rejected or motivational factors influence the
significant effect on the performance of teachers of mathematics. Partial (t test results) are only
motivating factor that affects the performance of teachers of mathematics.

Table 4

Summary R Square
Adjusted R Square 0.241
Anovab F
Sig 6.579
0.001 a
Source: Research Data Processed

R square = 0241 are adjusted to the Adjusted R Square = 0.205 means that about 20.5% of teacher
performance dependent variable can be determined by the independent variables Knowledge / Ability
(X1), Variable Skills (X2), Variable Motivation (X3) while the remaining 79, 5% is determined by other
variables not included in this study.
Of the test or ANOVA F test, obtained F calculated = 6.599 with significance level of 0.001 <0.05. Means
knowledge / ability, skills, motivation together affect the performance of teachers of mathematics.
The hypothesis of this study states "The factors of knowledge / abilities, skills and motivation affect the
performance of teachers of Mathematics in the implementation of CBC in Palembang city high school"
not proven true and the hypothesis was rejected because only the variables that affect motivation


5.1. Conclusion
A. F test results indicate that the factors of knowledge, skills, motivation simultaneously affects 20.5% of
the performance of teachers of mathematics, the remaining 79.5% influenced by other factors not
included in this study.
2. Factors attitude, initiative, creativity, innovation strongly support the successful implementation of
the CBC as it approaches and methods used vary, contextual and teachers are not the only source of
3. Partial test results (t-test) shows only the variables that affect the motivation of teachers'
performance, while the variable ability / knowledge and skills variable had no effect. This shows the low
competence of mathematics teachers in the city of Palembang and the result of low student
4. There are many math teachers do not understand the learning characteristics of the CBC system, not
change the nature of mathematics from the "teacher-oriented" to "student-oriented".
5. Educational background is not suitable and not called to be teachers and teacher educators so that
less effort to make the change for the improvement of mathematics learning systems as a form of
responsibility for improving the quality of mathematics education.
6. Required the responsible management of schools and principals who have the ability, skill and
understanding the characteristics of the CBC is required to improve the efficacy learning of

5.2. Suggestion

A. Need to increase knowledge / abilities, skills and motivation in mathematics teacher by the Ministry
of National Education and the city of Palembang each school through the organization of training,
coaching and Subject Teachers Council (MGMP) on an ongoing basis.
2. Needed to be a teacher competency test to determine eligibility as a teacher of mathematics teachers
in particular.
3. In the selection of teachers of mathematics for admission to come to go through proper procedures,
free of corruption, according to background disciplines of education you have, have the ability in
accordance with the demands of teacher competency standards, so that student achievement can
compete at international level and to improve the quality of human Indonesia.
4. Need for further research development with other variables that support the implementation of the
CBC for learning mathematics for example: the factors of attitude, initiative, creativity, innovation and

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